Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1

Balbharti 12th Maharashtra State Board Maths Solutions Book Pdf Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1

I. Integrate the following functions w.r.t. x:

(i) x3 + x2 – x + 1
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 I (i)

(ii) \(x^{2}\left(1-\frac{2}{x}\right)^{2}\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 I (ii)

(iii) \(3 \sec ^{2} x-\frac{4}{x}+\frac{1}{x \sqrt{x}}-7\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 I (iii)

(iv) \(2 x^{3}-5 x+\frac{3}{x}+\frac{4}{x^{5}}\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 I (iv)

Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1

(v) \(\frac{3 x^{3}-2 x+5}{x \sqrt{x}}\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 I (v)
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 I (v).1

II. Evaluate:

(i) ∫tan2 x . dx
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 II (i)

(ii) \(\int \frac{\sin 2 x}{\cos x} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 II (ii)

(iii) \(\int \frac{\sin x}{\cos ^{2} x} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 II (iii)

Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1

(iv) \(\int \frac{\cos 2 x}{\sin ^{2} x} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 II (iv)

(v) \(\int \frac{\cos 2 x}{\sin ^{2} x \cdot \cos ^{2} x} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 II (v)
= -cot x – tan x + c

(vi) \(\int \frac{\sin x}{1+\sin x} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 II (vi)

(vii) \(\int \frac{\tan x}{\sec x+\tan x} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 II (vii)

(viii) \(\int \sqrt{1+\sin 2 x} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 II (viii)

Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1

(ix) \(\int \sqrt{1-\cos 2 x} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 II (ix)

(x) ∫sin 4x cos 3x dx
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 II (x)

III. Evaluate:

(i) \(\int \frac{x}{x+2} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 III (i)

(ii) \(\int \frac{4 x+3}{2 x+1} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 III (ii)

(iii) \(\int \frac{5 x+2}{3 x-4} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 III (iii)

Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1

(iv) \(\int \frac{x-2}{\sqrt{x+5}} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 III (iv)

(v) \(\int \frac{2 x-7}{\sqrt{4 x-1}} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 III (v)
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 III (v).1

(vi) \(\int \frac{\sin 4 x}{\cos 2 x} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 III (vi)

(vii) \(\int \sqrt{1+\sin 5 x} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 III (vii)

Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1

(viii) ∫cos2 x . dx
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 III (viii)

(ix) \(\int \frac{2}{\sqrt{x}-\sqrt{x+3}} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 III (ix)

(x) \(\int \frac{3}{\sqrt{7 x-2}-\sqrt{7 x-5}} \cdot d x\)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 III (x)

Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1

IV.

Question 1.
If f'(x) = x – \(\frac{3}{x^{3}}\), f(1) = \(\frac{11}{2}\), find f(x).
Solution:
By the definition of integral,
Maharashtra Board 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Indefinite Integration Ex 3.1 IV

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

1A. Complete the following statements.

Question 1.
One of the important processes for storage of information in the LTM is _____________
a. perception
b. elaborative rehearsal
c. encoding
Answer:
b. elaborative rehearsal

Question 2.
Memory is a/an _____________
a. activity
b. process
c. performance
Answer:
b. process

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 3.
_____________ memory has the shortest duration.
a. Sensory
b. Short Term
c. Long Term
Answer:
c. Long Term

Question 4.
_____________ memory is also known as Working Memory.
a. Long Term
b. Accidental
c. Short Term
Answer:
c. Short Term

Question 5.
_____________ memory has unlimited capacity.
a. Sensory
b. Short Term
c. Long Term
Answer:
a. Sensory

Question 6.
The span of Short-Term Memory is _____________
a. 5+/-2
b. 7+/-2
c. 9+/-2
Answer:
b. 7+/-2

1B. State whether the following statements are true or false. If false, correct them. If true, explain why.

Question 1.
Our sense organs also have memory.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Our sense organs have the capacity to retain the sensory impression received through the five senses for a very short time even after the source stimulus is withdrawn. It is known as sensory memory.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 2.
Short-term memory has an unlimited capacity.
Answer:
False
Reason: STM holds the information between 15 to 30 seconds and the capacity of STM is about seven items at a time. Fleece, has limited capacity.

Question 3.
Conscious memory of facts and events is called explicit memory.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Explicit memory is a type of LTM that contains conscious memories of facts and events.

Question 4.
Implicit memory is the memory of skills.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Implicit memory is the unconscious memory of skills and how we do things, regarding the use of objects or movements of the body.

Question 5.
When we memorize meanings, concepts, and principles, it is called episodic memory.
Answer:
False
Reason: Episodic memory is a memory of experiences and specific events which we recall step by step to reconstruct actual events.

Question 6.
The method of relearning is also known as the saving method.
Answer:
True
Explanation: In relearning method, there is a saving of time taken to learn the same material. Fleece, this method is also known as the saving method.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 7.
The most vivid memory is flashbulb memory.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Flashbulb memories are vivid memories of what we were doing at the time of an emotion-provoking event.

1C. Identify the odd item from the following.

Question 1.
Encoding, Storage, Tip of the tongue (TOT), Retrieval
Answer:
Tip of the tongue (TOT)

Question 2.
Keyword method, Method of Loci, Chunking, Rote learning, First letter technique
Answer:
Rote learning

Question 3.
Sensory register, STM, Flashbulb memory, LTM
Answer:
Sensory register

Question 4.
Recall, Recognition, Relearning, Trace decay
Answer:
Trace decay

1D. Match the following pairs.

Question 1.

A B
1. A technique to improve memory a. Short-term memory
2. The most vivid memory b. Declarative memory
3. Working memory c. Implicit memory
4. Most organized memory d. Flashbulb memory
5. Playing the harmonium after a long time e. Method of Loci
6. Writing an essay on perceptual process f. LTM
g. Recall method
h. Relearning method

Answer:

A B
1. A technique to improve memory e. Method of Loci
2. The most vivid memory d. Flashbulb memory
3. Working memory a. Short-term memory
4. Most organized memory f. LTM
5. Playing the harmonium after a long time c. Implicit memory
6. Writing an essay on perceptual process g. Recall method

2. Answer the following questions in around 35-40 words each.

Question 1.
Explain any one example of Flashbulb memory from your life.
Answer:

  • I clearly remember the day when my grandmother passed away.
  • On that day, I had an omelet for breakfast and went to college around 10.30 a.m. I attended only two lectures and then received a call about this bad news. After that, my best friend accompanied me home.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 2.
Explain the model of working memory proposed by Baddeley.
Answer:

  • Baddeley called STM a working bench of memory.
  • In the working memory model given by him, a central executive is responsible for the coordination between sub-systems of the phonological loop, episodic buffer, and the visuospatial sketchpad.
  • Both phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad have two components.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory 2 Q2

Question 3.
Explain the Tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomenon with an example.
Answer:

  • Sometimes, when we search through our library of experiences to retrieve information from LTM, we cannot recall it even when we have that information on the tip of the tongue.
  • e.g. you want to recall the name of your cousin’s favourite clothing brand. Instead of that name, you recall all similar names.

Question 4.
Give an example of episodic memory.
Answer:

  • I remember a four-day-long celebration of my sister’s wedding.
  • It started with Haldi followed by Mehendi and the sangeet ceremony. After that, there was a grand wedding followed by a reception ceremony.
  • I also remember all preparations, outfits that I wore, and the food that we had in those four days.

Question 5.
What is motivated forgetting?
Answer:

  • Motivated forgetting is a behaviour in which people may forget unwanted memories either consciously or unconsciously.
  • It is also called a conscious coping strategy but it should not be confused with defense mechanisms.
  • There are two levels of motivated forgetting, viz. Repression and Thought suppression.

3. Compare and contrast.

Question 1.
STM and LTM
Answer:

  • Only the significant sensory inputs enter the Short-Term Memory (STM) through maintenance rehearsal. On the other hand, some items in STM enter the Long-Term Memory (LTM) after elaborative rehearsal which makes information meaningful and connects the same with already existing information in the LTM.
  • STM holds the information between 15 to 30 seconds and the capacity of STM is about seven items at a time. Conversely, once information enters LTM, it is retained more or less permanently and the amount of information stored in LTM is unlimited.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 2.
Implicit Memory and Explicit Memory
Answer:

  • Implicit memory is the unconscious memory of skills and how we do things while explicit memory is conscious memory of facts and events.
  • Implicit memory is also known as procedural memory while explicit memory is also known as declarative memory.

Question 3.
Semantic memory and Episodic memory
Answer:

  • Semantic memory is a more structured record of facts, meanings, concepts, and knowledge. On the other hand, episodic memory is a memory of experiences and specific events which we recall step by step to reconstruct the actual events.
  • Semantic memories have personal context which includes vocabulary, mathematics, rules of logic while episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events with times, places, and associated emotions.

Question 4.
Storage failure and Retrieval failure
Answer:

  • In case of storage, failure acquired and encoded information is not stored properly while in case of retrieval failure, problems arise while recalling the stored information for its actual use.
  • Both storage failure and retrieval failure make it difficult to use the retained information in the future.

Question 5.
Recall method and Recognition method
Answer:

  • The recall method involves remembering a fact, event, or object that is not currently physically present and requires the direct uncovering of information from memory, (e.g. long essay-type answers). In the recognition method, already learned material is present and the learner has to recognize it. (e.g. MCQs).
  • Recognition is relatively easier than recall. So, a score of memory by recognition method is usually more than the recall method.

4. What will you do if…

Question 1.
You have to prepare a long speech covering all the activities in your college and present at the annual function
Answer:

  • I will make a list of all the activities and rehearse it a number of times so as to ensure better retention.
  • I may also make a note with all points in brief which I can refer to if I forget something in the middle of a speech.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 2.
How will you apply ‘POWER’ to prepare for the final exam of Psychology?
Answer:

  • Prepare: Before starting to study, I would prepare myself for it by setting goals. I will make myself aware of why am I studying Psychology, e.g. for acquiring good marks in the final exam.
  • Organize: I will organize the study material properly and make a schedule for each chapter. I will allot less time for chapters that are easy and familiar. I may study these chapters when I am a bit tired. Conversely, I will allot more hours to chapters that are unfamiliar, complicated, or technical. I will also ensure to study these complex chapters when I am fresh.
  • Work: I know that I have to work hard to achieve the goal of acquiring good marks. So, I will learn with the motive to understand and remember. I will try to associate new information with something that I have already learned.
  • Evaluate: I will try to evaluate my progress by solving practice papers. It will enable me to know how much I have learned and the quality of my knowledge.
  • Rethink: I will reanalyze, review, question, and challenge myself. I will also rethink whether I need to change my method of studying so as to achieve the goal of acquiring good marks in the final exam.

5. Short Notes.

Question 1.
Characteristics of Memory
Answer:

  • Memory is an ability by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed.
  • Three basic processes or characteristics of memory are Acquisition, Storage, and Retrieval.
  • The acquisition is the process of acquiring information from our sense organs. The information acquired and encoded is stored over a period of time. In retrieval, the stored information is recalled for the purpose of its actual use.
  • There are three stages of memory, viz. Sensory information store, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Question 2.
Techniques to improve memory
Answer:
Some techniques to improve memory are as follows:

  • Keyword method: In the keyword method, any two different pieces of information can be linked together. It is an effective method for remembering definitions and learning foreign language vocabulary.
  • Encoding specificity: According to encoding specificity, memory is improved when information is available while learning is also available at the time to recall.
  • Method of loci: It involves creating an imaginary route so that things can be remembered in a better way. e.g. steps to solve mathematical problems.
  • Mnemonic devices: Mnemonics will include acronyms or first letter techniques (e.g. VIBGYOR includes colours of the rainbow). It will also include visualization. Another technique is chunking where one can place large information into small chunks.
  • Practice and rehearsal: Relearning the same material a number of times lead to better retention and better recall. For small size or easy material, it is effective to optimally utilize our time and learn the entire material. For large size or difficult material, we must take breaks and learn the material in parts.
  • Minimizing interference: We should not learn similar subjects together as they might interfere with each other. Also, one must take a rest for minimising such interference.
  • POWER method: One can also use the POWER method for improving memory. Here, P stands for Preparation, 0 stands for Organisation, W stands for Work, E stands for Evaluation and R stands for Rethinking.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 3.
Motivated forgetting
Answer:

  • Motivated forgetting is a behaviour in which people may forget unwanted memories either consciously or unconsciously.
  • It is also called a conscious coping strategy but it should not be confused with defense mechanisms.
  • There are two levels of motivated forgetting, viz. Repression and Thought suppression.
  • Repression: Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic model states that we subconsciously push unwanted thoughts and memories into our unconsciousness. People think that such repressed memories are completely forgotten.
  • e.g. a girl who had experienced sexual abuse during childhood may completely forget about it. But she may have difficulty while forming a romantic relationship.
  • Thought suppression: It is a conscious effort where we forget the memories of unwanted incidents and experiences of our lives, e.g. a person will avoid talking about his breakup.
  • Thought suppression can be time-consuming and also quite difficult as such suppressed thoughts tend to reoccur, e.g. a person may try to suppress the thoughts about his ex but he may not be successful in doing so.

Question 4.
Causes of forgetting
Answer:

  • Trace decay: Our memories fade out when we don’t use them for a longer period, i.e., traces of memory get decayed over time if they are not used.
  • Trace distortion: Some researchers believe that memory traces are not decayed but are distorted over a period of time and forgetting occurs.
  • Interference: Some researchers believe that we forget when materials that we learn one after the other interfere with each other. There are two types of interference, viz. retroactive interference and proactive interference.
  • Motivated forgetting: It is a behaviour in which people may forget unwanted memories either consciously or unconsciously. There are two levels of motivated forgetting, viz. Repression and Thought suppression.

6. Answer the following questions in 150-200 words.

Question 1.
Explain the process of human memory in detail.
Answer:

  • Memory is an ability by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed.
  • The basic processes of memory include acquisition (encoding), storage, and retrieval.
    Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory 6 Q1
  • Acquisition/Encoding: Acquisition is the process of acquiring information from sense organs. Encoding is the process of transforming the information received into suitable symbols like pictures, figures, words, numbers.
  • Storage: The information acquired and encoded is preserved over a period of time. The process of storage is essential for using that information in the future.
  • Retrieval: It is the process of recalling the stored information for the purpose of its actual use. We tend to retrieve mobile numbers, names, etc. in our daily life.
  • We can think of these processes as analogous to the functions of a computer.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Question 2.
Explain the theories of forgetting in detail.
Answer:

  • Forgetting is the failure to retrieve the material from our long-term memory which we had already stored.
  • Researchers have put forward various theories of forgetting. Each theory highlights different reasons behind forgetting.
  • The various theories of forgetting are: Trace decay theory, Trace distortion theory, and Interference theory.
    • Trace decay: Our memories fade out when we don’t use them for a longer period, i.e., traces of memory get decayed over time if they are not used.
    • Trace distortion: Some researchers believe that memory traces are not decayed but are distorted over a period of time and forgetting occurs.
    • Interference: Some researchers believe that we forget when materials that we learn one after the other interfere with each other. There are two types of interference, viz. retroactive interference and proactive interference.

