By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 2 Population Part 2 students can recall all the concepts quickly.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 2 Population Part 2

→ The population is considered a human resource. Its physical and intellectual characteristics affect the development of any region/country.

→ Economic activities develop only with reference to human resources. In the absence of proper use of human resources, other resources are not developed effectively.

→ While studying population composition, we study, age structure, sex, literacy, education, and occupational structure.

Population Composition:

Age Structure

→ Age structure refers to the number of people in different age groups such as infants, children, teenagers, young, adult and old people.

→ Share of each age group in population varies from country to country.

→ Age structure of population can be studied with the help of population pyramid.

→ While drawing population pyramid, age group is taken on Y-axis in the centre and on X-axis population or percentage of population in different age group. On left side of graph is male population and right-side female population.

→ The base of the graph shows children population and apex shows old population.

→ Population in the age group 15-59 years indicate group of working population i.e., economically active population.

→ Population in the age group 0-15 years indicate dependent population or economically inactive population.

→ Population in the age group above 60 years, indicates greater expenditure on medical and health facilities since population in this age group is economically dependent.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 2 Population Part 2

Types of population pyramid

→ Expansive – Broad base with tapering top. This shows high birth rate and high death rates.

→ Constructive – This pyramid has narrower base and broader apex. It indicates lower percentages of younger population and more elderly population. It also shows lower birth rates and lower death rates.

→ Stationary – Population in almost all age groups is same. Very low birth and death rates. There is hardly any population growth.

Sex Composition:

→ Population pyramid gives us idea about number of men and women in different age groups.

→ The ratio between number of men and women in population is called sex ratio.
Sex Ratio = \(\frac{\text { Total Female Population }}{\text { Total Male Population }}\) ×1000

→ The sex ratio gives us important information about the status of women in a country.

→ Average sex ratio of the world population is 990 females per 1000 males.

→ Countries like Latvia, Estonia, Russia and Ukraine have the highest sex ratio in the world. (1162 females per 1000 males)

→ On the other hand, in Saudi Arabia, there are 667 females per 1000 males.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 2 Population Part 2

Demographic Dividend:

→ The growth in an economy as a result of a change in the age structure of a country’s population is known as Demographic Dividend.

→ The change in demographic dividend comes because of a decline in birth and death rates.

→ As birth rate decreases, the number of young dependent population decreases.

→ Economic productivity of a country depends upon the ratio between working and dependant (non-working) population.

→ Higher the ratio, higher is the contribution of working population in the economy.

→ With fewer people to support and more people working, economy’s resources are invested in other areas to accelerate a country’s economic development.

→ Per capita income increases.

→ Demographic dividend depends on the proper implementation of policies in the areas such as education, health, research, etc.

→ It also depends on the level of schooling, employment, frequency of childbearing, economic policy on tax incentives, health, pension, and retirement policies.

Literacy and Education

→ An important indicator of socio-economic development is the proportion of literate population of a country.

→ The standard of living, social status of females, education facilities, government policies reveal socio-economic development of a country.

→ Population above 7 years of age, who can read, write and have the ability to do simple arithmetic calculations with understanding is considered as a literate person in India.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 2 Population Part 2

Occupational Structure:

→ Population of men and women in the age group 15-59 years are considered as working population.

→ Working population take part in primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary occupations.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 2 Population Part 2 1


Rural and Urban Composition:

→ On the basis of residence, population is divided into Rural and Urban.

→ Lifestyles of people living in rural and urban areas is different, which is based upon their livelihood and social conditions.

→ Age and sex composition, occupational structure, density and level of economic development are different in rural and urban areas.

→ The areas in which very large proportion of population engaged in primary occupations are considered as rural.

→ The areas in which large proportion and working population engaged other than primary occupations are considered as urban.


→ Movement of people from one place to another, from one country to another, for lesser or longer period or permanently is called migration.

→ Migration also can be voluntary or non-voluntary.

→ Migration changes density patterns and structure of population in both donor as well as recipient region.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 2 Population Part 2 2


Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 2 Population Part 2

Impact of migration on population :
Donor region:

→ Out migration from donor region causes no utilization of existing facilities/services like housing, water supply, transportation, health facilities, education, recreation etc.

→ Expenditure incurred to develop these facilities goes to waste.

→ Age and sex structure changes tremendously. For example, in Kerala, sex ratio of 1,084 female per 1000 male population in working-age group.

Recipient regions

  • Recipient region experiences tremendous pressure on the available facilities.
  • In this region housing, water supply, transportation, medical, education facilities are becoming insufficient due to increasing population.
  • Agricultural land is converted into non – agricultural activities, such as housing.
  • Land prices increase tremendously. Lack of housing leads to the development of slums.
  • There is a shortage of public services, increased economic inequality and crime rate.
  • There will be unfavourable sex ratio e.g., Mumbai 832 and Pune 948.
  • Working-age population higher than non-working age group population.