Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

1A. Complete the following statements.

Question 1.
Psychology is a study of ______________
(A) mind
(B) behaviour
(C) soul
Answer:
(B) behaviour

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Question 2.
processes include thinking, memory, emotions, etc.
(A) Mental
(B) Cognitive
(C) Spiritual
Answer:
(B) Cognitive

1B. Match the following pairs.

Question 1.

A B
1. Tri-Doshas a. First laboratory of Psychology
2. Tri-Gunas b. Study of unconscious
3. Wilhelm Wundt c. Perception, thinking, memory, etc.
4. Sigmund Freud d. Sattva, Rajas, Tamas
5. Cognitive processes e. Ashtanga Yog
6. Patanjali f. Kapha, Vata and Pitta

Answer:
1 – f, 2 – d, 3 – a, 4 – b, 5 – c, 6 – e

1C. State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Psychology is a study of the mind.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
The first mental hospital in India was established in Mumbai.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
There was no study of mental processes in India till the formal discipline of Psychology was recognized as a science.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Question 4.
Dr. Sigmund Freud proposed the concept of the unconscious.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Control is one of the objectives of Psychology.
Answer:
True

1D. Identify the odd item from the following and give reasons for the same.

Question 1.
Soul, Mind, Feeling, Consciousness, Behaviour.
Answer:
Feeling
Reason: Rest is the term used in the definition of Psychology.

Question 2.
Walking, dancing, playing, thinking, eating.
Answer:
Thinking
Reason: The rest are overt behaviours.

Question 3.
Yam, Niyam, Karya, Aasana, Pratyahar.
Answer:
Karya
Reason: The rest are the aspects of Ashtanga Yoga.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Question 4.
Feeling, memory, attention, perception
Answer:
Feeling
Reason: The rest are the processes in the study of cognition.

1E. Complete the following table.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology 1E Q1
Answer:
1. Greek word: Psyche – Soul
2. John Locke – Empty slate
3. First Psychological Laboratory
4. Sigmund Freud – Founder of Psychoanalysis
5. John Watson OR Organism’s response to stimuli – Behaviour

2. Explain the following concepts.

Question 1.
Psychology
Answer:
The word Psychology is derived from Greek words – ‘Psyche’ and ‘Logos’. It is denoted by the Greek Alphabet “Psi” and the symbol is 4L Wilhelm Wundt defined it as “the study of consciousness”. Dr. Sigmund Freud defined it as “the study of unconsciousness”. John B. Watson defined it as “the science of human behaviour”. The latest definition of Psychology is ‘The study of human behaviour and mental processes.

For your understanding

  • Conscious mind: It is the level of mind that someone is aware of at any particular point in time.
  • Unconscious mind: It contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are buried deep in us. Although we are not aware of their existence, they exert great influence on our behaviour.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Question 2.
Behaviour
Answer:
In general, behaviour is an organism’s response to various internal and external stimuli.
John Watson defined behaviour as ‘anything that can be observed, recorded and studied in human beings and animals.’ Behaviour is either overt (seen) or covert (hidden).

Question 3.
Overt behaviour
Answer:
Overt behaviour is that behaviour that is directly noticeable or observable. It includes responses such as walking, talking, dancing.

Question 4.
Covert behaviour
Answer:
Covert behaviour is that which is not directly noticeable but can be inferred from behaviour like thinking, feeling. It basically includes mental processes.

Question 5.
Stimulus
Answer:
Stimulus is defined as any physical event or condition that gives rise to a reaction. It can be external or internal.
In simple words, it is an object or event that elicits a sensory or behavioural response in an organism.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Question 6.
Response
Answer:
A response is defined as a reaction of the organism to a given stimulus. All organisms respond differently to the same stimulus.
Example:
Stimulus (S): A teacher asks students to prepare a presentation.
Organism (O): All students present in class.
Response (R):

  • Some students actively participate in presentations.
  • Some students remain silent as they are scared to talk in front of the entire class.

3. Answer the following questions in 35-40 words.

Question 1.
Psychology is a science: explain why?
Answer:

  • Psychology is the scientific study of human behaviour and mental processes.
  • Through experiments and observations, Psychologists try to analyze and predict human behaviour. This shows the empirical nature of Psychology.
  • Wilhelm Wundt used scientific methods to study fundamental psychological processes. John Watson also conducted scientific research on animal behaviour and child-rearing.

Ques 2.
Explain the S-O-R model, with your own experience.
Answer:

  • The S-O-R model explains how organisms respond differently to the same stimulus. It can be explained as follows:
    Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology 3 Q2
  • Example: Suppose Neha is an excellent orator while her friend Seema is afraid of public speaking.
    • Stimulus: The teacher asks Neha and Seema to give speeches.
    • Organism: Neha and Seema.
    • Response: Neha will confidently give her speech.
      Seema is likely to get cold feet and become nervous.
  • This shows that different organisms (Neha and Seema) react differently to the same situation.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Question 3.
Explain the goals of Psychology.
Answer:

  1. Describe
    • To precisely identify and classify behaviours and mental processes
    • Involves recording behaviour using various tools
  2. Explain
    • To understand the causes of behaviour through meaningful explanation of facts
    • Involves the use of standardized tests
    • Behaviour observed in most people can be generalized
  3. iii. Predict
    • To predict how given conditions will lead to a particular behaviour and mental processes.
    • b. Involves knowledge of possible outcomes
  4. Control
    • To mould behaviour in a particular direction
    • Involves the use of psychological principles and psychotherapeutic techniques

4. Give a historical account of the emergence of Psychology as a science.
Answer:

  • Psychology is a vast field studying behavioural aspects of mankind and it started as a branch of Philosophy. It evolved as a separate branch in the 19th century.
  • The first attempt to define Psychology was made based on the terminology. The word ‘Psychology’ is derived from two Greek words: ‘Psyche’ (soul or mind) and ‘Logos’ (science or branch of knowledge).
  • Rational sciences establish facts based on observation and experimentation. However, neither soul nor mind can be observed. Hence, the definition of Psychology changed over time.
  • In the late 19th century, Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological laboratory at Leipzig University. He defined Psychology as the study of consciousness.
  • Sigmund Freud defined Psychology as the study of the unconscious while John Watson defined it as ‘Science of human behaviour’.
  • The latest definition of Psychology is the ‘Study of human behaviour and processes.’
  • Psychology as a discipline evolved over time.