7. Arrange the following elements in concepts of memory in ascending order.

Question 1.
Elaborative rehearsal, Short Term Memory, Receiving information from the environment, Long Term Memory, Retrieval
Answer:

  • Receiving information from the environment
  • Short Term Memory
  • Elaborative rehearsal
  • Long Term Memory
  • Retrieval

Activities

Activity 1 (Textbook Page No. 87)

Do you remember your first picnic at your school? Do you remember your primary school teacher? Now can you remember what food you ate last Monday? Why you can remember some incidents from the past clearly while you cannot remember some things which happened yesterday?
Answer:
We remember some incidents from the past clearly when they are a part of our long-term memory. Similarly, we cannot remember certain incidents from the recent past whey they form a part of our sensory or short-term memory.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Memory

Activity 2 (Textbook Page No. 87)

Why does this happen? 25 workers used to work in Thomas Edison’s Bulb and Phonogram unit of industries. There was a huge tree near his company. After 6 months, Edison asked his workers about the huge tree but not a single worker could give information about that tree. Why do you think this happened despite seeing the tree every day?
Answer:
I feel the none of the workers could give information about the tree near their company since it was a part of their sensory memory, i.e., they perceived the stimulus (tree) with sense organs but did not rehearse it enough for it to become a part of their long term memory.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

1A. Complete the following statements with appropriate options.

Question 1.
Brain is a part of _________ nervous system.
a. central
b. peripheral
c. somatic
Answer:
a. central

Question 2.
_________ are the building blocks of the nervous system.
a. Cells
b. Neurons
c. Tissues
Answer:
b. Neurons

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 3.
_________ nervous system prepares us for the fight or flight responses.
a. Somatic
b. Parasympathetic
c. Sympathetic
Answer:
c. Sympathetic

Question 4.
The gap between two neurons is called _________
a. synapse
b. joint
c. vacuum
Answer:
a. synapse

1B. Match the following pairs.

Question 1.

A B
1. Thyroxin a. Pituitary
2. Epinephrine b. Parathyroid
3. Parathormone c. Thyroid
4. Androgen d. Adrenal gland
5. Somatotropin hormones e. Salivary gland
f. Sex glands

Answer:

A B
1. Thyroxin c. Thyroid
2. Epinephrine d. Adrenal gland
3. Parathormone b. Parathyroid
4. Androgen f. Sex glands
5. Somatotropin hormones a. Pituitary

1C. Identify the odd item following series of words.

Question 1.
The frontal lobe, Parietal lobe, Thalamus, Occipital lobe
Answer:
Thalamus

Question 2.
Dopamine, Serotonin, Norepinephrine, Uric acid, GABA
Answer:
Uric acid

Question 3.
Dendrite, Nucleus, Tectum, Axon, Synapse
Answer:
Tectum

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 4.
Knee jerk, Sneezing, Thinking, Blinking of eyes
Answer:
Thinking

Question 5.
Thyroid, Sweat glands, Adrenal gland, Gonads, Pituitary gland
Answer:
Sweat glands

1D. Identify which hormones with hyposecretion or hypersecretion would lead to the following conditions.

Question 1.
Abnormal height, gigantism
Answer:
Hypersecretion – Somatotropin

Question 2.
Hyperactivity, speedy metabolism.
Answer:
Hypersecretion – Thyroxin

Question 3.
Cretinism
Answer:
Hyposecretion – Thyroxin

Question 4.
Stunted growth, dwarfism
Answer:
Hyposecretion – Somatotropin

Question 5.
Myxedema, fatigue, sluggishness, depression
Answer:
Hyposecretion – Thyroxin

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 6.
Increased appetite, overactivity, restlessness, lack of concentration
Answer:
Hyposecretion – Insulin, and glycogen

2. Which part of the brain is involved in processing the following information?

Question 1.
Smelling a flower
Answer:
Occipital lobe

Question 2.
Maintaining balance while standing upright
Answer:
Cerebellum

Question 3.
Comprehending a speech
Answer:
Temporal Lobe

Question 4.
Memorizing a childhood experience
Answer:
Frontal lobe

Question 5.
Feeling touch
Answer:
Parietal lobe

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 6.
Seeing a picture
Answer:
Occipital lobe

Question 7.
Feeling hungry
Answer:
Hypothalamus

Question 8.
Feeling afraid
Answer:
Amygdala

3. Answer the following questions in 35 to 40 words.

Question 1.
Explain the functions of the hypothalamus.
Answer:

  • Hypothalamus controls major bodily needs i.e., primary needs of an individual like hunger, thirst, sex as well as temperature regulation, and sleep.
  • It is also called the pleasure center of our body.

Question 2.
Describe the functions of each of the four lobes.
Answer:

  • Frontal lobe: It controls motor actions, thinking, memory and reasoning. It has Broca’s area which helps in speech production.
  • Parietal lobe: It helps in understanding information regarding skin-like touch, pressure, pain, and temperature.
  • Occipital lobe: It is the visual processing center. It controls the sense of hearing, smell, and taste. It has Wernicke’s area which helps in language understanding.
  • Temporal Lobe: Hearing, understanding language, memory for language take place because of the temporal lobe.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 3.
Explain the functions of the Amygdala and Hippocampus.
Answer:

  • Amygdala: It stores emotional memories of experiences. We experience emotions, especially fear due to the amygdala.
  • Hippocampus: It is the storage of long-term memories. If a person gets Alzheimer’s disease, his hippocampus is. mainly affected.

Question 4.
What is a synapse? How does a nerve impulse travel from one to another neuron?
Answer:

  • A synapse is a gap between two neurons.
  • The nerve impulse or neural message jumps across the synapse in order to reach the dendrite of another neuron.
  • When the neural message is passing through, it excites or inhibits the neurotransmitter in it. This chemical reaction decides our reaction to various situations.

Question 5.
Which are the important parts of the hindbrain? Explain their functions.
Answer:
Important parts of the hindbrain and their functions are as follows:

  • Cerebellum: It helps in maintaining body posture and body balance. It also helps in the coordination of the movements.
  • Brain stem: Medulla oblongata controls the breathing rate, pulse rate, blood pressure, and digestion. Pons sends and receives information from the lower parts of the brain. It helps to transmit messages between the cerebellum and cortex.
  • Reticular activation system: Its main function is to maintain wakefulness, concentration, and alertness.

Question 6.
How do endocrine glands affect our behaviour?
Answer:

  • Endocrine glands secrete chemical substances called hormones.
  • Hormones are like messengers that are responsible for certain behaviours or the absence of reactions.
  • e.g. Thyroid gland secretes the thyroxin hormone. Its hypersecretion leads to Grave’s disease while hyposecretion results in cretinism or myxedema.

4. Write short notes.

Question 1.
Autonomic Nervous System
Answer:

  • The autonomic nervous system controls the internal activities of the human body including heart rate, breathing, digestion, disposal of waste products, and toxins.
  • It is divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
  • The sympathetic nervous system prepares our body to face stressful and threatening situations. It prepares us for a ‘flight or fight reaction. The job of the system is just opposite to its name.
  • The parasympathetic nervous system takes over when the situation becomes normal. It directs our body to store energy for emergencies.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 2.
Limbic System
Answer:
One of the important parts of the brain is the limbic system.

  • Hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and hypothalamus are parts of the limbic system.
  • Hippocampus is responsible for the storage of long-term memories.
  • Amygdala stores emotional memories of our experiences.
  • Thalamus is called a relay station of the brain. It receives all information from the body and sends it to various parts of the brain.
  • Hypothalamus controls major bodily needs like hunger, thirst, sex as well as temperature regulation, and sleep.

Question 3.
Neurotransmitters
Answer:
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers. The important neurotransmitters are:

  • Acetylcholine: It is a chemical released by motor neurons of the nervous system to activate muscles.
  • Dopamine: It is released by the brain. If the level of dopamine is normal, we experience happy, pleasant feelings. It also plays an important role in the motivational process.
  • Norepinephrine: It increases the force of skeletal muscles, especially during fight or flight response.
  • Serotonin: It plays a role mainly in cognition, reward, learning, and memory. It also controls wakefulness, sleep, hunger, thirst, and liking.
  • Glutamate: It helps in learning, memory, and maintaining sugar levels.
  • GABA (Gama Amino Butyric Acid): It is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter i.e. its principal role is to reduce the excitability of neurons throughout the nervous system. If it is less, it leads to convulsions and we cannot control body movements.

Question 4.
Pituitary gland
Answer:

  • The pituitary gland is one of the endocrine glands, i.e., glands that secrete chemical substances into the bloodstream.
  • It is also called as master gland as it helps other glands to produce their secretions and secretes the majority of hormones.
  • It consists of the anterior lobe and posterior lobe.
  • Anterior lobe: It secretes somatotropin, growth hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone. It helps the growth of the body and aids the adrenal gland. The hormones secreted by this gland are also vital for the nourishment of foetus.
  • Hypo or hypersecretion in the anterior lobe: Hyposecretion leads to dwarfism, wherein a person is very short (two-three feet tall). On the other hand, hypersecretion can lead to gigantism, wherein a person becomes very huge and is eight-nine feet tall. Hypersecretion can also result in acromegaly, wherein a person has the features of a chimpanzee.
  • Posterior lobe: It secretes oxytocin (which creates a feeling of happiness), pituitrin (which helps smooth muscle functioning of the stomach), thyrotrophic follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormone (which helps in the nourishment of foetus), and endorphins (which help to create neurotransmitters).

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

5. Compare and contrast

Question 1.
Sympathetic nervous system and Parasympathetic nervous system
Answer:

  • The sympathetic nervous system prepares our body to face stressful and threatening situations. It prepares us for a ‘flight or fight reaction. On the other hand, the parasympathetic nervous system takes over when the situation becomes normal,
  • Example:
    • Situation: Suppose you are chased by a dog.
    • Sympathetic nervous system: Due to the functioning of this system, your heartbeat and palpitation increase. You also start to sweat.
    • Parasympathetic nervous system: When PNS takes over, your heart rate, palpitation, and sweating become normal. You regain a cool and composed state due to the functioning of this system.

Question 2.
Exocrine glands and Endocrine glands
Answer:

  • Exocrine glands directly release their secretions into the organ or tissue while endocrine glands secrete chemical substances into the bloodstream.
  • Exocrine glands have separate ducts for their secretion and so, they are also called duct glands, e.g. sweat glands and tear glands. On the other hand, endocrine glands are called ductless glands as they don’t have a separate duct. e.g. pituitary gland and thyroid gland.

6. Answer in 150-200 words.

Question 1.
Explain the functions of various parts of the human brain.
Answer:
The brain consists of three major parts, viz. hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. Its functions are as follows:
i. Hindbrain

  • Cerebellum: It helps in maintaining body posture and balance as well as aids in the coordination of movements.
  • Brain stem: Medulla oblongata controls the breathing rate, pulse rate, blood pressure, and digestion. Pons helps to transmit messages between the cerebellum and cortex.
  • Reticular activation system: It is the ‘Alarm clock’ of the body. It maintains wakefulness, concentration, and alertness.

ii. Midbrain: It sends information to the upper part of the brain and controls eye movements.

iii. Forebrain

  • Cerebrum: Cerebral cortex controls higher-order mental processes such as attention, perception, learning, memory. The surface of the cerebral cortex is divided into right and left hemispheres. Neurons from the right hemisphere control the left side of the body and vice versa. Left hemisphere controls language, spatial relation, and pattern recognition.
  • Four lobes: Frontal lobe controls motor actions, thinking, memory and reasoning. The parietal lobe helps us in understanding information regarding skin. The occipital lobe controls our vision. The temporal lobe is responsible for hearing, understanding language, and memory for language.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Question 2.
Explain the significance of endocrine glands in human behaviour. State the functions of any five endocrine glands in detail.
Answer:

  • Endocrine glands secrete vital chemical substances called hormones. There is a strong impact of hormones upon human behavior.
  • Hormones are responsible for certain behaviours or the absence of reactions.
  • Over (hyper) or under (hypo) secretion of hormones may lead to a variety of problems.
  • e.g. Hypersecretion of insulin and glycogen hormones by the pancreas reduces blood sugar levels. It results in hyperglycemia, wherein a person lacks energy and motivation, may faint and go to coma. Conversely, in the case of hyposecretion, a person gets diabetes. He becomes quite hungry and feels very tired and restless. He also shows irritated behaviour and faces frequent and uncontrolled urination.

The functions of the five endocrine glands are as follows:

  • Thyroid gland: It secretes thyroxin which maintains the rate of metabolism.
  • Parathyroid gland: It secretes parathyroxin which maintains calcium as well as phosphate balance.
  • Pancreas: It secretes insulin and glycogen that is responsible for maintaining blood sugar levels.
  • Adrenal gland: Cortex secretes cortin or cortisone which maintains the level of water, sugar, and sodium. The medulla secretes adrenalin (which is associated with fear) and noradrenaline (which is associated with anger). Medulla plays important role in emotional excitement.
  • Gonads (sex gland): Testes in males secrete androgen and testosterone. These hormones are responsible for secondary sex characteristics in males. Their voice becomes hoarse. They also get mustaches and beards. Ovaries in females secrete estrogen and progesterone. These hormones are responsible for secondary sex characteristics in females. As a result, feminine looks develop and menarche begins.

Activities

Activity 1 (Textbook Page No. 76)

Few activities are given below. Identify the system which dominates during these activities.

  1. Picking up an object from the ground
  2. Shivering when we sense danger
  3. Feeling composed when we feel safe
  4. Increase in heart rate when we sense that we are going to meet with an accident

Answer:

  1. Central nervous system
  2. Sympathetic nervous system
  3. Parasympathetic nervous system
  4. Sympathetic nervous system

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 Nervous System

Activity 2 (Textbook Page No. 80)

Think of the following actions. Which of them would be reflex actions and which of them will not be reflex actions?

  • Throwing a ball in a cricket match
  • Closing the eyes if someone brings a finger too close to them.
  • Removing the hand when you accidentally touch a thorn.
  • Immediate movement of the knee when tapped just below it.
  • Touching a hot object and pulling back your hand.

Answer:
Reflex actions:

  • Closing the eyes if someone brings a finger too close to them.
  • Removing the hand when you accidentally touch a thorn.
  • Immediate movement of the knee when tapped just below it.
  • Touching a hot object and pulling back your hand.

Non-reflex actions:

  • Throwing a ball in a cricket match

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

1A. Complete the following statements.

Question 1.
When the demand of a situation exceeds personal and social resources an individual can mobilise, it leads to __________
a. worries
b. stress
c. depression
Answer:
b. stress

Question 2.
__________ leads to boredom.
a. Eustress
b. Hypo stress
c. Distress
Answer:
b. Hypo stress

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 3.
__________ is necessary for better performance.
a. High stress
b. Moderate stress
c. Low stress
Answer:
b. Moderate stress

Question 4.
Low level of intelligence may act as __________ stressor while facing a difficult exam.
a. internal
b. external
c. imposed
Answer:
a. internal

Question 5.
__________ results when a goal-directed activity is blocked by some obstacle.
a. Frustration
b. Anger
c. Conflict
Answer:
a. Frustration

1B. State whether the following statements are true or false. If false, correct them, If true, explain why.

