By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 5 Social Movements in India students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 5 Social Movements in India
→ Social movements are used to denote a wide variety of collective actions which attempt to bring about a change in a certain social systems or to create a new order or resist change.
→ The Women’s Movement began in the British era where many social reformers fought against unwanted and outdated customs. Through women’s movement, women have become aware of their rights and they have stood together to improve their position in the society.
→ The Workers’ Movement in India date backs to period of industrialization in the Indian society Exploitation of the workers where they faced various problems like long working hours, low wages, poor working conditions, lack of promotions, etc.
→ Which further saw formation of trade unions where workers came together and fought for their rights. This unit we will see role of trade unions in improving the worker s working conditions and resolve industrial disputes.
→ The Farmers’ Movements focuses on the lives of farmers, their livelihoods, land rights and farmers’ issues.
→ The Environment Movement has come up with various issues like global warming’s, ecology, save forest life, deforestation, tribal rights, preserve and protect environment.
→ Meaning: Social movement is a collective effort by group of people with a common objective to promote or resist change in the society
→ Features: Collective action, Ideologies and objectives, Pre-planned leadership, Social change
→ Factors: Cultural drift, Social disorganisation, Perceived social injustice, Normative structures.
Types of Social Movements:
Women’s Movement India:
→ Exploitation of Zamindar’s, moneylenders, exorbitant rates of land revenue all these led to growth of peasant movements in the absence of proper leaderships.
→ Emergence of Peasant Organization (Kisan Sabha Movement), worsening of peasant position, culminating into a series of revolts.
→ Emergence of strong farmers’ organisation, industrialisation and Globalisation leading to agrarian crisis, and Farmers’ Strike.
Emergence of the Environmental Movements in India:
→ Environmental Movement in India:
Modern environmentalism – 1960s. Awareness about environmental degradation and organisation of many activities.
→ Causal Issues:
Modern science and technology and inequalities in society reasons for environmental degradation.
→ Significant Environmental Movements in India:
It encompasses issues related to ecology, health, human rights, tribal rights, eco-feminism etc.
Sundarlal Bahuguna -Chamoli district in the Himalayan rëgion, protest of the inhabitants by hugging the trees to save the forest from the contractors.
Narmada Bachao Aandolan:
Medha Patkar – Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. Against the construction of Sardar Sarovar Damon the river Narmada and, against displacement of local inhabitants.
→ AITUC – All India Trade Union Congress
→ AIWC – All India Women’s Conference
→ BKU – Bharatiya Kisan Union
→ HMS – Hind Mazdoor Sabha
→ INTUC – Indian National Trade Union Congress
→ ILP – Independent Labour Party
→ NBA – Narmada Bachao Andolan
→ SEWA – Self Employed Women’s Association.
→ CTUO – Central Trade Union Organisation
→ BKD – Bharatiya Kranti Dal
→ BLD – Bharatiya Lok Dal
→ BMS – Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh
→ UTUC – United Trade Union Congress
→ CITU – Centre of Indian Trade Union.