5. Describe the goals of Psychology.
Answer:

  1. Describe
    • To precisely identify and classify behaviours and mental processes
    • Involves recording behaviour using various tools
  2. Explain
    • To understand the causes of behaviour through meaningful explanation of facts
    • Involves the use of standardized tests
    • Behaviour observed in most people can be generalized
  3. Predict
    • To predict how given conditions will lead to a particular behaviour and mental processes.
    • Involves knowledge of possible outcomes
  4. Control
    • To mould behaviour in a particular direction
    • Involves the use of psychological principles and psychotherapeutic techniques

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Activities

Activity 2. (Textbook Page No. 3)

Do you agree with the definition of Psychology as the Science which deals with the soul? If yes why? If no, why?
Answer:

  • No, I don’t agree with this definition since the soul refers to the spiritual part of a person; which is believed to exist in some form even after death.
  • Psychology is not a spiritual science. Since it studies the mental activities and behaviour of living beings, this definition seems to be incorrect.

Activity 3 (Textbook Page No. 3)

Collect information about Bahinabai Chaudhari: Mana (description of Mind)
Answer:

  • Bahinabai Chaudhari (11 Aug 1880 – 3 Dec 1951) was an illiterate cotton farmer from the Jalgaon district in Maharashtra.
  • She was a famous Marathi poet. Her poems captured the essence of her life, reflect the culture of the village and farming life, and present her wisdom.
  • She has beautifully compared the mind with different aspects of nature such as wind, waves, butterflies, small particles, etc. The poet stressed that the mind is a unique creation of God and nothing in this world compares to it.

Activity 5 (Textbook Page No. 4)

Do you agree with the definition that Psychology is the study of the unconscious? What could be the limitations of this definition?
Answer:
I agree with the above definition because Psychology studies unconscious behaviour. A person himself may not be aware of unconscious aspects of his personality even when it may have a significant impact on his thoughts and behaviour. Psychology enables us to understand this unconscious side of human beings and hence, I agree with this definition. However, the limitation of the definition is the unconscious mind. It can’t be observed directly and hence is difficult to study it. Furthermore, Psychology is also concerned with the study of the conscious mind.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Activity 6 (Textbook Page No. 5)

Make a note of how your friends react to the same stimulus in a different way. Example: examination.
Answer:

  • Nisha and Seema are two of my friends. During the examination, Seema gets extremely tensed. She is not able to concentrate. She even fails to sleep and eat peacefully.
  • She needs the constant emotional support of her parents and friends to overcome her fear.
  • Conversely, Nisha views the exam as a challenge. She does not get worked up.
  • Instead, her moderate tension motivates her to study sincerely.
  • She also knows that failure is a part and parcel of life and tries to learn from each mistake.
  • Hence, she remains calm and confident even during the exam period.

Activity 8 (Textbook Page No. 6)

Find out more attributes of Vata, Kapha, and Pitta.
Answer:
Vata:

  • Elements: Air + Space
  • Body Type: Slim, lean
  • Properties: Energetic, Moody, Creative

Kapha:

  • Elements: Earth + Water
  • Body Type: Average build, moderate weight
  • Properties: Strong build, Affectionate, Cool

Pitta:

  • Elements: Fire + Water
  • Body Type: Large frame, heavy
  • Properties: Smart, Fiery nature

Activity 9 (Textbook Page No. 6)

Find out different characteristics of Rajas, Tamas, and Sattva Guna.
Answer:
Rajas represent passion, action, energy, and motion. Tamas manifests itself as impurity, laziness, and darkness. Sattva manifests itself as purity, knowledge, and harmony.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Activity 10 (Textbook Page No. 7)

Look at the statements given below. Analyze each one of them and come up with goats of Psychology or the role that Psychology plays in real life.

Question 1.
A group of Psychologists observed 1000 individuals and recorded their behaviour and reactions.
Answer:
The goal of description (What): Describing what happens in a particular situation

Question 2.
After analyzing their responses, they tried to understand the reasons behind their behaviours.
Answer:
The goal of explanation (Why): Explaining why a particular instance happened

Question 3.
These observations can be generalized to the entire population. Therefore behaviour of an individual under stressful situations can be predicted.
Answer:
The goal of prediction (Anticipate): Predicting how people will behave under a given situation

Question 4.
The Psychologists came up with some conclusions so that people can change their responses to stressful situations for the better.
Answer:
The goal of control (Modify): Controlling actions of human beings with the help of psychological techniques.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Story of Psychology

Activity 11 (Textbook Page No. 8)

Find more examples of each of the above goals of Psychology. They could be real examples that you know or you have read about or they could be fictional examples.
Answer:

Goal Example Explanation
i. Describe Recording how different students behave during exam period Neha is confident while Reena gets anxious.
ii. Explain Analyzing why different students behave in different ways during exam Neha has always done well in exams while Reena gets tensed due to over-expectations from her parents.
iii. Predict Anticipating how students will react in other stressful situations Neha is likely to handle stressful situations calmly than Reena
iv. Control Enabling anxious students to control their anxiety level during exams and other stressful situations Reena could take counselling to improve her abilities to deal with examinations and other stressful situations.