Question 1.
Well-adjusted person does not experience stress at all.
Answer:
False
Reason: A well-adjusted person may experience stress and discomfort at times because the degree of adjustment changes according to the situation and time.

Question 2.
Stress can be good sometimes.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Sometimes stress can be good because we can achieve optimum performance under moderate stress.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 3.
Hyper stress leads to the best performance.
Answer:
False
Reason: Hyper stress does not lead to the best performance. Moreover, under the influence of hyper stress, a person may undergo panic leading to frustration.

Question 4.
Hypo stress is a bliss.
Answer:
False
Reason: Hypo stress leaves a person demotivated, unenthusiastic, bored and restless.

Question 5.
Hyper stress leads to panic and exaggerated response.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Hyper stress leads to panic and exaggerated response because it occurs under extremely pressurising situations. In such a situation, a person may also throw temper tantrums leading to frustration.

Question 6.
Conflict of motives is an internal stressor.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Conflict of motives is an internal stressor because the conflict is within the individual who has to choose between two or more equally strong and incompatible motives.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 7.
Approach-Avoidance conflict is extremely difficult to resolve.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Approach-Avoidance conflict is extremely difficult to resolve because an individual is attracted and repelled by the same goal which has both positive and negative values.

Question 8.
Compromise is emotion focused coping strategy.
Answer:
False
Reason: Compromise is a problem focused coping strategy.

1C. Identify the odd item from the following.

Question i.
Unchallenging job, Unemployment, Leisure, Lack of purposeful activity
Answer:
Leisure

Question ii.
Eustress, Hyper stress, Frustration, Distress, Hypo stress
Answer:
Frustration

Question iii.
Attack, Withdrawal, Defence mechanism, Compromise
Answer:
Defence mechanism

Question iv.
Withdrawal, Projection, Sublimation, Rationalisation, Displacement
Answer:
Withdrawal

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

1D. Match the following pairs.

Question 1.

A B
1. Two negative goals a) Defence mechanism
2. Problem-focused coping b) Hypo stress
3. Vacation after sufficient work c) Avoidance-Avoidance conflict
4. Lack of challenging work d) Direct way of coping with stress
5. Emotion-focused coping e) Approach-Avoidance conflict
f) Leisure

Answer:

A B
1. Two negative goals c) Avoidance-Avoidance conflict
2. Problem-focused coping a) Defence mechanism
3. Vacation after sufficient work e) Approach-Avoidance conflict
4. Lack of challenging work b) Hypo stress
5. Emotion-focused coping d) Direct way of coping with stress

2. Answer the following questions in around 35-40 words each.

Question (i).
What are the ill effects of distress?
Answer:
Distress is a negative type of stress. Its ill effects are as follows:

  • Our body is flooded with emergency response hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol.
  • It can cause physical conditions like headaches, digestive issues, and sleep disturbances.
  • It can cause psychological and emotional strains like confusion, anxiety, and depression.

Question (ii).
Explain the relationship between the level of stress and performance with the help of an appropriate diagram.
Answer:

  • Everybody deals with stress in different ways.
  • When stress is too less or when it exceeds the limit, it deteriorates performance.
  • Optimum performance can be achieved only under moderate stress.
  • This can be explained with the help of a diagram:
    Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress 2 Q2

Question (iii).
Explain the internal and external stressors with examples.
Answer:

  • Internal stressors: These are stressors within us and we have to deal with them ourselves, e.g. a paralyzed individual may not be able to do any work which can lead to stress.
  • External stressors: These are stressors from the outside environment which result in frustration, e.g. forgetting the PIN while using an ATM machine.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question (iv).
What are the effects of hypo stress?
Answer:
Hypo stress is an insufficient amount of stress which is caused when a person has nothing to do at all. Its effects are as follows:

  • It leads to boredom.
  • It causes feelings of restlessness.
  • People become demotivated and unenthusiastic.

Question (v).
Why the approach-avoidance conflict is most difficult to resolve?
Answer:
Approach-Avoidance conflict is most difficult to resolve because:

  • An individual is attracted and repelled by the same goal.
  • There is only one goal that has both positive and negative values.
  • An individual has no choice. He has to accept the consequences of his choice.

3. Compare and contrast with examples.

Question 1.
Eustress and Distress
Answer:

  • Eustress means good or a positive form of stress having a beneficial effect on health, motivation, performance, and emotional well-being (Merriam Webster). Conversely, distress is a negative type of stress and is experienced when the normal routine of an individual is constantly altered and adjusted.
  • e.g. After a lot of practice, Amit is ready for his football match. He will experience eustress. e.g. Ajay is fired from his job and is not able to find a job anywhere else. He will experience distress.

Question 2.
Hypo stress and Hyper stress
Answer:

  • Hypo stress is an insufficient amount of stress and is caused when an individual has nothing to do at all while hyper stress is caused due to extremely pressurizing conditions.
  • Hypo-stress makes an individual demotivated, unenthusiastic, and restless while in case of hyper stress, a person may panic and engage in exaggerated reactions leading to frustration and agitation.
  • e.g. When one cannot use his full potential in a job, it results in hypo stress. e.g. When one is stuck in a traffic jam, has forgotten to carry important documents for the meeting, and is late to work, it results in hyper stress.

Question 3.
Emotion-focused coping and Problem-focused coping
Answer:

  • In emotion-focused coping, an individual focuses on the emotions resulting from stress. On the other hand, in problem-focused coping, an individual focuses effort on the problem and accepts the reality as it is.
  • e.g. Nilesh tries to avoid negative emotions by keeping his mind stable with meditation or stuff down negative emotions by fighting with others. This is emotion-focused coping, e.g. When a chef gets negative feedback about a dish he has made, he makes more efforts to improvise the dish. This is problem-focused coping.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 4.
Attack and Withdrawal
Answer:

  • In an attack strategy, an individual directly attacks the conflict as a direct way to resolve it. On the other hand, in withdrawal strategy, an individual may indulge in beating retreat or withdraw from the goal when he cannot achieve it after putting in his best efforts.
  • e.g. When an employee wants a promotion and gets negative feedback on his presentation, he tries to improvise his presentation, learns, and asks for help from his seniors to get promoted (attack), e.g. If the employee is not promoted due to flaws in his presentation, he may leave the job altogether (withdrawal).

Question 5.
Compromise and Withdrawal
Answer:

  • In compromise strategy, a person readjusts the goal to the nearest possible goal when he cannot achieve the original goal due to lack of capacity. Alternatively, in withdrawal strategy, a person may indulge in beating retreat or withdraw from the goal when he cannot achieve it after putting in his best efforts.
  • e.g. An individual who wanted to become an orthopedic surgeon but could not manage to get admission. So, he took up physiotherapy as a career (compromise), e.g. On not getting admission, the individual may give up the field of medicine and his dream of becoming a doctor and pursue something else (withdrawal).

Question 6.
Projection and Rationalization
Answer:

  • Projection involves the individual attributing his own thoughts, feelings, and motives to another person while rationalization occurs when a person attempts to explain or create excuses for his failure. By doing so, the individual avoids accepting the true cause of his failure.
  • e.g. when a student has not studied for the exam, he may say that the questions were out of the syllabus (projection), e.g. when a person cannot afford a car, he says that cars are not environment friendly (rationalization).

4(1). What are the possible consequences?

Question (a).
Mehul is sufficiently prepared for his exams but feels tremendously stressed.
Answer:

  • It is possible that Mehul might panic and go blank while writing the paper.
  • So, Mehul should be confident about what he has studied and hope that he does well in the exam.

Question (b).
Sujata has nothing to do as her husband is a multimillionaire, nor does she have any hobby.
Answer:

  • Sujata is facing hypo-stress as she has nothing to do at all. It is possible that she feels very bored, demotivated, unenthusiastic, and restless.
  • In order to feel good about herself, she should pursue something she likes and diverts her mind.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question (c).
Kalpesh sets his goals similar to his top ranker brother, without considering his ability.
Answer:

  • Kalpesh will feel very stressed if he does not have the level of intelligence or ability required to meet the goals. It would lead to anger and frustration.
  • There is also a possibility that he would feel extremely demotivated and leave the goal permanently.

Question (d).
Mohsin resorts to blaming others every time he fails.
Answer:

  • Mohsin is using the defense mechanism called projection to protect his ego from shattering. But at some point, he will have to face the reality.
  • At such a point in time, his ego would no longer be protected and may lead to mental health problems.

4(2). Identify the defense mechanism used in each of the following examples.

Question (a).
Rahul who is interested in football was not selected for the college football team. He says he never wanted to be a part of the college football team.
Answer:
Displacement

Question (b).
Vipasha comes from an extremely poor family. She sleeps into imagining herself driving her own car.
Answer:
Sublimation

Question (c).
Arnav got a scolding by his teacher and he could not answer back. After coming home, he started beating his younger brother for no reason.
Answer:
Daydreaming

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question (d).
Ajay loved a girl who turned down his proposal. Later he became a successful composer.
Answer:
Rationalization

4(3). Identify the conflict of motive that is experienced by the person in the following situation.

Question (a).
Rashmi has got a promotion in her company and so has to go abroad. She wants to take this opportunity but at the same time, she is not willing to leave her parents.
Answer:
Approach – Avoidance conflict

Question (b).
Yogesh has got selected by two reputed companies at the same time and both are his dream offers.
Answer:
Approach – Approach conflict

Question (c).
Julius doesn’t want to go to a wedding ceremony with his family as it’s too boring there but doesn’t want to stay alone at the same time.
Answer:
Avoidance – Avoidance conflict

Question (d).
Shanaya is very conscious about her figure, but she is also very tempted to eat sweets.
Answer:
Approach – Avoidance conflict

Question (e).
Vishal has got the invitation from his school friends for a reunion party on the same day as his fresher’s party in his college.
Answer:
Double Approach – Avoidance conflict

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

5. Write short notes in 35-40 words each.

Question 1.
Types of stress
Answer:

  • Hypo stress: It is caused when one has nothing to do at all.
  • Hyper stress: It is caused due to extremely pressurizing conditions.
  • Eustress: It is a positive form of stress.
  • Distress: It is a negative type of stress. Two types of distress are:
    • Acute distress: Intense and short-term
    • Chronic distress: Long-lasting and recurrent

Question 2.
Relationship between stress level and performance
Answer:

  • When stress is too little or when it exceeds the limits, it deteriorates performance.
  • Optimum performance can be achieved only under moderate stress.

Question 3.
Direct ways to cope with stress
Answer:

  • Attack: An individual directly attacks the conflict to resolve it.
  • Compromise: If a person cannot achieve the goal, he may readjust the goal to the nearest possible goal.
  • Withdrawal: When a person cannot achieve a goal after putting in their best efforts, he may withdraw from the goal altogether.

Question 4.
Defense mechanisms
Answer:

  • Defense mechanisms are an indirect way to combat stress.
  • They are unconscious strategies used to protect the ego from breaking due to unacceptable/harsh reality. It functions as a shock absorber.

6. Answer the following questions in 150-200 words each.

Question 1.
Give the definition of stress and explain different types of stress.
Answer:
According to Richard Lazarus, ‘stress is a feeling experienced when an individual feels that the demands exceed the personal and social resources an individual is able to mobilize’.
The types of stress are as follows:

  • Hypo stress: It is an insufficient amount of stress and may be due to work under load. When people have nothing to do, they get bored and if this feeling persists for a longer time, it results in hypo-stress. People with hypo-stress are demotivated, unenthusiastic, and restless.
  • Hyper stress: It is a result of extremely pressurizing conditions. Due to hyper stress, a person may experience panic attacks and may engage in exaggerated reactions like throwing temper tantrums. It leads to frustration and agitation.
  • Eustress: It is a good form of stress which has a positive effect on health, motivation, performance, and emotional well-being. It is a state when an individual is excited, determined, inspired, energized, and ready to go. While experiencing eustress, the body is temporarily and intensely flooded with hormones like oxytocin and dopamine.
  • Distress: It is a negative type of stress. An individual experiences it when the normal routine is constantly adjusted and altered. While experiencing distress, our body is flooded with emergency response hormones like adrenaline and cortisol. Distress is divided into two types:
    • Acute distress: It is intense, short-term negative stress.
    • Chronic distress: It is a long-lasting, recurrent negative stress.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Question 2.
What is meant by conflict of motives? Explain the different types of conflicts with examples. Illustrate your answer with appropriate figures.
Answer:
Conflict of motives refers to the clash between two or more equally strong and incompatible motives occurring at the same time that compels an individual to make a choice, which in turn leads to stress.
The types of conflict are:
i. Approach-Approach conflict: There is a conflict between two positive and attractive goals. The decision will depend on the attractiveness of the goal and its valence may change, e.g. Bhoomi wants to take up two courses but they are both scheduled at the same time.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress 6 Q2

ii. Avoidance-Avoidance conflict: The conflict involves two goals with negative values. An individual is forced to make a choice between two negative and unattractive goals, e.g. Ritu must work at a job which she dislikes, or else she must remain unemployed.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress 6 Q2.1

iii. Approach-Avoidance conflict: There is only one goal and it has positive as well as a negative value. This type of conflict is very difficult to resolve. There are three possible reactions in such a situation: give importance to a positive value, be cautious about the negative value and leave the goal altogether, e.g. Aryan receives a letter of acceptance from a college of his choice but it is very expensive.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress 6 Q2.2

iv. Double Approach-Avoidance conflict: An individual faces conflict between two or more goals that have an equal positive or negative value. However, an individual is always disappointed with the choice he makes as he has to lose the other goal, e.g. Richa has to choose between two boys for marriage. One is handsome but boring. The other one is fun but not good-looking.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress 6 Q2.3

Activities

[Note: The answers to activities will be very subjective. The answers provided are for reference. Students are expected to perform these activities on their own.]

Activity 2 (Textbook Page No. 61)

Look at the following examples of stress. Try to find a pattern in them and make a definition of stress for yourself.
i. Meena needs fees for her higher education. But her father has less money than required. He feels very stressed.
ii. Rashid is late for an appointment and he is stuck up in a traffic jam. He is stressed about reaching on time.
iii. Parminder is supposed to make a model for the Science examination which is not working. Parminder feels stressed.
Answer:
Stress is the body’s reaction to any change that requires adjustments. It refers to a situation in which an individual’s expectations cannot be fulfilled due to a lack of resources.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Stress

Activity 6 (Textbook Page No. 66)

Try to find examples of the given types of conflicts in your life or around you. How are these types of conflicts resolved? Are they? How does one deal with the resulting stress?
Answer:
Everyone faces all types of conflicts at one time or the other. I have to choose between two of my favourite destinations for the upcoming vacations. My uncle loves to eat sweets but he is a diabetic and so, he is always thinking about how to resolve this conflict. My younger brother has to choose between doing homework and going to tuition. He dislikes both.

