By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 9 World: Decolonisation students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 9 World: Decolonisation
→ In many Asian and African counties, the process of decolonisation was accelerated in the first half of the 20th century. ‘United Nations’ was largely responsible for facilitating the process of decolonisation.
Reasons for accelerated process of decolonisation:
- Conflict among European coloniser countries.
- World War I and II, and anti-colonial movements in the colonies.
- No intellectual base for the exploitation of colonies.
- England gave internal autonomy to several countries.
Introduction of system of trustees by League of Nations:
After the end of World War I England and France were entrusted the role of trustee to manage the administration of the colonies which were under the control of Germany and Turkey.
Decolonisation of Asia.
→ India got independence on 15th August 1947, Malta on 21st September 1964 Cyprus on 19th February 1959.
→ In 1971 England withdrew its army from the Gulf of Iran.
→ After that England released its hold on Singapore, Indo-China, Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria which were under the French control.
- Portuguese entered Maldives in 1507.
- Sultan of Maldives defeated Portuguese and began to pay tribute to Dutch.
- British established its hold on Maldives. They took Indian labourers to work in paddy fields in Maldives.
- Maldives became independent on 26th July 1965.
- The British defeated Dutch and Portuguese and ruled over Sri Lanka from 1798 to 1948.
- There were uprisings in Sri Lanka against the British rule.
- Sri Lanka became independent in 1948.
→ Portuguese established their hold on Myanmar in 1599.
→ Various dynasties of Myanmar got together and defeated Portuguese in 1611, later they amalgamated their kingdom and formed United Myanmar.
→ Three Anglo-Burmese wars were fought and the British won all the wars.
→ The people of Myanmar created an association under the leadership of Aung San.
→ British granted independence to Myanmar on 4th January 1948 and appointed Aung San as its Vice President.
Decolonisation of Africa.
The causes of strengthening independence movement in Africa –
- Introduction to western education.
- Awareness regarding American independence struggle, French Revolution, Nationalism and national pride.
- Grant of more rights.
→ India called first conference of Asian countries in 1947.
→ The first conference of Asian and African countries held in 1955 at Bandung in Indonesia.
→ The problems of Afro-Asian countries and world peace and mutual co-operation were the topic of this conference.
Concept of African Unity.
→ H.S. Williams formed an organisation in London called Pan-African Association.
→ W.E.B. Du Bois called series of conferences which resulted in the idea of Pan-African unity
Decolonisation in the African Continent:
After the end of First World War ‘League of Nations’ divided the colonies among England, France and
Belgium and appointed a committee of 11 members to supervise the administration of the colonies.
→ The state of South Africa was formed in 1920.
→ Egypt got independence before the Second World War.
→ Libya, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria and Ghana became independent one after another.
→ Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mali, Cameroon, Somalia and other 12 French colonies got independence.
Algeria became independent by conducting plebiscite.
→ The United Republic of Tanzania came into existence.
→ Italy and Germany lost their colonies in Africa at the end of Second World War in 1945.
→ In this way with the heightened spirit of independence and nationalism, many countries in Asia and Africa obtained their freedom.
→ Colonialism – is a practice by which a powerful country directly controls less powerful countries and uses its own power and wealth.
→ National pride – Devoted love, support and defence of one’s country.
→ Independence – Freedom from being governed or ruled by another country.
→ Plebiscite – A vote by which the people of an entire country or district express an opinion for or against a proposal especially on a choice of government or ruler.
→ Revolution – Action taken by a large group of people to try to change the government of a country, especially by violent action.
→ Unity – The state of being joined together or in agreement.
→ Amalgamation – The process in which separate organization unite to form a larger organisation or group.