 

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings – II

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings – II Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings – II

1A. Select the correct answer from the options given below and rewrite the statements.

Question 1.
The secretary has to prepare ____________ before the meeting.
(a) resolution
(b) notice
(c) minutes
Answer:
(b) notice

Question 2.
General Meeting must have a notice of at least ____________ clear days.
(a) 7
(b) 21
(c) 14
Answer:
(b) 21

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

Question 3.
The gap between two annual general meetings should not be more than months.
(a) 15
(b) 18
(c) 24
Answer:
(a) 15

Question 4.
Auditor is appointed in ____________
(a) Annual General Meeting
(b) Creditors Meeting
(c) Extra ordinary General Meeting
Answer:
(a) Annual General Meeting

Question 5.
The business transacted in extra ordinary general meeting is ____________ business.
(a) Ordinary
(b) Routine
(c) Special
Answer:
(c) Special

Question 6.
An extraordinary general meeting is held ____________
(a) once in a year
(b) once in the life time
(c) under special circumstances
Answer:
(c) under special circumstances

Question 7.
Writing the minutes of meeting is the duty of the ____________
(a) Chairman
(b) Director
(c) Secretary
Answer:
(c) Secretary

Question 8.
New Directors in place of retiring Directors are appointed in the ____________
(a) Class Meeting
(b) Annual General Meeting
(c) Creditors Meeting
Answer:
(b) Annual General Meeting

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

Question 9.
Before the Annual General Meeting is held the Secretary has to compile ____________
(a) Auditor’s Report
(b) Committee Report
(c) Annual Report
Answer:
(c) Annual Report

Question 10.
The Secretary has to draft the minutes of the meeting within ____________ days of the meeting.
(a) Fifteen
(b) Sixty
(c) Forty
Answer:
(a) Fifteen

1B. Match the pairs.

Question 1.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(a) Board Meeting (1) Once in the year
(b) Auditor (2) Minimum 4 meetings in a year
(c) Annual General Meeting (3) Prepare at any time
(d) Extraordinary General Meeting (4) Auditor’s Report
(e) Minutes of Meeting (5) Prepared before the meeting
(6) Prepared after the meeting
(7) Under special circumstance
(8) Prepared during the meeting
(9) Once in Six months
(10) Meeting of creditors

Answer:

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(a) Board Meeting (2) Minimum 4 meetings in a year
(b) Auditor (4) Auditor’s Report
(c) Annual General Meeting (1) Once in the year
(d) Extraordinary General Meeting (7) Under special circumstance
(e) Minutes of Meeting (6) Prepared after the meeting

1C. Write a word or a term or a phrase that can substitute each of the following statements.

Question 1.
A meeting of shareholders which is held once a year.
Answer:
Annual General Meeting

Question 2.
A meeting of shareholders is held between two annual general meetings.
Answer:
Extra Ordinary General Meeting

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

Question 3.
A Report which is prepared before Annual General Meeting.
Answer:
Annual Report

Question 4.
A meeting of the shareholders is held under special circumstances.
Answer:
Extra Ordinary General Meeting

Question 5.
A meeting of the preference shareholders of a company.
Answer:
Class Meeting

1D. State whether the following statements are True or False.

Question 1.
Only special business is transacted at Annual General Meeting.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Annual Report is prepared by members.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Extraordinary General Meeting is called for a special and urgent purpose.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
A member has a right to attend a Board meeting.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

Question 5.
A class meeting is the meeting of a particular class of shareholders.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
Director cannot appoint a proxy to attend and vote at the board meetings.
Answer:
True

Question 7.
21 clear days notice should be given in case of Board Meeting.
Answer:
False

Question 8.
Secretary has to arrange to take down the notes of the proceedings of the meeting.
Answer:
True

1E. Find the odd one.

Question 1.
Annual General Meeting, Extra Ordinary General Meeting, Board Meeting.
Answer:
Board Meeting

Question 2.
Annual General Meeting, Committee Meeting, Class Meeting.
Answer:
Committee Meeting

1F. Complete the sentences.

Question 1.
The meeting which is held once in every financial year is called as ____________
Answer:
Annual General Meeting

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

Question 2.
The meeting held to discuss and decide any special or urgent matters is called as ____________
Answer:
Extra-ordinary General Meeting

Question 3.
Meeting of all Directors is called as ____________
Answer:
Board Meeting

Question 4.
The Authority to convene the Annual General Meeting is with the ____________
Answer:
Board of Directors

1G. Select the correct option from the bracket.

Question 1.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(1) Interval between two Annual General Meetings …………………….
(2) First Board Meeting …………………….
(3) ………………………. 21 clear days
(4) ………………………. Alteration in Memorandum of Association

(Notice of General Meeting, Extraordinary General Meeting, Not more than 15 months, within 30 days of company’s Incorporation)
Answer:

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(1) Interval between two Annual General Meeting Not more than 15 months
(2) First Board Meeting within 30 days of companies Incorporations
(3) Notice of General Meeting 21 clear days
(4) Extraordinary General meeting Alteration in Memorandum of Association

1H. Answer in one sentence.

Question 1.
Who can attend Board Meetings?
Answer:
Board of Directors attends Board Meetings.

Question 2.
When can an Adjourned Annual General meeting be held?
Answer:
Adjourned Annual General Meeting will be held on the same day, same place and same time in the next week.