All these types of conflicts are difficult to resolve but solving them is also very important. Everybody deals with the resulting stress in different ways. Ideally, we should weigh the pros and cons of every situation and then come to a conclusion.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

1A. Complete the following statements.

Question 1.
One of the criteria of well-adjusted behaviour is ___________
(a) intelligence
(b) openness to new experience
(c) success
(d) artistic ability
Answer:
(b) openness to new experience

Question 2.
According to the humanistic perspective, every individual strives for ___________
(a) absence of problems
(b) absence of mental disorder
(c) enjoyment in life
(d) development of one’s abilities to the fullest
Answer:
(d) development of one’s abilities to the fullest

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

Question 3.
According to ___________ perspective, one of the causes of abnormality is ‘genetic predisposition’.
(a) behavioural
(b) biological
(c) sociocultural
(d) cognitive
Answer:
(b) biological

Question 4.
___________ face the identity crisis.
(a) Children
(b) Adolescents
(c) Young adults
(d) Old people
Answer:
(b) Adolescents

1B. State whether the following statements are True or False and justify your answer with reason.

Question 1.
Sucheta has an IQ that falls into the category of genius which is rare to find. ‘Genius’ is statistical deviance. Therefore, she is abnormal.
Answer:
False
Reason: Although Sucheta’s IQ is statistically deviant, she does not exhibit other criteria of being abnormal such as personal distress and impaired functioning. Hence, she can’t be considered as being abnormal.

Question 2.
It is very rare to find a person possessing all the criteria of a well-adjusted person.
Answer:
True
Explanation: A well-adjusted person has 5 main criteria. Some people may show some criteria while others may be high on some other criteria.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

Question 3.
Over-expectation from the parents can lead to a lack of self-confidence.
Answer:
True
Explanation: If parents expect their child to do more than what he/she is capable of, they are pushing their child too hard. It will lead to anxiety, underperformance, and consequently, low self-confidence.

Question 4.
A well-adjusted individual does not encounter failure at all.
Answer:
False
Reason: A well-adjusted individual will encounter failure. But he knows that success or failure is temporary. He understands that hard work and consistency is important in the long run.

Question 5.
Abnormality is always hereditary.
Answer:
False
Reason: Apart from being hereditary, the abnormality could also result due to environmental factors (i.e. nurture) including social, cultural, and psychological factors.

Question 6.
Self-awareness is being passionate about fulfilling one’s needs.
Answer:
False
Reason: Self-motivation is being passionate about fulfilling one’s needs while self-awareness is the ability to recognize one’s own emotions, strengths, and weaknesses.

Question 7.
Social skill is the ability to interact well with others.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Social skills include active listening, effective verbal and non-verbal communication, leadership, etc. which are all necessary to interact well with others.

Question 8.
Openness to new experience leads to dangerous situations, therefore, it should not be encouraged
Answer:
False
Reason: Openness to new experience is the trait of a well-adjusted individual and enables him to deal with strangers and new places comfortably. Simply being open does not lead to dangerous situations.

1C. Identify the odd item from the following.

Question 1.
Self-awareness, Self-regulation, Self-motivation, Sympathy, Social skills
Answer:
Sympathy

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

Question 2.
Cognitive perspective, Humanistic perspective, Psychoanalytic perspective, Motivational perspective
Answer:
Motivational perspective

Question 3.
Failure, High anxiety, Negative thoughts, High self-esteem, Self-blame
Answer:
High self-esteem

Question 4.
Deviance, Personal distress, Low intelligence, Impaired functioning
Answer:
Low intelligence

1D. Match the following.

Question (i).

A B
1. The emphasis upon the unconscious mind a. Biological
2. Survival and reproduction are the purpose of mental processes b. Cognitive
3. Chemical changes in the brain c. Psychoanalytic
4. Abnormal behaviour is due to faulty learning d. Evolutionary
5. Emphasis upon thinking process e. Sociocultural

Answer:

A B
1. The emphasis upon unconscious mind c. Psychoanalytic
2. Survival and reproduction are the purpose of mental processes d. Evolutionary
3. Chemical changes in the brain a. Biological
4. Abnormal behaviour is due to faulty learning e. Sociocultural
5. Emphasis upon thinking process b. Cognitive

Question (ii).

A B
(i) Stress and storm (1) Used for gaining more power
(ii) Body image (2) Adolescence
(iii) Bullying (3) May lead to a lack of self-confidence
(iv) Low self-esteem (4) Childhood
(v) Nurturance (5) Anorexia
(6) Feminine trait

Answer:

A B
(i) Stress and storm (2) Adolescence
(ii) Body image (5) Anorexia
(iii) Bullying (1) Used for gaining more power
(iv) Low self-esteem (3) May lead to lack of self-confidence
(v) Nurturance (6) Feminine trait

2. Answer the following questions in 35-40 words each.

Question 1.
Explain the concept of realistic perception of self with an example.
Answer:

  • This is an important hallmark of a well-adjusted individual.
  • It involves a good understanding of one’s own emotions, strengths, and weaknesses.
  • It ensures that personal lives are effectively managed.
  • Example: Neha likes singing and knows that she has an excellent voice (her strength). Hence, she joins the singing classes to improve herself.

Question 2.
What is emotional intelligence? Mention the components of emotional intelligence.
Answer:

  • Mayer and Salovey define emotional intelligence as ‘the ability to perceive one’s own and others’ emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use that information to guide one’s thinking and action’.
  • It has five components, viz. self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation, social skills, and empathy.
  • If a person is on the low end of the emotional intelligence spectrum, he or she may have a condition known as alexithymia. Alexithymia is the inability to understand or express emotions.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

Question 3.
What are the conditions that lead to low self-esteem? Give examples.
Answer:
Some conditions that cause low self-esteem are:

  • Overly harsh or critical parents
  • Negative peer influence
  • Consistent poor academic performance
  • Stressful or traumatic events
  • Abusive relationships
  • Negative thoughts and high anxiety

Example: Anmol’s parents would always criticize them if he tried doing something new. As a result, he started feeling that he is good for nothing and developed low self-esteem.

Question 4.
What is the significance of openness to new experiences?
Answer:
Openness to new experiences is a trait of a well-adjusted individual. It is only due to being open that one can:

  • try out different experiences
  • can explore new places
  • be confident about himself or herself
  • talk and meet strangers comfortably
  • can take risks regarding unknown things
  • is confident in voicing honest opinions

Question 5.
How does self-awareness affect psychological well-being?
Answer:
Self-awareness is the ability to recognize and understand your own emotions, capabilities, actions, and moods. It affects our psychological well-being since:

  • being aware of one’s own capabilities makes it easy to use strengths effectively and improve upon weaknesses.
  • because of self-awareness, one can learn to avoid impulsive behaviour and take better care of mental health.

Question 6.
What is the significance of self-motivation?
Answer:

  • Self-motivated individuals are eager to take action without needing any external reward or push.
  • If one is self-motivated, he would rise against all the inhibitions and hesitations.
  • It is significant because it not only makes one determined but it also keeps one going despite setbacks and hardships.

Question 7.
Enlist the qualities a person requires for having healthy relationships with others.
Answer:
Well-adjusted individuals have healthy relations with others. It requires qualities such as:

  • Being honest
  • Being fair
  • Being respectful
  • Being non-threatening
  • Being a responsible parent
  • Having shared responsibilities
  • Having an economic partnership
  • Having trust and offering support to others

Question 8.
How important are social skills? Give example.
Answer:
All human beings are social animals and hence, social skills play an important role in their lives.

  • These skills are required to effectively interact with each other.
  • They help us to co-exist with others and create harmonious relationships.
  • Some examples of social skills are effective communication, conflict resolution, and cooperation.
  • Example: Excellent communication skills enabled Mahesh to develop healthy relations with colleagues and relatives.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

Question 9.
State the biological perspective to abnormal behaviour with an example.
Answer:
According to the biological perspective,

  • Biological and physiological factors cause abnormality.
  • The abnormality is treated as a disease or mental illness. It is diagnosed through symptoms.
  • Abnormality is cured through treatment that involves drugs and hospitalization.
  • Example: Abnormalities caused due to chemical imbalance in the brain may be cured through medicines.

Question 10.
Explain the humanistic perspective.
Answer:
According to the humanistic perspective,

  • People are intrinsically driven to do better and advance their own growth.
  • Abnormal behaviour is learned due to blocked personal growth.
  • Abnormalities can be corrected by creating conditions that enable them to grow, change, and develop to their fullest possible potential.

Question 11.
Explain the sociocultural perspective to abnormal behaviour.
Answer:
According to the sociocultural perspective,

  • Abnormal behaviour is learned within a social context. It includes social norms and one’s family, friends, society, etc.
  • Abnormalities can be attributed to problems in cultural values and belief systems.
  • Example: A young girl may follow a strict diet, even when it is not good for her health because being slim is associated with attractiveness in her culture.

3. Compare and contrast.

Question (i).
Realistic perception of self and Unrealistic perception of self
Answer:

  • Realistic perception of self means being aware of our own strengths and weaknesses. It also means using strengths for the betterment and modifying the weaknesses. Realistic people do not get upset when they are confronted with failure. All of this enables them to deal with life more effectively.
  • Unrealistic perception of self makes an individual expect things that are not feasible. They are likely to face dejection, frustration, and sadness. They may not be able to recognize their own strengths and may feel incompetent. They even blame others for their shortcomings.

Question (ii).
Openness to new experiences and Inhibitions/Fear of new experiences
Answer:

  • People who can comfortably deal with strangers and are confident in voicing honest opinions are open to new experiences. They are eager to take on life, try out new trends, go to new places and reach out to people from different backgrounds, communities, and locations. They are confident and dare to take risks regarding unknown experiences,
  • People who are fearful and hesitant are not open to changes, new places, new people, and experiences. These individuals find it hard to deal with changes and get anxious while interacting with strangers.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

Question (iii).
High self-esteem and low self-esteem
Answer:

  • People having high esteem like themselves and radiate confidence and assertiveness. They are happy with themselves and are liked by all because of it. It also results in better relationships. Well-adjusted individuals have high self-esteem.
  • People with low self-esteem don’t think that they are loved, valued, or considered worthy. They don’t have a positive image of themselves. This leads to anxiety and poor performance. Consequently, they indulge in self-blame and continue to feel incompetent.

Question (iv).
Sympathy and Empathy
Answer:

  • Sympathy is feeling sorry and having pity for the hardship or losses that another person faces. In this case, an individual genuinely feels bad for the hardships or grief faced by others.
  • Empathy is putting yourself into someone else’s shoes. It refers to understanding the situation from that person’s point of view and actually feeling his pain. Hence, empathy is a more intense level of emotion than sympathy.

For your understanding

Empathy Sympathy
Meaning Understanding what others are feeling because you have either experienced it yourself or can put yourself in their shoes. Acknowledging another person’s emotional problems and trying to comfort or console them.
Example Situation: Tushar fails in his preliminary exam and is upset.
Empathetic response by Tushar’s friend: “I have been through this situation in the past so I know how it feels. But don’t worry. You can do better in final exam.” Sympathetic response by Tushar’s friend: “I understand your situation. But failure is a part of life. So instead of being upset, let’s focus on how you can do better in final exam.”

Question (v).
Behavioural perspective and Humanistic perspective to abnormality
Answer:

  • Behavioural perspective looks at the observable behaviour of an individual. This perspective believes that ineffective learning and conditioning can lead to abnormal behaviour. Behavioural psychologists treat such abnormalities with the help of the principles of reinforcement and punishment.
  • Humanistic perspective looks at the ways human beings are driven to grow, change and develop into the best versions of themselves. This perspective believes that abnormalities get formed when personal growth is blocked. Humanistic psychologists treat such abnormalities by creating conditions that allow positive and healthy growth of the individual.

4(i). What are the possible consequences of

Question (a).
Geeta is more interested in literature but being the only daughter of a well-established orthopaedic surgeon having his own hospital, she is under pressure of choosing medical profession as her career.
Answer:

  • It is possible that Geeta follows her father’s footsteps and becomes a doctor. But she will not be self-motivated and may resent her work. She is likely to get frustrated when encountered with setbacks.
  • It is also possible that she (firmly but gently) tells father of her interest in literature and convinces him that literature is where her heart and passion lies. In this case, she will not blame anyone during rough times and will be motivated to resolve the difficulties that may arise.

Question (b).
Sujata is an intelligent girl but she is extremely sensitive to criticism and perceives herself as less competent.
Answer:

  • Sujata will keep getting disheartened when criticised. There are chances that this may happen frequently since she has no control over other’s behaviour.
  • If faced with constant criticism, she will continue to feel less competent and may get trapped in the vicious cycle of low self-esteem.

Question (c).
Trisha is not able to make friends. She cannot initiate conversation with strangers at all. She is placed as a leader of one of the teams for campus-cleaning.
Answer:

  • Her team mates may make fun of her and won’t look up to her as a leader. She may end up taking the cleaning activity all by herself and the team will not listen to her at all.
  • However, if she views it as a challenge and responds positively to the situation, she might be able to overcome her weaknesses.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

4(ii). What will you do if?

Question (a).
You see your best friend bullying your classmate.
Answer:

  • I will intervene and use my friendship to stop the bullying immediately. Then I will talk to my friend to figure out why she was resorting to bullying.
  • I will also try to make her understand why engaging in such behaviour is wrong.

Question (b).
You see a girl in your class who is not included in many of the class room activities, who does not have any friend and who faces rejection from everyone.
Answer:

  • I will myself go up to her and befriend her. I will also help her in whatever way I can. I will not worry if others isolate me for helping her as I can understand that she needs support.
  • I will try to talk to others at a later point in time to change their view towards her.

Question (c).
You got very less marks in the First Terminal exam.
Answer:

  • I will certainly be very disappointed and upset at first. But then I will try to analyse the causes of getting such less marks.
  • I will study more, waste less time in leisure activities, pay more attention in class and clarify my doubts immediately. It will help me to get good marks in the next term.

Question (d).
You are very much interested in taking part in a drama to be performed in the annual function of your college, but you are not selected.
Answer:

  • I will feel disappointed for some time. But then I will try to analyse the reasons behind getting rejected and work on it.
  • I will also join a work shop to hone my skills and practice hard to win similar parts in future.

5. Write short notes in 50-60 words each.

Question 1.
Criteria of well-adjusted person
Answer:

  • A well-adjusted person is a well-balanced person, both mentally and emotionally.
  • They see themselves as well as the world as worthy and valuable.
  • The criteria of a well-balanced individual are:
    • Openness to new experiences
    • Healthy relationships
    • High self-esteem
    • Emotional intelligence
    • Realistic perception of self and the world
  • Besides these criteria, other criteria of well-adjusted individuals include expressing gratitude, kindness and sharing as well as accepting success and failure as a part of life.

