By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use students can recall all the concepts quickly.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use

→ Man being a social animal, likes living in groups.

→ Due to social bonding and social needs many people come together and construct houses, which is known as settlement.

→ Development of settlement have co-relation between man and environment.

→ Type and spacing of settlements depend upon many physical factors like relief, soil, climate, drainage, groundwater level etc.

→ Social factors, sometimes are responsible for fragmentation of settlements.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use 

Types of Settlement:

→ Settlements vary in their size and types ranging from hamlets to metropolitan city.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use  1

→ Type of settlement refers to some common features of the settlement.

→ Pattern of settlements refers to regular form in which series of things occur.

→ The term settlement pattern is strictly applied to the spatial arrangement or distribution of settlement within the given area.

→ On the basis of functions, there are two types of settlement – rural and urban.

→ Cities can be divided on the basis of their function.

→ Some cities specialise in certain functions, activities, products or services.

→ On the basis of specialisation of some important functions, Indian cities can be classified as follows:
Pimpri – Chinchwad as industrial town, Khadki as cantonment town, Pune as educational centre and Kolhapur, Pandharpur as religious town etc.

→ As town becomes city and city becomes metro cities, lots of changes can be seen in them in their form, land uses and structure.

→ As cities grow in their size, there is change in their skyline.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use 

Land Use Classification:

→ Land use in rural areas is different from urban areas.

Land use and Landcover:

→ Land cover describes the physical surface covering the land like forest, water, sand, ice, rocks, etc.

→ Land use describes the use of the land; use might be recreational, but land cover might be forest or vegetation.

→ Land cover can be determined by analysis of satellite imagery, but the land use cannot be determined from the satellite imagery.

Urban-Rural Fringe:

→ The area between urban and rural area is called urban-rural fringe. It has both the urban and rural characteristics.

→ It is a transition zone between urban and rural area.

→ People from this area daily travel to central area for their work.

→ Here, we have a mixture of rural and urban land use.

→ The city and the surrounding areas consist of two administrative areas – Municipal Councils and Gram Panchayats.

→ Smaller municipal towns lose their identity, though they are geographical part of the city.

→ Town far from the main city maintain its distinct identity and have problems relating to the urban amenities and transportation.

→ The quality of available services is generally inferior.

→ Agricultural land may have been converted to residential or industrial areas or entire area may be rural.

→ Beyond urban fringe, there is a rural fringe. Rural fringe consists of only villages partly affected by the urbanisation.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use 

Suburbs:

→ Outside metropolitan cities, there might be small towns or number of well-developed cities or towns. Such cities or towns are suburbs of Mumbai.

→ Andheri, Goregaon, Bhandup, Mulund, Thane, Kalyan etc., are suburbs of Mumbai.

→ All these suburbs developed as a result of the growth and development of Mumbai.

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