Question 3.
Why is Extra-Ordinary General Meeting held?
Answer:
Extra Ordinary General Meeting is held under special circumstances to discuss urgent and important matters.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

Question 4.
When should the first Annual General Meeting be held?
Answer:
The first Annual General Meeting must be held within nine (9) months of the closing of the first financial year of the company.

Question 5.
What should be the interval between two Annual General Meetings?
Answer:
The time interval between two Annual General Meetings should not be more than 15 months.

Question 6.
What should be the gap between two Board Meetings?
Answer:
The gap between the two Board Meetings should not be more than 120 days.

1I. Correct the underlined word and rewrite the following sentences.

Question 1.
Minimum four Committee Meetings must be held in a year.
Answer:
Minimum four Directors Meetings must be held in a year.

Question 2.
Creditors Meeting must be held once a year.
Answer:
Annual General Meeting must be held once a year.

Question 3.
Extra Ordinary Meeting must be held every year.
Answer:
Annual General Meeting must be held every year.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

Question 4.
The Meeting of all Directors is called Annual General Meeting.
Answer:
The Meeting of all Directors is Called Director’s Meeting.

2. Explain the following terms/concepts.

Question 1.
Committee Meeting
Answer:
The Board of Directors may from the committee and delegate some of its powers to them. This committee should consist of only directors. The delegation of such powers to committees is to be authorized by Articles of Association and should be subject to the provisions of the Companies Act. A meeting of Allotment Committee, Transfer Committee, etc are examples of Committee Meeting.

Question 2.
Virtual Meeting
Answer:
If there is any urgency to call Board Meeting and practically not possible for Directors to attend the meeting in a short notice, so with the help of technology, a virtual meeting can be held. The meetings are recorded and active participation of Directors is also possible through video conferencing. Certain special and confidential matters cannot be dealt with through video conferencing as per the directions of the Central Government.

Question 3.
Creditor’s Meeting
Answer:
Creditors of the company include Debenture holders, Depositors, Banks, and others. The meeting of creditors is called when the company proposes to make a scheme for an arrangement with its creditors.
E.g. In the case of winding up of the company, a meeting of creditors and of contributors is held to ascertain the total amount due by the company and also to appoint a liquidator to wind up the affairs of the company.

3. Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

1. Platinum Limited Company was incorporated on 1st January 2018. Advice the Board of Directors on the following matters.

Question (a).
Within what period should the company hold its 1st Annual General Meeting?
Answer:
First Annual General Meeting must be held within Nine (9) months of the closing of its financial year.

Question (b).
At which place should the Annual General Meeting be held?
Answer:
Annual General Meeting should be held at the registered office or at some other place within the city or village which the registered office of the company is situated.

Question (c).
How many days in advance should the notice and agenda be sent to members?
Answer:
Notice and Agenda should be sent 21 clear days before the Annual General Meeting.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

2. XYZ Ltd held its Annual General Meeting on 11th May 2018. On 1st June Mr. X, a Director of the company was arrested for a financial scam. Hence the shareholders of the company want to remove him.

Question (a).
Can the company call for the next Annual General Meeting to be held immediately to remove the Director?
Answer:
No, the company cannot call the next Annual General Meeting immediately to remove the director.

Question (b).
Which meeting of members should the company hold to discuss the removal of the Director?
Answer:
Extra Ordinary General Meeting should be called to discuss removal of the director.

Question (c).
What type of resolution will be passed in this meeting for the removal of the Director?
Answer:
A resolution requiring special notice (section 115) will be passed in the meeting for the removal of the director.

4. Distinguish between the following.

Question 1.
Shareholders’ Meeting and Board Meeting.
Answer:

Basis Shareholder’s Meeting (Annual General Meeting) Board Meeting (Director’s Meeting)
1. Meaning It is the meeting of all the members or shareholders of the company. It is the meeting of all the Directors of the company.
2. Number of times Annual General Meeting is held once every year. Extra Ordinary General Meeting is held to discuss urgent and important matters. It is called in between two Annual General Meetings. Minimum 4 meetings to be held in a year and the gap between two meetings should not be more than 120 days.
3. Quorum Quorum in case of Public Company is as follows:

No. of Shareholders Quorum
Up to 1000 5 members
1000-5000 15 members
More than 5000 30 members

In the case of the private company, 2 members present in person shall be the quorum.

The quorum for the Board Meeting is a minimum of 2 Directors or 1/3rd of its total Directors whichever is higher.
4. Proxy Members can appoint a proxy to attend and vote at the meeting on their behalf. Directors cannot appoint a proxy to attend and vote at the meeting.
5. Notice Notice of shareholder’s meeting must be sent to all the members at least 21 clear days before the meeting. Notice of Board Meeting must be sent to every Director at least 7 days before the meeting.
6. Purpose The purpose of this meeting is to take approvals from shareholders on the Annual Report, Appointment of Auditor, etc. The purpose of this meeting is to discuss policy matters, future planning, etc.