For your understanding
Characteristics of maladjusted individuals: They get panic attacks, hesitate to meet new people, resist changes, are withdrawn, shy and self-conscious, throw tantrums, feel isolated, have poor relations and low self-esteem.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

Question 2.
Criteria of abnormal behaviour
Answer:

  • Abnormal behaviour is disturbing (socially unacceptable), distressing and maladaptive (self-defeating).
  • There are three major criteria of abnormal behaviour:
    • Personal distress: Feeling very low or depressed on continuous basis.
    • Deviance: Behaviour going against the laws or set social and statistical standards.
    • Failure to function normally: Day-to-day functioning is impaired.
  • It is wrong to judge someone as being abnormal based on only one criterion. All above criteria need to be considered.

Question 3.
Psychoanalytic perspective
Answer:

  • The psychoanalytic perspective focuses on unconscious mind, early childhood experiences and interpersonal relations to explain human behaviour.
  • According to this perspective, abnormal behaviour is the consequence of anxiety produced by unresolved and unconscious conflicts of childhood.
  • This perspective tries to treat people displaying abnormal behaviour by focusing on identification and the resolution of these conflicts.
  • Freud has also explained that certain unconscious motives or conflicts have base of primitive sexual and aggressive instincts.

Question 4.
Cognitive perspective
Answer:

  • The cognitive perspective says that individuals behave abnormally due to faulty thinking patterns. They may hold certain false assumptions and behave in accordance with them.
  • This perspective tries to treat people displaying abnormal behaviour by helping them to adapt to new thinking process.
  • This is done by unlearning maladaptive thinking and replacing it with more adaptive one.

Question 5.
Bullying
Answer:

  • Adolescents may face the problem of being bullied. They may be humiliated or fall victim to other people’s aggression when they have less power or prestige.
  • Bullying can be physical, emotional or mental. The intent of bullying is always negative.
  • Almost all bullies are victims themselves. Both, bullies and victims are low in self-esteem.
  • Bullies are aggressive, ruthless manipulators who don’t trust others, break their promises and take unfair advantage of others. They respond to stress with aggression or by engaging in self-destructive behaviour.
  • Boys generally indulge into bullying to gain power while girls indulge in bullying when they are depressed.

Question 6.
Sexual orientation
Answer:

  • Sexual orientation refers to an individual’s pattern of physical and emotional arousal, towards another person.
  • Heterosexual individuals are attracted to persons of the opposite sex.
  • Homosexual individuals are attracted to persons of the same sex.
  • Bisexual individuals are attracted to person of both sexes.
  • During adolescence, sex hormones become active and adolescents become conscious of their sexual orientation.
  • Adolescents who are homosexual or bisexual become confused when they realise that their sexual orientation is different from their peers.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

Question 7.
Emotional intelligence
Answer:

  • The term emotional intelligence was coined by Michel Beldoch in 1964.
  • Emotional intelligence is explained as the ability to understand and manage one’s own and others’ emotions.
  • Its proposed abilities include perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions appropriately.
  • Having high emotional intelligence is one of the criteria of well-adjusted individuals.
  • Individuals with high emotional intelligence are balanced. They do not easily get panic or nervous. They are able to handle stressful situations effectively.

6. Case study

Read the following case carefully and answer the questions based upon that.

Pritha was a merit holder girl from a middle class family. She joined a college where majority of students were from a rich background. Although she was capable of following lectures and was doing well in her studies, she felt lonely as she could not get acceptance in the groups of her classmates coming from affluent families. She tried to dress like them, and started asking for extra pocket money from her parents. Her classmates joked at her dressing sense. She could not tolerate the mockery and stopped going to the college.

Instead, she started spending time visiting strange places like public parks, railway stations and shopping malls. She did not appear for any of her exams. Her parents were unaware of all these things and on asking about college or studies, Pritha answered them without revealing the truth. It the end of the year, her parents received her report card by post from her college with a remark that ‘Your ward has to take College Leaving certificate.

On confronting Pritha, she became violent and started damaging the furniture uttering bad words about the middle class people and there after her utterance was incomprehensible for her parents. This continued for a very long time.

Question 1.
Which problems did Pritha face in her college?
Answer:
Pritha got isolated with her peers because of her economic background. She also faced bullying as her affluent classmates made fun of her dressing sense. She felt humiliated and unaccepted. It affected her mental well-being. She probably felt that she could not discuss those issues at her home and felt helpless.

Question 2.
Could Pritha, according to you, have avoided her condition of feeling lonely?
Answer:
It was a very difficult and disturbing phase in her life. But she could have talked to her teachers and parents and sought their guidance. She could have also shared everything with her friends outside college.

Question 3.
What would you do if you were in Pritha’s place?
Answer:
I would have talked to my parents and discussed everything openly. My parents would have surely guided me on how to deal with peers coming from different backgrounds and provided me their thoughts and ideas. I would also have concentrated more on my studies.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

Question 4.
Do you think Pritha should have spoken to her parents about her feelings at college? If yes, how it would have helped her?
Answer:
Yes, Pritha should have spoken and informed her parents of what was going on in her college life, instead of lying about going to college. Lying was only multiplying her troubles. They could have given her support and also maybe talked to her teachers and managed to get the situation under control.

7. Answer the following questions in 150-200 words.

Question 1.
What are the criteria of abnormal behaviour? Explain with examples.
Answer:
All of the following criteria need to be considered together in order to determine if a person displays abnormal behaviour.

Personal distress: Personal distress refers to subjective feeling of an individual in response to persons and events creating extreme discomfort. It includes feeling very low, depressed, facing problems like social withdrawal, e.g. A person feeling down and sad every day is considered abnormal.

Deviance: Behaviour against the set laws of the state or behaviours different than standard social and statistical patterns exhibited by most of the people, e.g. Deliberately engaging in behaviour which is harmful to self and others.

Failure to perform functions normally: Day-to-day functioning getting impaired, i.e. inability to fulfil appropriate and expected roles in family, social and work related situations, e.g. A person is not able to perform his daily chores and fulfil work commitments due to lethargy.

Question 2.
What are the causes of abnormal behaviour?
Answer:
There are primarily seven psychological perspectives of abnormal behaviour. All these perspectives indicate different factors as the causes of abnormal behaviour. Additionally, Stress Diathesis Model and Biopsychosocial Model also discuss the causes of abnormal behaviour.
The causes of abnormal behaviour can be explained as follows:

  • Biological perspective: Abnormal behaviour results due to chemical imbalance or physiological factors.
  • Sociocultural perspective: Abnormal behaviour is learnt within the social context.
  • Behavioural perspective: Abnormal behaviour is learnt due to ineffective learning and conditioning.
  • Evolutionary perspective: Abnormal behaviour is an exaggerated form of adaptive action.
  • Humanistic perspective: Abnormal behaviour arises from blocked personal growth.
  • Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic perspective: Abnormal behaviour is due to unconscious and unresolved conflicts.
  • Cognitive perspective: Abnormal behaviour arises due to false assumptions and faulty thinking.
  • Stress-Diathesis model: Disorder = Nature (Biological and genetic factors) + Nurture (Life experiences)
  • Biopsychosocial model: Abnormal behaviour = Biological factors + Psychological factors + Sociocultural factors

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

Question 3.
Describe the challenges faced by adolescents with examples.
Answer:
Adolescence is the transitional period associated with a number of physiological and psychological changes. It is called the period of ‘storm and stress’. Since adolescents are neither children nor adult, they face many challenges as follows:

  • Sexual orientation issues: Adolescents who are homosexual or bisexual become confused when they realise that their sexual orientation is different from peers.
  • Gender identity issues: Some adolescents may show traits typically thought to be of the other gender. If they are not allowed to behave in a way that is natural to them, they become rebellious.
  • Bullying issues: Adolescents may face the problem of being bullied. They may be humiliated or fall victim to other people’s aggression when they have less power or prestige.
  • Other challenges:
    • Self-identity issues since they are neither adult nor children.
    • May feel inferior, shy and have difficulty in mixing with peers.
    • Lack of self-confidence may perceive others negatively.
    • May become conscious about their physical features.
    • May become moody and unpredictable due to hormonal changes.
    • May feel excessive pressure due to expectations of oneself and parents.

Activities

[Note: The answers of activities will be very subjective. The answers provided are for reference. Students are expected to perform these activities on their own.]

Activity 8 (Textbook Page No. 50)

Think about the following situations. Try and apply the criteria for abnormality that you came up with, to these cases and try to judge if they could be called abnormal.

  1. Sameer likes to dress up like girls.
  2. Kushal is confused about his sexual orientation.
  3. After marriage, Shoaib went to live with his in-laws.
  4. Joseph loves to be alone and travels alone.
  5. Delnaz is introvert and does not like to mix with any one.

Answer:

  1. Sameer may be having gender identification issues and must be feeling more feminine than masculine. But I think it is not abnormal.
  2. Kushal may not be aware that there can be heterosexuals, homosexuals and bisexuals and it is perfectly normal to be any of them.
  3. Although usually it is the bride who lives with in-laws after marriage, I don’t think of Shoaib’s behaviour as abnormal. It is just different than a normal social pattern.
  4. If Joseph wants to be alone and travel alone at times, it seems to be alright. Maybe he’s going through a phase of self discovery. However, if this pattern continues for a longer duration and hampers his social relationhips, then it is abnormal as human beings are social beings.
  5. Delnaz can be considered abnormal if she doesn’t like interacting with anyone, including her near ones and family. However, being introvert does not mean someone is abnormal.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

Activity 11 (Textbook Page No. 54)

You are all adolescents now. Think about how you are today and how you were in 5th/6th standard. Make two columns and note down the changes you see in these five domains: your self-image, your confidence, relationships with your parents, physical changes, and importance of friends in your life.
Answer:

Self-image Has become more positive
Confidence Improved significantly as I know what I am capable of
Relation with parents Continues to be warm and close
Physical changes Increase in height, weight and chainge in overall appearance
Importance of friends Increased importance as we understand each other better

 

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development

1A. Complete the following statements.

Question 1.
The rate of development in each stage is ____________
a. same
b. different
c. slow
Answer:
b. different

Question 2.
Developmental changes occur in ____________ pattern.
a. predictable
b. unpredictable
c. uncertain
Answer:
a. predictable

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development

Question 3.
The period between conception to birth is called ____________
a. post-natal
b. perinatal
c. prenatal
Answer:
c. prenatal

Question 4.
____________ period is also known as the period of identity crisis.
a. Childhood
b. Middle age
c. Adolescence
Answer:
c. Adolescence

1B. Match the following pairs.

Question 1.

A B
1. Early childhood a. A single fertilized cell
2. Adolescence b. From the second week to two years after birth
3. Infancy c. Age of questioning
4. Zygote d. Adjusting to the new environment after birth
5. Neonatal period e. Storm and stress

Answer:

A B
1. Early childhood c. Age of questioning
2. Adolescence e. Storm and stress
3. Infancy b. From the second week to two years after birth
4. Zygote a. A single fertilized cell
5. Neonatal period d. Adjusting to the new environment after birth

1C. State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Development has a specific and continuous pattern.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Development proceeds from specific to general.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Development proceeds from dependency to independence.
Answer:
True

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development

Question 4.
All the changes in an individual are due to development.
Answer:
False

1D. Identify the odd item from the following.

Question 1.
Zygote, Neonate, Embryo, Foetus
Answer:
Neonate

Question 2.
Early childhood, Neonate, Foetus, Infancy
Answers:
Foetus

2. Explain the following concepts.

Question 1.
Explain characteristics of human development.
Answer:
The characteristics of human development are as follows:
i. Development follows a specific pattern:
Like other species, human beings follow a specific pattern and sequence of development in the prenatal and postnatal periods. They may skip a particular stage, but the order or pattern will remain the same. The specific pattern is observed in behavioral development as well. Sexual development also starts at a specific age.

ii. Development takes place in a specific direction: Development takes place during the prenatal and postnatal stages based on the two principles of development, viz. Cephalocaudal principle (development proceeds from the head to toe) and Proximodistal principle (development proceeds from the center of the body to outward).

iii. Development is continuous: There are various stages of the human life span like prenatal, infancy, early childhood, late childhood and adolescence, early youth, adulthood, and old age. One stage of development lays the foundation for the next stage. The rate of development varies across stages.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development

iv. Development proceeds from general to specific: The infant’s first motor movements are very generalized; like reflexes and non-directional waving arms or kicking before being able to reach or crawl towards an object. The child uses his full hand before developing finger dexterity.

v. There are individual differences in development: Although the pattern and sequence for growth and development are usually the same for all, the rate at which every individual reaches that stage is different. Some individuals attain a particular stage very early while others mature late.

vi. The rate of development is different for different body parts: The child first develops control over his neck then raises his head resting on his chest, then sits, crawls, and finally starts walking.

vii. Development leads to integration: A child starts producing sounds first, then monosyllable, then words, then sentences, and then complex sentences. This is how development leads to integration. In this process, physical and mental growth does not occur simultaneously.

viii. Behavioural problems are normal for a particular stage: There are certain behavioural patterns observed in every stage. Any variation in that pattern need not necessarily be labelled as abnormal. This is because some behavioural patterns perceived as problems by parents may subside with age.

ix. Development is predictable: The rate of development is fairly constant for every child. So, it is possible to predict a child’s development.

x. The child develops as a unified whole: Physical and mental development, as well as socio-cultural factors, influence each other and in turn, affect the development of an individual as a whole.

Question 2.
Why is the prenatal period the most crucial period in development?
Answer:
A period between conception till birth is called a prenatal period. It is the most crucial period in development due to the following factors:

  • Heredity serves as the foundation for later development.
  • Favourable conditions in the mother’s womb can foster the development of hereditary potentials while unfavourable conditions can block their development.
  • Sex determination takes place during the first three months of life.
  • Proportionally faster growth and development take place during the prenatal period as compared to an individual’s entire life.
  • Failure to take proper care of the mother may lead to physical and psychological hazards to the unborn child.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development

Question 3.
What are the developmental tasks?
Answer:
There is a set of expectations about changes in an individual at a certain age based upon the norms of development. This set is known as a developmental task. The developmental tasks at different stages are as follows:

  • Prenatal stage: In this stage, the child is completely dependent on the mother for nourishment. There is the rapid development of physical systems and organs.
  • Neonatal stage: The child is still dependent on the mother and there is the development of initial reflexes.
  • Infancy: This stage is associated with motor, cognitive and psychosocial development as well as rapid physical development.
  • Early childhood: Although physical development is comparatively slow, we observe increased cognitive and linguistic development. It is also associated with the beginning of socialization.
  • Late childhood: School provides an opportunity for overall development during this stage. There is the development of physical, mental, cognitive, and psychosocial abilities.
  • Adolescence: Rapid visible physical changes occur in this stage. Also, the concept of self-identity and career-related awareness begins to develop.
  • Early adulthood: Individual completes education and chooses his career. He also chooses a suitable partner and gives importance to family responsibilities.
  • Late adulthood: There are more family and occupational responsibilities. Adults in this stage take responsibility of their parents. Also, women go through menopause and men experience andropause.
  • Old age: Retirement life begins in this stage. Leisure is forced on people due to old age. People also experience many health problems. Also, they start thinking about death.

Question 4.
Describe the neonatal stage.
Answer:
The neonatal stage is the period from birth to two weeks.

