Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 5 Culture Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 5 Culture
1. (A) Choose the correct alternative and complete the statements.
Culture is ……………….
(natural / personal / adaptive)
Material culture is ……………….
(concrete / abstract / intangible)
Bollywood music is an example of ……………….
(high culture / popular culture / folk culture)
1. (B) Correct the incorrect pair.
(a) Classical singing of Bhimsen Joshi – High culture
(b) Shakespeare’s literature – Folk culture
(c) Harry Potter books – Popular culture
(d) Religious group – Sub-culture
(b) Shakespeare’s literature – High culture
1. (C) Identify the appropriate term from the given options.
(Folk Culture, Material Culture, Popular Culture)
Songs transmitted from one generation to the next.
Use of mobile phones today.
1. (D) Correct underlined words and complete the sentence.
Belief in superstition is an example of material culture.
Belief in superstition is an example of non-material culture.
E-commerce is an example of popular culture.
E-commerce is an example of mass culture.
2. Write short notes.
Characteristics of Culture.
The term culture refers to the way of life of a member of various societies or groups. Culture has the following characteristics:
- Culture is acquired : Culture is learnt by each member through socialization. Cultural learning takes place through experience and symbolic interactions. Culture is propagated through generations.
- Culture is abstract : Culture exist in the minds or habits of the members in a society. We cannot see culture but can see human behaviour.
- Culture is shared : Culture is shared by a group of people belonging to the same community. They share same values, beliefs and traditions. These aspects develop a sense of unity.
- Culture is man-made : Culture is a human product and does nothing on its own.
- Culture is idealistic : Culture embodies the ideas and norms of a group. It consists of intellectual, artistic and social ideas which are followed by members of the society.
- Culture is transmitted among the members of the society : The cultural ways are learned by persons from persons and many of them are handed down by one’s elders, parents, teachers and others.
Social Benefits of Culture.
Culture has many social benefits:
- Fundamental benefits : Cultural experiences are opportunities for leisure, entertainment, learning and sharing experiences with others. These benefits are intrinsic to culture. They are what attracts us and the reason why we participate.
- Improved, learning and valuable skills for the future : In children and youth, participation in culture helps to develop thinking skills and build self-esteem, which enhance educational outcomes.
- Better health and well-being : Participation in culture contributes and cultural engagement improves both mental and physical health.
- Social solidarity and cohesion : Culture helps build social capital – the bond that holds communities together. Cultural activities such as festivals, bring people together and build social solidarity. Our diverse cultural heritage develops a feeling of pride and a sense of belonging to a wider community.
3. Differentiate between.
Material Culture and Non-Material Culture.
|Material Culture||Non-Material Culture|
|(i) Material culture refers to the physical objects which are man-made.||(i) Non-material culture refers to non¬physical ideas created by human beings.|
|(ii) Material culture is concrete and tangible in nature.||(ii) Non-material culture is abstract and intangible in nature.|
|(iii) It consists of manufactured objects like clothing, roads, jewellery, computers, airplanes etc.||(iii) It consists of norms, regulations, values, signs, symbols, knowledge, beliefs, etc.|
|(iv) The material aspect of culture changes very fast.||(iv) Change in non-material culture is difficult and not readily accepted by society.|
Folkways and Mores.
|(i) Folkways are mildly enforced social expectations.||(i) Mores are strictly held beliefs about behaviours.|
|(ii) Violation of folkways is not seen as a serious threat to social order.||(ii) Violation of mores is seen as a serious threat to social order.|
|(iii) Folkways are less deeply rooted in society and change more rapidly.||(iii) Mores are more deeply rooted and change less frequently.|
|(iv) Folkways are customary, normal and habitual ways of a group, to meet certain needs or solving day to day problems.||(iv) Mores are more serious norms and have serious binding on groups.|
|(v) The manner of speech, dressing, the time of meals and numerous other practices of daily life are some examples of customary practices to which an individual confirm in their personal habits.||(v) Murder, stealing, lying, incest are examples of social Mores in almost all cultures.|
4. Explain the following concept with suitable examples.
- Norms are rules and behavioural expectations by which a society guides the behaviours of its members.
- Some norms are prescriptive and some are prescriptive norms Most norms apply universally but some norms are culture specific.
- Social norms are further divided into folkways and mores. Folkways are mildly enforced social expectations, while mores are strictly held beliefs about behaviours.
Example : Folkways – the concept of appropriate dress. Mores – Religious doctrines, taboos, customs, laws, etc.
Folk culture refers to the culture of ordinary people particularly those living in pre-industrial societies. It is an authentic culture. It never aspire to be an art but its distinctiveness is accepted and respected.
Example : Parents expect obedience from children, the time of meals, the number of meals per day, the manner of taking meals the manner of speech; dressing; forms of etiquette and numerous other practices of daily life.
5. Complete the concept maps.
6. Give your personal response.
Very few people make an effort to learn classical music today.
Classical music is not popular among people today because like any other form of music one requires exposure over a period of time to become familiar. While pop music is appreciated by a large number of people with no cultural expertise.
It is not easy to give up superstitious beliefs.
Superstitious beliefs are form of non-material culture which are rooted in society for many decades and centuries. Change in this aspect is not readily accepted by the society or certain sections of the society. It is rooted in society for many decades and centuries. Hence, change in these aspects is not easy
11th Sociology Digest Chapter 5 Culture Intext Questions and Answers
ACTIVITY (Textbook Page No. 61)
Presentation : students make groups of 5 in class and present an aspect of culture, (e.g., language, dialect, dress, folklore, dances, music, art, food habits, architecture, literature, tribal life, rural life, urban life) of any state in India.
Students should conduct a presentation in the classroom with the help of using power point, charts to explain the various cultural elements of any one state in India.
Culture varies from society to society. Each Society or a group will have different culture. These cultures are sometimes overlapping and sometimes exclusive. Give examples. (Textbook Page No. 51)
Compare culture of different states in India, how they are different in their lifestyles, food habits, dressing styles etc. Also explain by giving examples how certain elements of culture overlap or have similarities. Many cultural elements of different states are also exclusive in nature, peculiar to that region to maintain the ethnicity.
Both Gujarat and Maharashtra were created on May 1, 1960. The dialects spoken in each state are also different. In Maharashtra, the majority of the people speak the Marathi language. The same is true for the Gujarati language in Gujarat this is an example of exclusive culture.
Hindi, one of the official language of India, is a common language. This is an example of overlapping culture.
Observe cultural change around you and list examples of cultural lag in society. (Textbook Page No. 52)
Make a note of cultural changes around you.
- Younger generations have become more independent.
- Indian culture today allows young men and woman to have more freedom of choice with respect to marriage partner.
- Impact of internet similarly, list examples of cultural lag in society.
Example of cultural lag
For example, expectant parents can use genetic engineering to select their unborn child’s eye colour or sex. However, many people view this type of genetic engineering as unethical and believe it could lead to unintended social consequences. This an example of cultural lag.
Look at your surrounding and list out the examples of cultural hybridisation in the areas of food, toys, religious practices, festivals, celebrations. (Textbook Page No. 59)
- Burger and pizza with a pinch of Indian spices, Indianisation of Chinese food.
- Celebration of Valentine’s Day.
- Hybrid version of Barbie, fusion music, formation of new language after blending different languages etc.