Question 2.
Annual General Meeting and Extra-ordinary General Meeting
Answer:

Points Annual General Meeting Extraordinary General Meeting
1. Meaning It is a meeting of shareholders held once in a year as per the provisions of Section 96 of the Companies Act, 2013. It is a meeting of shareholders held under special conditions to discuss urgent and important matters as per the provisions of Section 100 of the Companies Act, 2013.
2. Purpose The purpose is to give information about the progress made by the company during the year. The purpose is to discuss urgent and important matters that cannot be postponed till next Annual General Meeting.
3. Number of times The first Annual General Meeting is held within 9 months of the completion of the financial year and the subsequent Annual General Meeting is held within 6 months of the completion of the financial year. Extraordinary General Meeting is held anytime between two Annual General Meetings.
4. Authority Annual General Meeting is normally called by the Board of Directors and can be called by the Central Government under special circumstances. Extra-ordinary General Meeting can be called by:

  • Board of Directors
  • Board of Directors on the requisition of members
  • The National Company Law Tribunal
5. Business transacted
  • To approve annual accounts
  • To approve Auditors and Director’s Report
  • To appoint Auditors, Directors, etc.
  • To declare a dividend.
  • To alter Articles of Association.
  • To alter Memorandum of Association.
  • Removal of Director.
  • Voluntary winding up of a company.
6. Penalty In case of default in holding Annual General Meeting, every officer concerned is punishable with a fine upto ₹ 1,00,000 and fine of ₹ 5,000 per day till default continues. If the directors fail to hold this meeting on requisition, the requisionist themselves can hold it and recover the expenses from defaulting directors.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

5. Answer in brief.

Question 1.
List the duties of a Secretary after the Annual General Meeting.
Answer:
Duties of a Secretary after Annual General Meeting:

  • Drafting Minutes: The secretary drafts the minutes of the meeting on the basis of the notes taken down during the proceedings of the meeting.
  • Implementation of decisions: The secretary instructs the concerned department for implementing the decisions taken at the meeting.
  • Dispatch Dividend Warrants: The secretary has to make an arrangement to dispatch dividend warrants to the shareholders.
  • Filing Resolutions: The secretary has to file an Annual Report with the Registrar. In case of a special resolution, the secretary has to file the special resolution with the Registrar within 30 days of passing that resolution.
  • Information to Absent Members: The secretary sends the information of the proceedings of the meeting to the absent members.

Question 2.
State the objectives of the Annual General Meeting.
Answer:
Purpose or objectives of Annual General Meeting: The main objective of holding an Annual General Meeting is to provide an opportunity to members to discuss the functioning of the company.

  • To review the progress and performance of the company.
  • To approve annual accounts, director’s report, and auditor’s report.
  • To appoint auditors and fix their remuneration.
  • To declare a dividend.
  • To elect new directors in place of retiring Directors To transact special business, if any like-
    • business of the company taken over by the Government.
    • the company did not function well through the year, etc.

Question 3.
State any four legal provisions regarding Board Meeting.
Answer:
Legal Provisions relating to Board Meeting:
(i) Authority to Convene:
The chairman of the Board is the proper authority to call the Board Meeting.

(ii) Number of Board Meetings:

  • First Board Meeting shall be held within 30 days of the date of its incorporation.
  • Subsequently, there should be four meetings in a year.
  • The gap between the two meetings should not be more than 120 days.
  • At least one Board meeting should be held in 6 months in case of one person company, small company and dormant company.
  • The gap between two meetings should not be more than 90 days in the case of one person company, a small company, and a dormant company.

(iii) Notice [Section 173(3)]:

  • The notice of every Board Meeting must be given to every director at least 7 days before the meeting at his registered address along with an agenda of the meeting.
  • It can also be sent by post or by hand delivery or by E-mail.
  • If a company fails to send notice within a given time, then every officer in default shall be liable to a penalty of Rs. 25,000.

(iv) Quorum (Section – 174):

  • The quorum for the Board Meeting is 1/3rd of the total number of directors or two directors whichever is higher.
  • Any fraction should be rounded to one.
  • Interested directors (personal interest in any matter) are not included in the quorum.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

Question 4.
What are Class Meetings?
Answer:
Class Meetings (Section 48):

  • When the meeting of a particular class of shareholders takes place such as a preference shareholders meeting, it is known as a class meeting.
  • Such a meeting may be called for an alteration in the right and privileges of that particular class of shareholders.
  • It can also be called for the purpose of conversion of one class of shares into another.
  • The class meeting is not held regularly.

Question 5.
What is the purpose of conducting an Extra-ordinary General Meeting?
Answer:
Purpose or Objectives of Extra-Ordinary General Meeting:
The main purpose behind calling this meeting is to make shareholders aware of the happenings in the company or to seek their approval on some urgent and important matters of the company.

  • Alteration in the Memorandum of Association.
  • Alteration in Articles of Association.
  • Reduction of Share Capital.
  • Removal of a Director before the expiry of his term.
  • Removal of an Auditor before the expiry of his term.
  • Voluntary winding up of the company.

6. Justify the following statements.

Question 1.
Annual General Meeting is adjourned in absence of a quorum.
Answer:

  • Quorum is a minimum number of members to be present for a valid Meeting.
  • As per the Companies Act, 2013, the quorum for the Annual General Meeting of a public company is as follows:
No. of Shareholders Quorum
Up to 1000 5 Members
1000 – 5000 15 Members
More than 5000 30 Members
  • For a private company minimum of 2 members should be present
  • If the meeting is conducted without a quorum, it is considered invalid.
  • In the absence of a quorum, Annual General Meeting is adjourned.
  • Adjourned Meeting will be convened on the same day, same time, and the same place in the next week.

Question 2.
A notice of the meeting must be sent to all members in case of the General Meeting.
Answer:

  • The Board of Directors is the authority to convene general meetings.
  • The notice must be given 21 clear days before the meeting to all those who are entitled to receive it.
  • The notice must be sent to all the members at their registered address in India.
  • Notice can be sent by registered post, if requested by the member, charges for the same is to be paid in advance.
  • Notice is also given in all leading newspapers.
  • Notice is accompanied by agenda and also Annual report, Auditor report, Annual accounts, etc. in case of Annual General Meeting.