  • During this period, a newborn starts adjusting to the external environment, e.g. outside temperature.
  • The neonate sleeps for around 18 to 20 hours.
  • The characteristics of the neonatal stage are as follows:
    • It is the shortest of all developmental periods.
    • It is the time of radical adjustment.
    • It can be a hazardous period, both physically (because the neonate has to make radical adjustments to the new and different environment) and psychologically (because it is the time when the attitudes of significant people in neonate’s life will have an effect on his development).

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development

Question 5.
What are the characteristics of early childhood?
Answer:
The early childhood stage extends from two years to about six years. The characteristics of early childhood are as follows:

  • Parents call this age ‘toy age’ as children play with toys.
  • Educators call this age ‘preschool age’ as the child starts going to preschool.
  • Psychologists term this age as ‘pre-gang age’ as in the previous stage the child plays alone and does not share his toys but now he starts mixing around.
  • Children in this stage experience stranger anxiety or separation anxiety.

Question 6.
Write the characteristics of late childhood.
Answer:
The late childhood stage ranges from six years to 11 years of age. The characteristics of late childhood are as follows:

  • Children in this stage are curious by nature and experiment with new ideas. They are not satisfied with lame answers. For many parents, late childhood is a troublesome age.
  • Educators regard late childhood as a critical period in the achievement drive. According to educationalists, this is the age of skill development.
  • For psychologists, late childhood is the gang age. During this stage, boys and girls make their separate gangs.

Question 7.
Describe the problems during adolescence.
Answer:

  • Internet addiction: Adolescents indulge more in social media (WhatsApp, Facebook) and online games. Their addiction to the internet due to these applications results in problems like lack of concentration and social interaction.
  • College dropouts: Some adolescents may leave college before completing their graduation due to financial or academic problems.
  • Identity crisis: Adolescents are confused about ‘who they are because they are neither children nor adults. Parents treat them differently in different situations. Some adolescents pursue a psychological moratorium, i.e. a period in which they take time off from the upcoming responsibility of adulthood to explore various roles and possibilities.
  • Depression: When adolescents experience a breakup in a relationship, failure in exams, or death of a loved one, they experience feelings of sadness, loss, or grief. Sometimes, they feel so hopeless that they stop following normal routines. Depression could be due to genetic and environmental factors.
  • Suicide: Although girls attempt suicide more frequently than boys, the rate of adolescent suicide is higher for boys. This is because boys use violent means to commit suicide. Social inhibition, perfectionism, and a high level of stress/anxiety create a higher risk of suicidal attempts.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development

Question 8.
Write a note on adulthood.
Answer:

  • Adulthood ranges from 21 years to 40 years.
  • The prime concerns for a young adult are personal career choice and economic independence.
  • At this stage, an individual tries to settle in his life. Men and women take responsibility for their families and start earning money.
  • The characteristics of Adulthood are as follows:
    • Adulthood is the age of settling down. Once they are legally mature, adults have to shoulder their own responsibility.
    • Adulthood is the reproductive age.
    • Problems faced in this stage are different from those faced at earlier stages.
    • An adult tries to establish himself in life and so, experiences tension.
    • As adults start working and get married, they don’t get time to mingle around with their friends like earlier.
    • They have to adjust to new patterns of life.
    • Adulthood is a time of changing experiences and changes in the value system.
    • Early adulthood is the time of adjustment to the new lifestyle.

Question 9.
Explain the adjustment problems in middle age.
Answer:
The middle age or late adulthood period ranges between 40 years to 60 years. The adjustment problems in this stage are as follows:

  • It is a time of transition where both men and women leave their physical and behavioural characteristics of adulthood.
  • It is a dreaded period due to mental and physical deterioration. The capacity of reproduction, as well as mental and physical capacities, slowly begins to decline.
  • It is the time of more responsibilities. They assist the next generation to be competent.
  • It is a time of stress as there is a radical financial burden.
  • People in this stage may experience nervous breakdown and anxiety.
  • It is the time of ‘Empty Nest’ as children go out for higher education, job or get married.

Question 10.
Discuss the application of the principles of human development in different fields.
Answer:

  • There are two principles of development, viz. Cephalocaudal principle (development proceeds from the head to toe) and Proximodistal principle (development proceeds from the center of the body to outward).
  • These principles prove helpful to doctors while evaluating the development of an individual. Further, the application of the cephalocaudal principle can also be seen in corporate organizations where decisions taken by the board of directors at the top level are communicated to and implemented by managers and workers. Similarly, the proximodistal principle applies to the development of cities from the center to the outward peripheries.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development

3. Compare and contrast.

Question 1.
Growth and development
Answer:

  • Growth is quantitative change and it refers to physical changes. On the other hand, development is qualitative change and it includes physical as well as mental changes.
  • Growth is perceived through changes in size, weight as age advances and it is a part of development. Development is perceived through changes in behaviour and it is all-inclusive in nature.

Question 2.
Maturation and development
Answer:

  • Maturation refers to a natural unfolding of the genetic potential at the appropriate time in the course of development. Maturation denotes changes in specific behavioural patterns while development denotes qualitative changes.
  • Maturation changes are genetic and cannot be speeded up. On the other hand, development results from an interaction between maturation and exposure to training as well as environmental factors.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development

Question 3.
Prenatal and post-natal stages of development
Answer:

  • A period between conception till birth is called the prenatal period while the period after birth till death is called a post-natal period.
  • The stages in prenatal period are the germinal stage, embryonic stage, and fetal stage while the post-natal period consists of a neonatal stage, early childhood, late childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, late adulthood, and old age.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Self

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Self Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Self

1A. Complete the following statements.

Question 1.
The self-concept begins to form when ___________
a. a one and half-year-old child recognizes her image in the mirror
b. an infant is able to distinguish his body from the rest in his surrounding
c. a child recognizes his/herself as a boy or a girl
Answer:
b. an infant is able to distinguish his body from the rest in his surrounding

Question 2.
According to Carl Rogers, every individual strives for ___________
a. achievement
b. self-actualization
c. status in society
Answer:
b. self-actualisation

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Self

Question 3.
Self-esteem is a sense of self-worth that depends upon ___________
a. actual performance of an individual
b. self-perception of one’s own performance
c. other people’s performance perception of one’s
Answer:
b. self-perception of one’s own performance

Question 4.
Ability to monitor our actions and feelings, is called ___________
a. self-regulation
b. self-awareness
c. self-efficacy
Answer:
a. self-regulation

1B. State whether the following statements are true or false and give a reason for your answer.

Question 1.
Congruence between the real self and ideal self is an indicator of good mental health.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Congruence between the real self and ideal self leads to a greater sense of self-worth and thereby, indicates good mental health.

Question 2.
Namrata aspires to become a pilot but she should not be encouraged because one must choose a profession appropriate to their gender.
Answer:
False
Reason: It is wrong to think that profession should be chosen based on one’s gender. Gender roles are diluting in modern times.

Question 3.
People with high self-esteem are not necessarily the ones who are always successful.
Answer:
True
Explanation: People with high self-esteem may not always succeed. But they have high self-worth even when they encounter failure.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Self

Question 4.
Accepting mistakes helps improving self-esteem.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Accepting mistakes enables a person to take steps to correct them in the future and thereby, improve self-esteem.

Question 5.
Self-awareness is a necessary attribute to have a healthy self-concept.
Answer:
True
Explanation: Self-awareness enables a person to have realistic perception of oneself and thereby, helps in the formation of healthy self-concept.

1C. Identify the odd item from the following.

Question 1.
Goal-orientation, Internal values, Feeling of superiority, Positivity
Answer:
Feeling of superiority

Question 2.
Fear of risks, Fear of uncertainty, Self-confidence, Impression management
Answer:
Self-confidence

Question 3.
Self-indulgence, Self-awareness, Self-efficacy, Self-esteem
Answers:
Self-indulgence

1D. Match the following pairs.

Question 1.

A B
1. Rentsch and Heffener model a. A sense of self-worth
2. Carl Rogers b. Monitoring one’s own actions
3. Congruence between ideal and real self c. Confidence in one’s own abilities to complete a task
4. Self-esteem d. Categories of self-concept
5. Self-regulation e. Fully functioning person
6. Self-efficacy f. Good mental health

Answer:

A B
1. Rentsch and Heffener model d. Categories of self-concept
2. Carl Rogers e. Fully functioning person
3. Congruence between ideal and real self f. Good mental health
4. Self-esteem a. A sense of self-worth
5. Self-regulation b. Monitoring one’s own actions
6. Self-efficacy c. Confidence in one’s own abilities to complete a task

2. Answer the following questions in around 35-40 words each.

Question 1.
How do we develop a concept of our ‘self’ as we grow?
Answer:

  • Till six months: A child is unaware of himself.
  • As the child grows, he develops a distinction between ‘me’ and ‘what is not me’.
  • By the age of two: The child becomes aware of general expectations.
  • By the age of three: The child starts recognizing himself and others as boys or girls.
  • At the age of five-six: The child begins to compare himself to others.
  • Between the age of three-twelve: Self-concept is based on developing talents and skills.
  • Adolescence: It involves perspective taking, i.e. understanding other’s points of view.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Self

Question 2.
Explain the sex identity and sex role as a part of the self-concept.
Answer:

  • Gender identity is the perception of oneself as male or female. It is the biological aspect of self-concept.
  • Gender role is psycho-social in nature as it is determined by the family atmosphere and cultural influences through which the child learns. It is an acquired attribute of self-concept.

Question 3.
What are the ways in which we can achieve congruence between the ideal self and the real self?
Answer:
Some of the ways in which we can achieve congruence between the ideal self and the real self are:

  • Recognizing one’s own potential
  • Taking steps to achieve one’s full potential
  • Having trust in one’s own competence
  • Being positive and rational

Question 4.
Why is the congruence between the ideal self and the real self is very significant to enjoy psychological well-being?
Answer:

  • High congruence between the real self and ideal self leads to the formation of accurate self-concept.
  • It also results in a greater sense of self-worth and contributes to a healthy productive life.
  • Hence, congruence between the ideal self and the real self is significant to enjoy psychological well-being.

Question 5.
What is meant by self-esteem?
Answer:

  • Self-esteem is a general evaluation of an individual along a dimension. It is the respect one has for himself.
  • According to Seligman, ‘self-esteem is your overall evaluation of your worth as a person, high or low, based on all positive and negative self-perceptions.

Question 6.
Describe the characteristics of individuals with high self-esteem.
Answer:
Some characteristics of individuals with high self-esteem are as follows:

  • Positive
  • Responsible
  • Committed to goals
  • Strong internal values
  • Genuine and forgiving
  • Desire for self-improvement

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Self

Question 7.
What are the ways to improve one’s self-esteem? Give example.
Answer:

  1. Some ways to improve one’s self-esteem are as follows:
    • Eliminate negative self-talk
    • Recognize your strengths
    • Recognize self-worth
    • Accept mistakes
    • Accept rejection
  2. e.g. When Neha accepted rejection in interviews as a part of life, she started looking at it in a positive way. This improved her self-esteem.

Question 8.
What are the characteristics of individuals with self-efficacy? Give examples.
Answer:

  • Individuals with high self-efficacy have accurate self-evaluation and are willing to take risks. They are confident and experience a sense of accomplishment. e.g. Emerging entrepreneurs often have high self-efficacy.
  • Individuals with low self-efficacy fear uncertainty and failure. They are afraid to take risks. e.g. After losing five games in a row, players in the football team suffered from low self-efficacy.

Question 9.
What is self-image?
Answer:

  • Self-image is a personal view or mental picture that we have of ourselves. It is a collection of an individual’s assets (strengths) and liabilities (weaknesses).
  • Body image, i.e. how we think, feel, and react to our physical attributes, is also a part of self-image.

Question 10.
What are the ways to regulate self? Give examples.
Answer:

  1. Some ways to regulate self are as follows:
    • Being aware of one’s own actions
    • Being able to evaluate the impact of one’s actions
    • Being able to predict others’ reactions
  2. e.g. When Aditya realized that his anger outbursts scare his toddler, he felt guilty and decided to stop it. He used anger management techniques to regulate himself during such situations.

3. Compare and contrast

Question 1.
Ideal self — Real self
Answer:

  • The ideal self is what we want to be while the real self is what we actually are.
  • The ideal self represents our dynamic ambitions and goals. It comprises of some goals which are beyond our reach. On the other hand, the real self is our inner personality. It may not be perfect but it is our real part.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Self

Question 2.
Private self — Objective self-awareness
Answer:

  • The development of the private self takes place between the age of five to six while objective self-awareness develops during adolescence.
  • Private self begins to develop when children learn that they can lie and keep secrets. There is the hidden side of the self which includes thoughts, feelings, and desires which parents are unaware of. On the other hand, objective self-awareness develops when adolescents seek to become the center of attraction and popularity. To achieve this, they accept a group’s mannerisms and behavioural patterns.

Question 3.
People with high self-esteem and People with low self-esteem
Answer:

  • People with high self-esteem are positive, responsible, genuine, and committed to their goals. On the other hand, people with low self-esteem are negative, need externally oriented goals, and are impatient with themselves as well as others.
  • People with high self-esteem have strong internal values and forgiving nature. They continuously seek to improve themselves. Conversely, those with low self-esteem are unhappy and experience anxiety. They may also have a superiority or inferiority complex.

4. How will you deal with the following situations if it were you in those situations?

Question (a).
Grishma thinks she is extremely good-looking – which is not true in reality – she aspires to become a star model.
Answer:
I feel few important characteristics to become a star model are confidence, physical fitness, gracefulness, and determination.

I will talk to Grishma about the incongruence between her ‘real self’ (self-image) and ‘ideal self. I will also make her understand that even though she is not extremely good-looking, she can actualize her potential by taking efforts to sharpen her other positive attributes.

Question (b).
Harshad is avoiding places where he has to meet many people as he wears spectacles and he has got lot of pimples.
Answer:

  • I will make Harshad realize that his pimples or spectacles do not define ‘who he is’ or, determine his worth as a person. So, he should not let it impact him in a negative manner.
  • I will also highlight his strengths to make him understand that his ‘self-concept’ should be based on a broader range of aspects than just a body image. I will also encourage him to engage in diverse social interactions to improve his sense of self-worth.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Self

Question (c).
Sushma is too short so she does not mix with others.
Answer:

  • I will talk to Sushma that being short is not something she should be ashamed of. Her height is just one aspect of her personality. She should not let it come in the way of her social interactions.
  • I will also motivate Sushma to interact with others so that she can build strong and long-lasting social connections. It will make her feel positive and happy.

5. Write short notes in 50-60 words each.

Question 1.
Gender role
Answer:

  • Gender role is an acquired attribute of self-concept which is psycho-social by nature.
  • It is determined by the family atmosphere as well as cultural influences where the child learns through observation and imitation.
  • e.g. if a girl is assertive and practical, she may be considered to be ‘masculine. This is because these attributes are usually associated with boys.
  • However, gender-based roles are diluting in modern times. Society is approving and accepting these changes with an open mind.
  • e.g. Pt. Birjoo Maharaj, Sanjeev Kapoor, Vikram Gaikwad are famous in female-dominated areas while Phogat sisters, Kalpana Chawla, Kiran Bedi are successful in male-dominated areas.