Question 3.
Extra Ordinary General Meeting is called under special circumstances.
Answer:

  1. Extraordinary General Meeting is held in between two Annual General Meetings.
  2. It is held when the matter is of utmost importance and it cannot be postponed till the next Annual General Meeting.
  3. It can be called to make shareholders aware of the happenings in the company.
  4. It can also be called to seek their approval on important and urgent matters.
  5. Important and urgent matters can be:
    • Alteration in Memorandum of Association
    • Alteration in Articles of Association
    • Reduction in share capital
    • Removal of a director or auditor
    • Voluntary winding up of a company, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

Question 4.
Board of Directors can exercise their powers collectively through the Board Meeting.
Answer:

  1. Directors collectively are called as Board of Directors.
  2. The Board of Directors has to meet frequently with reference to the day-to-day working of the company.
  3. All important decisions can be taken by the Board of Directors in the Board Meeting collectively.
  4. Powers which can be exercised at Board Meeting are:
    • The power to fill casual vacancies in the Board.
    • To recommend the rate of dividend.
    • The power to appoint managing Director, Manager, etc.
    • To sanction a contract.
    • To give loans or invest in shares of other companies.

Question 5.
The Quorum for the Annual General Meeting of a public company depends upon the number of shareholders.
Answer:

  • Quorum is a minimum number of members to be present for a valid meeting.
  • As per the Companies Act, 2013, the quorum for the Annual General Meeting of a public company are as follows:
No. of Shareholders Quorum
Up to 1000 5 Members
1000 – 5000 15 Members
More than 5000 30 Members
    • If the number of shareholders is up to 1000, then the required quorum is 5 members.
    • If the number of shareholders is more than 1000 and up to 5000, then the required quorum is 15 members.
    • If the number of shareholders exceeds 5000 then the quorum is 30 members for a public company.
  • In the absence of a quorum, if the meeting is conducted or a resolution is passed, it is considered illegal and invalid.
  • In the absence of a quorum, the meeting is adjourned to the same day, same place, and same time in the next week.

Question 6.
When a company is in financial difficulty it may call a meeting of creditors.
Answer:

  • Creditors of the company include Debenture holders, Depositors, Banks, financial institutions, etc.
  • When a company is in a financial crisis, it seeks the help of creditors.
  • The company can request creditors to alter the rate of interest, to alter the terms of security, etc.
  • Meeting of creditors can be called to compromise in a dispute with them.
  • Creditors and contributors can provide financial help to the company to safeguard them and also to protect them to avoid winding up of a company.

Question 7.
As per the Companies Act, every company has to hold the Annual General Meeting.
Answer:

  • Every company other than one person company must hold an Annual General Meeting once a year.
  • Annual General Meeting is held to review the working of the company during the previous financial year and take an effective decision for the next year.
  • It is mainly called to approve Annual Report, Auditor Report, Annual Accounts, to declare a dividend, to elect Directors, Auditors and to transact special business, if any.
  • First AGM shall be held within 9 months of the closing of the first financial year of the company.
  • The time interval between two Annual General Meetings should not be more than 15 months.
  • If the default is made in holding AGM then the company and every officer of the company in default are punishable with a fine which may extend up to ₹ 1,00,000 and up to ₹ 5,000 per day till default continues.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

7. Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
Explain the functions of a secretary related to the Annual General Meeting.
Answer:
Functions (duties) of secretary related with Annual General Meeting:
Secretary has to perform many functions related to all types of meetings like Board Meeting, Annual General Meeting, etc. He has to perform all duties in compliance with the provisions of the Act. Secretary has to perform functions before, during, and after the meeting.

Functions of a secretary related to Annual General Meeting are as follows:
Functions Before the Annual General Meeting:
(i) Preparation of Accounts and Reports:
The secretary has to ensure that the Annual Accounts, Annual Report, and Auditor Report are prepared for consideration and approval.

(ii) Board Meeting:
Board Meeting is called to transact the following business:

  • To adopt Annual Accounts duly audited.
  • To adopt Director’s Report
  • To consider the rate of dividend
  • To fix the day, date, time, and place of the Annual General Meeting.

(iii) Notice:
The secretary has to send 21 clear days’ notice of a meeting to members and auditors before the meeting along with the auditor report, annual report, annual accounts, agenda, etc. The secretary has to arrange for publishing the notice of the meeting in leading newspapers.

(iv) Chairman Speech:
The secretary has to assist the chairman in drafting his speech to be delivered at the meeting.

(v) Preliminary Arrangement:
The secretary has to make arrangements such as booking of hall, refreshments, Register of Members, Members Attendance Book, etc.

Functions During the Annual General Meeting:
(i) Attendance:
The secretary has to get signatures of members present at the meeting in ‘Members Attendance Book.’

(ii) Quorum:
The secretary should see that the required quorum is present at the meeting and informs the chairman of the meeting.

(iii) Reading of Reports:
The secretary has to read the notice, Director’s Report, and Auditor’s Report as directed by the Chairman.

(iv) Notice of Proceedings:
The secretary should take down the notes of the proceedings of the meeting. He has to draft the minutes on the basis of these notes.

(v) Assist Chairman:
The secretary has to assist the chairman during the meeting. He should provide information, documents, etc as and when needed.

(vi) Conduct of Poll:
Secretary makes arrangements for conducting the poll if it is demanded by the members.

Functions After the Annual General Meeting:
(i) Drafting Minutes:
The secretary drafts the minutes of the meeting on the basis of the notes taken down during the proceedings of the meeting.

(ii) Implementation of decisions:
The secretary instructs the concerned department for implementing the decisions taken at the meeting.