For your understanding

  • Due to societal expectations, both males and females are expected to behave in certain ways, e.g. men are taught that they should be strong. If they cry, it is considered to be ‘girl’.
  • However, now people have begun to realize that there is nothing wrong if a man takes up a feminine role or a woman behaves in a masculine way.

Question 2.
Carl Rogers’ theory of self
Answer:

  • According to Carl Rogers, every individual has a tendency to actualize himself.
  • Two important concepts related to Roger’s theory are the real self and the ideal self.
  • The real self is what we actually are while the ideal self is what we want to be. The real self has a tendency to actualize himself. But the ideal self may consist of some goals which are beyond our reach.
  • High congruence between the real self and ideal self leads to healthy productive life while a large gap or incongruence between them leads to maladjustment.
  • By trying to achieve our full potential, we strive to be fully functioning individuals, i.e. achieve self-actualization.
  • People who achieve self-actualization are well-balanced, well-adjusted, and interesting.

Question 3.
Self-efficacy
Answer:

  • Self-efficacy is a person’s belief in his ability to accomplish some specific goal or a task.
  • It depends on his trust in his own competency. Competence can vary between different situations, e.g. a person’s self-efficacy may be high in painting but low in cooking.
  • Self-efficacy is based on ‘Social cognitive theory. The theory holds that humans actively shape their lives rather than passively reacting to the environment.
  • Maddux defined self-efficacy as ‘what I believe I can do with my skills under certain conditions.
  • Two factors related to efficacy are outcome expectancies (skills required to complete the goal) and efficacy expectancies (person’s analysis about whether he has those capacities).
  • Self-efficacy can be improved by reinforcing oneself, developing one’s own skillset, choosing a role model for a particular activity and following him, seeking constructive feedback from others, and learning techniques to control one’s own emotional arousal.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Self

Question 4.
Self-awareness
Answer:

  • Self-awareness is the quality or trait that involves conscious awareness of one’s thoughts, feelings, behaviours, and traits.
  • In order to have a proper self-concept, one must have some level of self-awareness, i.e. understanding that a person has a separate identity from others.
  • According to Piaget, self-consciousness starts emerging between 15-24 months.
  • Self-awareness is necessary before the child becomes aware of being a focus of attention. It enables him to understand what others are feeling. It also enables him to identify what belongs to him and what belongs to others.

Question 5.
Self-esteem
Answer:

  • According to Seligman, ‘self-esteem is your overall evaluation of your worth as a person, high or low, based on all positive and negative self-perceptions. It is the respect one has for himself.
  • A person may have various levels of self-esteem, e.g. a girl may have high self-esteem about her intelligence but may have low self-esteem about her looks.
  • People with high self-esteem are positive, responsible, genuine, and committed to their goals. They have strong internal values and forgiving nature. They continuously seek to improve themselves.
  • On the other hand, people with low self-esteem are negative, need externally oriented goals, and are impatient with themselves as well as others. They are unhappy and experience anxiety. They may also have a superiority or inferiority complex.
  • Some of the ways to improve one’s self-esteem are as follows:
    • Eliminate negative self-talk
    • Recognize your strengths
    • Recognise self-worth
    • Accept mistakes
    • Accept rejection

Question 6.
Self-regulation
Answer:

  • Self-regulation is being able to control our own thoughts, feelings, and actions for our own benefit.
  • It involves monitoring one’s own actions and reactions. When one engages in self-regulation, he avoids impulsive reactions.
  • It also involves predicting the consequences of our behaviour and avoiding behavioural patterns which can negatively affect ourselves or others in the future.
  • Self-regulation also involves focusing on certain parts of life and ignoring some other parts for the time being, e.g. as exams approach, a person will stop spending time on Netflix and focus on studies.
  • Higgins’ research on regulatory focus showed that people either have promotion regulatory focus or prevention regulatory focus.
  • It means people either focus on achieving positive outcomes or don’t do anything in order to prevent negative outcomes.
  • Self-regulation has crucial implications in our life.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Self

6. Answer the following questions in 150-200 words.

Question 1.
Give a detailed account of the development of an individual’s self-concept through the stages of life.
Answer:

  • On average, till the age of six months, the child is unaware of himself. As the child grows, he starts making distinctions between his own body and everything else.
  • In normal children, face recognition with a mirror occurs at the average age of one and half years. They are capable of pretend play. They also start using personal pronouns, (I, me, mine).
  • By the age of two, the child becomes aware of general expectations (what is good/ bad behaviour). They smile when people smile at them and frown when others get angry. They also develop a sense of self by comparing themselves with the standard role model (beginning of self-esteem).
  • By the age of three, children start recognizing themselves and others as boys or girls.
  • Between the age of three to twelve, the self-concept is defined mainly in terms of sex, age, family, and what the child believes he or she can or can’t do.
  • When schooling starts at the age of five-six, a child begins to compare himself to others (beginning of social comparison). Also, the development of the private self-concept takes place during this stage.
  • The final unfolding of self-concept during adolescence involves perspective taking, i.e. thinking and understanding other’s point of view. They might even enter into the stage of objective self-awareness.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Self

Question 2.
Explain the theory of the self as proposed by Carl Rogers.
Answer:

  • According to Carl Rogers, every individual has a tendency to actualize himself.
  • Rogers also asserted that mentally healthy individuals have congruence between their experience and their self-concept while neurotic individuals deny awareness of their sensory and emotional experience.
  • Two important concepts related to Roger’s theory are the real self and the ideal self.
  • The real self (self-image) is what we actually are while the ideal self is what we want to be. The real self is our inner personality while the ideal self represents our dynamic ambitions and goals.
  • The real self has a tendency to actualize himself. But the ideal self may consist of some goals which are beyond our reach. This may result in the gap between the real self and the ideal self.
  • High congruence between the real self and ideal self leads to a greater sense of self-worth and healthy productive life while a large gap or incongruence between them leads to maladjustment.
  • By trying to achieve our full potential, we strive to be fully functioning individuals, i.e., achieve self-actualization.
  • Self-actualization means recognizing and exploring one’s full potential. People who achieve self-actualization are well-balanced, well-adjusted, and interesting.

Congruent
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Self 6 Q2
The self-image is similar to the ideal self.
There is more overlap.
This person can self-actualize.

Incongruent
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Self 6 Q2.1
The self-image is different from the ideal self.
There is only a little overlap.
Here self-actualization will be difficult.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology

1A. Complete the following statements.

Question 1.
The branches of Psychology that explore relationships among different variables and human behaviour are known as ___________ Psychology.
a. Theoretical
b. Applied
c. Common
Answer:
a. Theoretical

Question 2.
The study of human behaviour at the workplace is the concern of ___________ Psychology.
a. Social
b. Industrial
c. Experimental
Answer:
b. Industrial

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology

Question 3.
One can study the problems of adolescence in ___________
a. Developmental
b. Social
c. Cognitive
Answer:
a. Developmental

Question 4.
___________ Psychology is concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.
a. Counselling
b. Cognitive
c. Clinical
Answer:
c. Clinical

1B. Identify the odd item from the following.

Question 1.
Experimental Psychology, Social Psychology, Industrial Psychology, Cognitive Psychology
Answer:
Industrial Psychology

Question 2.
Clinical psychology, Industrial Psychology, Sports Psychology, Abnormal Psychology
Answer:
Abnormal Psychology

1C. Match the following pairs.

Question 1.

A B
1. Developmental Psychology a) Studies organisations, human factor design, and employee training
2. Criminal Psychology b) Studies how people become who they are from conception to death
3. Educational Psychology c) Studies thinking process
4. Industrial Psychology d) Helps educators to promote learning
5. Social Psychology e) Studies criminal behaviour
6. Cognitive Psychology f) Studies the influence of other people upon an individual’s behaviour

Answer:

A B
1. Developmental Psychology b) Studies how people become who they are from conception to death
2. Criminal Psychology e) Studies criminal behaviour
3. Educational Psychology d) Helps educators to promote learning
4. Industrial Psychology a) Studies organisations, human factor design, and employee training
5. Social Psychology f) Studies the influence of other people upon an individual’s behaviour
6. Cognitive Psychology c) Studies thinking process

2. Compare and contrast.

Question 1.
Theoretical and applied branches of Psychology.
Answer:
In theoretical branches, psychologists concentrate on carrying out research and forming theories while applied branches help individuals to use the knowledge gained from research to solve their problems.

The main aim of theoretical branches is to develop principles and establish laws in order to explain behaviour of human beings while the main objective of applied branches is to put knowledge into practice by helping individuals to adjust to their real-life situations.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology

Some theoretical branches are Developmental Psychology, Child Psychology, Social Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Experimental Psychology, Abnormal Psychology while some applied branches are Educational Psychology, Clinical Psychology, Counselling Psychology, Criminal Psychology, Sports Psychology, Industrial Psychology.

For your understanding
The activities of applied psychology range from conducting field studies for finding practical solutions to problems to directly providing services to concerned individuals or organizations.

Question 2.
Abnormal Psychology and Clinical Psychology
Answer:
Abnormal Psychology is a theoretical branch that studies the unusual behavioural, emotional, and thinking patterns in individuals while Clinical Psychology is an applied branch that studies diagnoses and treats emotional and behavioural problems.

Abnormal Psychology aims to study the causes and factors leading to abnormal reactions like excessive suspiciousness, mental retardation, extreme mood swings, etc. On the other hand, Clinical Psychology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, marital and familial conflicts, drug addiction, depression, delinquency, etc.

3. Write Short Notes.

Question 1.
Clinical Psychology
Answer:

  • Clinical Psychology is an applied branch that studies, diagnoses, and treats emotional and behavioural problems in individuals like mental illness, marital and familial conflict, drug addiction, severe depression, alcoholism, delinquency, etc.
  • For diagnosis, clinical psychologists collect detailed information regarding the client through psychological tests and by conducting interviews of clients as well as their family and friends.
  • Once the problem is diagnosed, they use appropriate psychotherapy to help the client overcome his problem.
  • Clinical psychologists usually work in hospitals and community health centers or they may have their private practice.
  • Clinical Psychology is the largest subfield of Psychology.

Question 2.
Cognitive Psychology
Answer:

  • Cognitive Psychology concentrates on higher mental processes such as thinking, reasoning, and decision making.
  • It is concerned with the study of attention, perception, language development, thinking, memory, and problem-solving.
  • It also answers questions related to the disruption of memory, different types of learning styles and disorders, causes of speech impairment as well as the functioning of decision-making mechanisms.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology

Question 3.
Developmental Psychology
Answer:

  • Developmental Psychology studies changes in behaviour from conception to death.
  • It is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
  • It examines changes across three major dimensions, viz. physical, cognitive, and social development.
  • It aims to explain how thinking, feeling, and behaviour change throughout life.
  • It may study a specific period of life like childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age.

Question 4.
Industrial Psychology
Answer:

  • Industrial Psychology is concerned with behaviour of people working in an organization.
  • Industrial psychologists play a crucial role in selection and placement, workforce motivation, and job satisfaction as well as appraisals and grievances.
  • They help to enhance motivation, group morale, and leadership skills among the employees.
  • Consumer Psychology is a branch of Industrial Psychology that deals with consumer behaviour, quality of products, brand loyalty, and influence of advertisement on purchasing.

4. Suggest an appropriate branch of psychology related to the following situations.

Question 1.
A husband and wife do not understand each other so they keep fighting.
Answer:
Counselling Psychology

Question 2.
My friend’s father lost his job and he is in depression.
Answer:
Clinical Psychology

Question 3.
A 5th standard student is unable to concentrate.
Answer:
Educational Psychology

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology

Question 4.
I want to study the process of thinking and learning.
Answer:
Cognitive Psychology

Question 5.
I want proper information about attitude, prejudice, or conflicts in a group.
Answers:
Social Psychology

5. Answer the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Explain any five theoretical branches of Psychology.
Answer:
Some theoretical branches of Psychology are as follows:

Child Psychology: It deals with the biological, psychological, and emotional changes that occur during childhood. These changes occur as the individual progresses from being dependent to becoming independent. Child psychologists study problems related to children such as lying, bunking school, stealing, bedwetting. They also conduct researches on effective child-rearing practices and the role of reinforcement in motivating children.

Social Psychology: It studies how an individual influences other people and gets influenced by them. According to Myers, Social Psychology is the scientific study of how an individual’s behaviour is affected by others. The primary focus of Social Psychology is to understand how individuals are affected by other people. It examines issues such as co-operation or conflicts within groups, attitudes, prejudices, friendliness, and leadership qualities of an individual.

Experimental Psychology: It attempts to understand the fundamental causes of behaviour. It studies how people learn, remembers, reason, and respond emotionally. It deals with problems related to sensation, perception, learning and memory. Experimental psychologists conduct laboratory experiments to study how people react to sensory stimuli and perceive the world.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology

Cognitive Psychology: It concentrates on higher mental processes such as thinking, reasoning, and decision making. It also answers questions related to the disruption of memory, different types of learning styles and disorders, causes of speech impairment as well as the functioning of decision-making mechanisms.

Abnormal Psychology: It studies unusual patterns of behaviour, emotions, and thinking. It aims to study the causes and factors leading to abnormal reactions such as excessive suspiciousness, extreme mood swings, perceiving objects or situations which are not real, mental retardation, extreme fear of objects, animals, or situations, etc.

Question 2.
Describe any five applied branches of Psychology.
Answer:
Some applied branches of Psychology are as follows:

Educational Psychology: It studies all factors related to education. It is concerned with increasing the efficiency of the teaching and learning process. It also focuses on the learning difficulties of slow learners, exceptional as well as average children. Educational psychologists are primarily associated with schools, colleges, and universities. They try to design intervention programs to develop motivation, effective study habits, and a better classroom environment. They also deal with behavioral issues of children such as learning disorders, hyperactivity, lack of concentration, ADHD.

Counselling Psychology: It deals with milder behavioural problems. Counselling psychologists offer guidance about adjustment issues faced by a person, e.g. difficulties experienced by a person in studies, personal life issues, or workplace issues. Counselling psychologists are also involved in vocational and career guidance.

Criminal Psychology: It deals with the motives behind criminal behaviour. Criminal psychologists are concerned with identifying the causes of crime, studying the personality of criminals, suggesting preventive measures to control criminal behaviour, and implementing plans for criminal rehabilitation. They play a significant role in the forensic department to uncover the scene of the crime. They generally work with the law enforcement department or the criminal investigation department or social organisations working for rehabilitation.

Sports Psychology: It helps sportspersons to maintain their motivation and stamina during the actual performance. It also aids sportspersons to maintain themselves when they are not on the field. Sports psychologists help players to maintain composure when they are under pressure, maintain emotional balance when they go through a bad patch, and maintain wellness when they are recovering from personal injuries.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology

Industrial Psychology: It is concerned with the behaviour of people working in an organisation. Industrial psychologists play a crucial role in selection and placement, workforce motivation, and job satisfaction as well as appraisals and grievances. Consumer Psychology is a branch of Industrial Psychology that deals with consumer behaviour.
applied branch of Psychology. The development of aviation and space exploration programmes has accelerated growth in Engineering Psychology.