(iii) Dispatch Dividend Warrants:
The secretary has to make an arrangement to dispatch dividend warrants to the shareholders.

(iv) Filing Resolutions:
The secretary has to file the Annual Report with the Registrar. In case of a special resolution, the secretary has to file the special resolution with the Registrar within 30 days of passing that resolution.

(v) Information to Absent Members :
The secretary sends the information of the proceedings of the meeting to the absent members.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

Question 2.
Explain the different types of General Meetings of a company.
Answer:
General Meetings are meetings of Equity shareholders of the company. There are two types of General Meetings:

  • Annual General Meeting
  • Extraordinary General Meeting.

1. Annual General Meeting (Section 96):
Every Company other than One Person Company must hold Annual General Meeting once in a year.
Purpose or Objective of Annual General Meeting:

  • To review the progress and performance of the company.
  • To approve annual accounts, director’s report, and auditor’s report.
  • To appoint auditors and fix their remuneration.
  • To declare a dividend.
  • To elect new directors in place of retiring directors.
  • To transact special business, if any.

Legal Provisions relating to Annual General Meeting:
(i) Time Limit:

  • The time interval between two Annual General Meetings should not be more than 15 months.
  • Extension of time for holding the Annual General Meeting may be given by the Registrar to the company for a period not more than three months, except for the first Annual General Meeting.
  • One person company is exempted from the provision of Annual General Meeting.

(ii) Authority to Convene Annual General Meeting:
The Board of Directors is the proper authority to convene the Annual General Meeting.

(iii) Notice:
The notice must be given to all those who are entitled to receive it, at least 21 clear days in advance of the meeting. It is sent to the members at their registered address by post or through electronic mode like Email, etc.

(iv) Time, Day, and Place of Annual General Meeting:
Annual General Meeting shall be called during business hours between 9 am to 6 pm on any day other than National holidays. It can be held at the registered office or at some other place within the city or village in which the registered office of the company is situated.

(v) Quorum:
According to the Companies Act, 2013, the quorum for the Annual General Meeting of a public company is as follows:

No. of Shareholders Quorum
Upto 1000 5 Members
1000 – 5000 15 Members
More than 5000 30 Members

For a private company minimum of two members should be present in person.

(vi) Adjournment:
In the absence of a quorum, Annual General Meeting stands adjourned. It will be convened on the same day, same time and the same place in the next week.

(vii) Default:
If the default is made in holding the Annual General Meeting as per the provisions of the Act or as per the instructions of the Central Government, the company and every officer of the company who is in default are punishable with a fine which may extend up to ₹ 1,00,000/-. If the default continues fine may extend up to ₹ 5,000 per day till the default continues.

2. Extra-Ordinary General Meeting (Section – 100):
Meaning:
It is a meeting which is called in between two Annual General Meetings under special circumstances, which cannot be postponed till the next Annual General Meeting. The matters discussed under this meeting is of utmost importance and urgent by nature.

Purpose or Objectives of Extra-Ordinary General Meeting:
The main purpose behind calling this meeting is to make shareholders aware of the happenings in the company or to seek their approval on some urgent and important matters of the company.

  • Alteration in the Memorandum of Association.
  • Alteration in Articles of Association.
  • Reduction of Share Capital of the company.
  • Removal of a Director before the expiry of his term.
  • Removal of an Auditor before the expiry of his term.
  • Voluntary winding up of the company.

Legal Provisions relating to Extra Ordinary General Meeting:
(i) Time for holding a meeting:
Extra Ordinary General Meeting is held between two Annual General Meetings under special circumstances. It can be held at any time as per the requirements of the company.

(ii) Authority to Convene:

  • The Board of Directors has the right to call an Extra-Ordinary General Meeting by sending a proper notice to the shareholders.
  • Extra-Ordinary General Meeting can be called by the members holding at least 1/10th of the paid-up capital or 1/10th of voting power in the company. Board must call Extra-Ordinary General Meeting within 45 days of receiving the requisition from the members.
  • If the Board fails to call such a meeting then the requisitionists themselves call this meeting within 3 months from the date of deposit of the requisition. The company shall pay all the expenses incurred for holding such meetings by the requisitionist.
  • National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) can order such meetings on its own or at the request of a director or any members having voting rights.

(iii) Notice:
The notice must be given to all those who are entitled to receive it, at least 21 clear days in advance of the meeting. It is sent to the members at their registered address by post or through electronic mode like Email, etc.

(iv) Quorum:
According to the Companies Act, 2013, the quorum for the Annual General Meeting of a public company is as follows:

No. of Shareholders Quorum
Up to 1000 5 Members
1000 – 5000 15 Members
More than 5000 30 Members

For a private company minimum of two members should be present in person.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

Question 3.
Explain the different types of Director’s Meetings.
Answer:
Director’s meeting:
Directors collectively are called as Board of Directors. They meet regularly to discuss and decide upon company matters, implementation of plans and review the progress made by the company.

(i) Board Meeting (Section 173):
It is a meeting of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors has to meet frequently with reference to day to day working of the company. The Board of Directors can exercise their powers collectively through the Board Meeting.

Legal Provisions relating to Board Meeting:
(a) Authority to Convene:
The chairman of the Board is the proper authority to call the Board Meeting.

(b) Number of Board Meetings:

  • First Board Meeting shall be held within 30 days of the date of its incorporation.
  • Subsequently, there should be four meetings in a year.
  • The gap between the two meetings should not be more than 120 days.
  • At least one Board meeting should be held in 6 months in case of one person company, small company, and dormant company.
  • The gap between two meetings should not be more than 90 days in the case of one person company.