Question 3.
Write any five career opportunities in Psychology.
Answer:
Counselling Psychology: An individual can become an educational counsellor or vocational counsellor or marriage counsellor and help people to solve career-related or personal problems.

Social Psychology: An individual can become a public relations officer or social welfare officer or labour welfare officer.
These officers attempt to solve various social problems.

Sports Psychology: An individual can become a sports counsellor and work in gyms, schools, or professional sports teams. These counsellors help to improve the confidence, concentration, and morale of players.

Military Psychology: An individual can become an army mental health specialist or army psychologist, navy psychologist, air force psychologist, or marine psychologist. These psychologists play a role in the selection of army officers. They also improve the morale of people in defense services.

Rehabilitation Psychology: An individual can become a special educator or rehabilitation psychologist or disaster management and rehabilitation officer. A special educator works for specially-abled persons while a rehabilitation psychologist works in remand homes. A disaster management and rehabilitation officer helps in disaster management and rehabilitation.

Activities

Activity 3. (Textbook Page No. 14)

Try to find at least one example that can fit into each of the above sub-branches of theoretical Psychology.
Answer:

  • Developmental Psychology: Mr. Mehta conducted a comparative study of physical and cognitive development during early childhood and late childhood.
  • Child Psychology: Mr. Singh studied the impact of parental divorce on the social behaviour of a child.
  • Social Psychology: Mrs. Joshi examined the effect of peer pressure on a person’s dressing style.
  • Cognitive Psychology: Mr. Dsouza studied factors influencing the attention span of students during lectures.
  • Experimental Psychology: Mr. Iyer studied the reactions of individuals in a laboratory to disgusting events.
  • Abnormal Psychology: Mrs. Ajmera conducted a study on the genetic factors influencing depression.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology

Activity 4. (Textbook Page No. 15)

Can you think of at least one problem that educational psychologists can find solutions to, concerning the following areas?

  1. Behaviour of the student
  2. Teaching methods
  3. Teacher’s behaviour in the class

Answer:

  1. Why do students bunk lectures?
  2. Do interactions with students during lectures improve learning outcomes?
  3. Is it possible to use reward and punishment techniques to motivate students?

Activity 6. (Textbook Page No. 16)

Can you think of at least one problem that a counselling psychologist can find solutions to, concerning the following areas?

  1. Adjusting with peers
  2. Adjusting with parents and siblings
  3. Making decisions about a career

Answer:

  1. How conflict with peers affects an individual’s mood?
  2. How generation gap may lead to a difference of opinion?
  3. How to choose a career that matches one’s interests and aptitude?

Activity 8. (Textbook Page No. 16)

Think of at least one problem that a sports psychologist can find solutions to, concerning the following areas.

  1. Improving team spirit
  2. Emotional management
  3. Improving self-confidence

Answer:

  1. How to build healthy relations with team members?
  2. How to remain calm and composed even after a failure?
  3. How to believe in one’s capabilities during challenging tournaments?

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology

Activity 9. (Textbook Page No. 17)

  1. Talk to your parents/teachers and enlist the factors that give them satisfaction at their work.
  2. While buying something from the market, which factors affect your desires? Enlist these factors that influence your choice. For example advertisements, brands, etc.

Answer:

  1. Some of the factors that are associated with job satisfaction are the extent to which one enjoys his work, relation with superiors and colleagues, rate of remuneration and other incentives as well as the scope of growth in the future.
  2. Some of the factors that influence consumer choices are quality of the product, price of the product, price of substitute and complementary products, the income of a person, latest trends, personal choices, habits, and opinions of significant others.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

1A. Complete the following statements.

Question 1.
Psychology is a study of ______________
(A) mind
(B) behaviour
(C) soul
Answer:
(B) behaviour

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Question 2.
processes include thinking, memory, emotions, etc.
(A) Mental
(B) Cognitive
(C) Spiritual
Answer:
(B) Cognitive

1B. Match the following pairs.

Question 1.

A B
1. Tri-Doshas a. First laboratory of Psychology
2. Tri-Gunas b. Study of unconscious
3. Wilhelm Wundt c. Perception, thinking, memory, etc.
4. Sigmund Freud d. Sattva, Rajas, Tamas
5. Cognitive processes e. Ashtanga Yog
6. Patanjali f. Kapha, Vata and Pitta

Answer:
1 – f, 2 – d, 3 – a, 4 – b, 5 – c, 6 – e

1C. State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Psychology is a study of the mind.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
The first mental hospital in India was established in Mumbai.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
There was no study of mental processes in India till the formal discipline of Psychology was recognized as a science.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Question 4.
Dr. Sigmund Freud proposed the concept of the unconscious.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Control is one of the objectives of Psychology.
Answer:
True

1D. Identify the odd item from the following and give reasons for the same.

Question 1.
Soul, Mind, Feeling, Consciousness, Behaviour.
Answer:
Feeling
Reason: Rest is the term used in the definition of Psychology.

Question 2.
Walking, dancing, playing, thinking, eating.
Answer:
Thinking
Reason: The rest are overt behaviours.

Question 3.
Yam, Niyam, Karya, Aasana, Pratyahar.
Answer:
Karya
Reason: The rest are the aspects of Ashtanga Yoga.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Question 4.
Feeling, memory, attention, perception
Answer:
Feeling
Reason: The rest are the processes in the study of cognition.

1E. Complete the following table.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology 1E Q1
Answer:
1. Greek word: Psyche – Soul
2. John Locke – Empty slate
3. First Psychological Laboratory
4. Sigmund Freud – Founder of Psychoanalysis
5. John Watson OR Organism’s response to stimuli – Behaviour

2. Explain the following concepts.

Question 1.
Psychology
Answer:
The word Psychology is derived from Greek words – ‘Psyche’ and ‘Logos’. It is denoted by the Greek Alphabet “Psi” and the symbol is 4L Wilhelm Wundt defined it as “the study of consciousness”. Dr. Sigmund Freud defined it as “the study of unconsciousness”. John B. Watson defined it as “the science of human behaviour”. The latest definition of Psychology is ‘The study of human behaviour and mental processes.

For your understanding

  • Conscious mind: It is the level of mind that someone is aware of at any particular point in time.
  • Unconscious mind: It contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are buried deep in us. Although we are not aware of their existence, they exert great influence on our behaviour.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Question 2.
Behaviour
Answer:
In general, behaviour is an organism’s response to various internal and external stimuli.
John Watson defined behaviour as ‘anything that can be observed, recorded and studied in human beings and animals.’ Behaviour is either overt (seen) or covert (hidden).

Question 3.
Overt behaviour
Answer:
Overt behaviour is that behaviour that is directly noticeable or observable. It includes responses such as walking, talking, dancing.

Question 4.
Covert behaviour
Answer:
Covert behaviour is that which is not directly noticeable but can be inferred from behaviour like thinking, feeling. It basically includes mental processes.

Question 5.
Stimulus
Answer:
Stimulus is defined as any physical event or condition that gives rise to a reaction. It can be external or internal.
In simple words, it is an object or event that elicits a sensory or behavioural response in an organism.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Question 6.
Response
Answer:
A response is defined as a reaction of the organism to a given stimulus. All organisms respond differently to the same stimulus.
Example:
Stimulus (S): A teacher asks students to prepare a presentation.
Organism (O): All students present in class.
Response (R):

  • Some students actively participate in presentations.
  • Some students remain silent as they are scared to talk in front of the entire class.

3. Answer the following questions in 35-40 words.

Question 1.
Psychology is a science: explain why?
Answer:

  • Psychology is the scientific study of human behaviour and mental processes.
  • Through experiments and observations, Psychologists try to analyze and predict human behaviour. This shows the empirical nature of Psychology.
  • Wilhelm Wundt used scientific methods to study fundamental psychological processes. John Watson also conducted scientific research on animal behaviour and child-rearing.

Ques 2.
Explain the S-O-R model, with your own experience.
Answer:

  • The S-O-R model explains how organisms respond differently to the same stimulus. It can be explained as follows:
    Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology 3 Q2
  • Example: Suppose Neha is an excellent orator while her friend Seema is afraid of public speaking.
    • Stimulus: The teacher asks Neha and Seema to give speeches.
    • Organism: Neha and Seema.
    • Response: Neha will confidently give her speech.
      Seema is likely to get cold feet and become nervous.
  • This shows that different organisms (Neha and Seema) react differently to the same situation.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Question 3.
Explain the goals of Psychology.
Answer:

  1. Describe
    • To precisely identify and classify behaviours and mental processes
    • Involves recording behaviour using various tools
  2. Explain
    • To understand the causes of behaviour through meaningful explanation of facts
    • Involves the use of standardized tests
    • Behaviour observed in most people can be generalized
  3. iii. Predict
    • To predict how given conditions will lead to a particular behaviour and mental processes.
    • b. Involves knowledge of possible outcomes
  4. Control
    • To mould behaviour in a particular direction
    • Involves the use of psychological principles and psychotherapeutic techniques

4. Give a historical account of the emergence of Psychology as a science.
Answer:

  • Psychology is a vast field studying behavioural aspects of mankind and it started as a branch of Philosophy. It evolved as a separate branch in the 19th century.
  • The first attempt to define Psychology was made based on the terminology. The word ‘Psychology’ is derived from two Greek words: ‘Psyche’ (soul or mind) and ‘Logos’ (science or branch of knowledge).
  • Rational sciences establish facts based on observation and experimentation. However, neither soul nor mind can be observed. Hence, the definition of Psychology changed over time.
  • In the late 19th century, Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological laboratory at Leipzig University. He defined Psychology as the study of consciousness.
  • Sigmund Freud defined Psychology as the study of the unconscious while John Watson defined it as ‘Science of human behaviour’.
  • The latest definition of Psychology is the ‘Study of human behaviour and processes.’
  • Psychology as a discipline evolved over time.

5. Describe the goals of Psychology.
Answer:

  1. Describe
    • To precisely identify and classify behaviours and mental processes
    • Involves recording behaviour using various tools
  2. Explain
    • To understand the causes of behaviour through meaningful explanation of facts
    • Involves the use of standardized tests
    • Behaviour observed in most people can be generalized
  3. Predict
    • To predict how given conditions will lead to a particular behaviour and mental processes.
    • Involves knowledge of possible outcomes
  4. Control
    • To mould behaviour in a particular direction
    • Involves the use of psychological principles and psychotherapeutic techniques

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Activities

Activity 2. (Textbook Page No. 3)

Do you agree with the definition of Psychology as the Science which deals with the soul? If yes why? If no, why?
Answer:

  • No, I don’t agree with this definition since the soul refers to the spiritual part of a person; which is believed to exist in some form even after death.
  • Psychology is not a spiritual science. Since it studies the mental activities and behaviour of living beings, this definition seems to be incorrect.

Activity 3 (Textbook Page No. 3)

Collect information about Bahinabai Chaudhari: Mana (description of Mind)
Answer:

  • Bahinabai Chaudhari (11 Aug 1880 – 3 Dec 1951) was an illiterate cotton farmer from the Jalgaon district in Maharashtra.
  • She was a famous Marathi poet. Her poems captured the essence of her life, reflect the culture of the village and farming life, and present her wisdom.
  • She has beautifully compared the mind with different aspects of nature such as wind, waves, butterflies, small particles, etc. The poet stressed that the mind is a unique creation of God and nothing in this world compares to it.

Activity 5 (Textbook Page No. 4)

Do you agree with the definition that Psychology is the study of the unconscious? What could be the limitations of this definition?
Answer:
I agree with the above definition because Psychology studies unconscious behaviour. A person himself may not be aware of unconscious aspects of his personality even when it may have a significant impact on his thoughts and behaviour. Psychology enables us to understand this unconscious side of human beings and hence, I agree with this definition. However, the limitation of the definition is the unconscious mind. It can’t be observed directly and hence is difficult to study it. Furthermore, Psychology is also concerned with the study of the conscious mind.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Activity 6 (Textbook Page No. 5)

Make a note of how your friends react to the same stimulus in a different way. Example: examination.
Answer:

  • Nisha and Seema are two of my friends. During the examination, Seema gets extremely tensed. She is not able to concentrate. She even fails to sleep and eat peacefully.
  • She needs the constant emotional support of her parents and friends to overcome her fear.
  • Conversely, Nisha views the exam as a challenge. She does not get worked up.
  • Instead, her moderate tension motivates her to study sincerely.
  • She also knows that failure is a part and parcel of life and tries to learn from each mistake.
  • Hence, she remains calm and confident even during the exam period.

Activity 8 (Textbook Page No. 6)

Find out more attributes of Vata, Kapha, and Pitta.
Answer:
Vata:

  • Elements: Air + Space
  • Body Type: Slim, lean
  • Properties: Energetic, Moody, Creative

Kapha:

  • Elements: Earth + Water
  • Body Type: Average build, moderate weight
  • Properties: Strong build, Affectionate, Cool

Pitta:

  • Elements: Fire + Water
  • Body Type: Large frame, heavy
  • Properties: Smart, Fiery nature

Activity 9 (Textbook Page No. 6)

Find out different characteristics of Rajas, Tamas, and Sattva Guna.
Answer:
Rajas represent passion, action, energy, and motion. Tamas manifests itself as impurity, laziness, and darkness. Sattva manifests itself as purity, knowledge, and harmony.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Activity 10 (Textbook Page No. 7)

Look at the statements given below. Analyze each one of them and come up with goats of Psychology or the role that Psychology plays in real life.

Question 1.
A group of Psychologists observed 1000 individuals and recorded their behaviour and reactions.
Answer:
The goal of description (What): Describing what happens in a particular situation

Question 2.
After analyzing their responses, they tried to understand the reasons behind their behaviours.
Answer:
The goal of explanation (Why): Explaining why a particular instance happened

Question 3.
These observations can be generalized to the entire population. Therefore behaviour of an individual under stressful situations can be predicted.
Answer:
The goal of prediction (Anticipate): Predicting how people will behave under a given situation

Question 4.
The Psychologists came up with some conclusions so that people can change their responses to stressful situations for the better.
Answer:
The goal of control (Modify): Controlling actions of human beings with the help of psychological techniques.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Activity 11 (Textbook Page No. 8)

Find more examples of each of the above goals of Psychology. They could be real examples that you know or you have read about or they could be fictional examples.
Answer:

Goal Example Explanation
i. Describe Recording how different students behave during exam period Neha is confident while Reena gets anxious.
ii. Explain Analyzing why different students behave in different ways during exam Neha has always done well in exams while Reena gets tensed due to over-expectations from her parents.
iii. Predict Anticipating how students will react in other stressful situations Neha is likely to handle stressful situations calmly than Reena
iv. Control Enabling anxious students to control their anxiety level during exams and other stressful situations Reena could take counselling to improve her abilities to deal with examinations and other stressful situations.