(c) Virtual Meeting/Video Conferencing:
If there is any urgency to call Board Meeting and practically not possible for Directors to attend the meeting in a short notice, so with the help of technology, a virtual meeting can be held. The meetings are recorded and active participation of Directors is also possible through video conferencing. Certain special and confidential matters cannot be dealt with through video conferencing as per the directions of the Central Government.

(d) Notice [Section 173(3)]:
The notice of every Board Meeting must be given to every director at least 7 days before the meeting at his registered address along with an agenda of the meeting.
It can also be sent by post or by hand delivery or by E-mail.
If a company fails to send notice within a given time, then every officer in default shall be liable to a penalty of Rs. 25,000.

(e) Quorum (Section – 174)

  • The quorum for the Board Meeting is 1/3rd of the total number of directors or two directors whichever is higher.
    Any fraction should be rounded to one.
  • Interested directors (personal interest in any matter) are not included in the quorum.

(f) Adjournment:
The meeting of the Board of directors can be adjourned in the absence of a quorum.
The adjourned meeting can be held on the same day, same time and the same place in the next week.

(ii) Committee Meeting:

  • The Board of Directors may from the committee and delegate some of its powers to them.
  • This committee should consist of only directors. The delegation of such powers to committees is to be authorized by Articles of Association and should be subject to the provisions of the Companies Act.
  • A meeting of Allotment Committee, Transfer Committee, etc are examples of Committee Meeting.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 8 Company Meetings - II

Activity 1 (Textbook Page No. 123)

Visit the website of any public company and study its Annual Report/Director’s Report.
Answer:
[Note: Students should do this activity by themselves with the help of the internet.]

Activity 2 (Textbook Page No. 127)

Enlist the functions of a Secretary related to an Extra-Ordinary Meeting.
Answer:
Functions of Secretary Relating to Extra Ordinary General Meeting:
(i) Before the Meeting:

  • Time of Holding: To decide the date, time, place, and agenda for holding the meeting in consultation with the chairman of the company and to convene the Board Meeting for finalization of these things by passing a resolution to that effect.
  • Drafting of Resolution: To draft the proposed resolution and explanatory statements and to get them approved by the board.
  • Notice: To draft the notice of the meeting and arrange to get the same printed together with the explanatory statements, proxy forms, and admission cards. To send the notice with agenda to all the members, at least 21 days before the meeting.
  • Public Notice: The notice is also published in the leading newspapers for the information of the general public.
  • Notice to Stock Authorities: If the shares are listed on the stock exchange, a notice of the meeting is sent to stock exchange authorities too.
  • Proxy: To verify proxy forms received and enter them in the proxy register.
  • Preparing Documents: The important documents, records, Books, etc. are kept ready for reference during the meeting.

(ii) During the Meeting:

  • Checking: To check the admission card of the members.
  • Attendance: To take attendance of members.
  • Ascertaining Quorum: To ascertain the quorum.
  • Reading Notice: To read the notice convening meeting.
  • Assist Chairman: To assist the chairman, by providing necessary information, records documents.
  • Notes of Proceedings: To make notes of the proceedings of the meeting.

(iii) After the Meeting:

  • Drafting Minutes: To draft the minutes of the meeting and enter the same in the Minute Book.
  • Signed by the Chairman: To get Minutes signed by the chairman of the meeting.
  • Filing of Resolution: To file the certified copy of the resolution passed at the meeting, to the Registrar of Companies.
  • Sending Intimation: To send intimation to the concerned persons.
  • Implementations: To carry out decisions taken at the meeting.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings – I

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings – I Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings – I

1A. Select the correct answer from the options given below and rewrite the statements.

Question 1.
The intimation to members stating the day, date, time, and place of meeting is known as ______________
(a) quorum
(b) agenda
(c) notice
Answer:
(c) notice

Question 2.
The notice of the general meeting must be sent to all members ______________ clear days before the meeting.
(a) 24
(b) 21
(c) 14
Answer:
(b) 21

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

Question 3.
The person who presides over the meeting is known as ______________
(a) Secretary
(b) Chairman
(c) Director
Answer:
(b) Chairman

Question 4.
A proxy can vote only in the case of voting by ______________
(a) division
(b) show of hand
(c) poll
Answer:
(c) poll

Question 5.
The appointment of an auditor requires ______________
(a) resolution requiring special notice
(b) an ordinary resolution
(c) a special resolution.
Answer:
(b) an ordinary resolution

Question 6.
A ______________ is the proposal put before the meeting for discussion and decision.
(a) Motion
(b) Resolution
(c) Minutes
Answer:
(a) Motion

Question 7.
The right of casting vote is given to the ______________
(a) Director
(b) Chairman
(c) Secretary
Answer:
(b) Chairman

Question 8.
Minutes must be recorded within ______________ days of the conclusion of the meeting.
(a) 60
(b) 21
(c) 15
Answer:
(c) 15

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

Question 9.
______________ resolutions are not passed in general meeting.
(a) Ordinary
(b) Special resolution
(c) Resolution by circulation
Answer:
(c) Resolution by circulation

Question 10.
For passing special resolution ______________ majority is required.
(a) 51%
(b) 66%
(c) 75%
Answer:
(c) 75%

Question 11.
For alterations in the Articles of Associations ______________ is required.
(a) a special resolution
(b) an ordinary resolution
(c) a resolution requiring a special notice
Answer:
(a) a special resolution

Question 12.
Provisions about resolutions are contained in ______________ of a company.
(a) Articles of Association
(b) Memorandum of Association
(c) Prospectus
Answer:
(a) Articles of Association

Question 13.
When a poll is demanded it must be taken within ______________ hours.
(a) 48
(b) 36
(c) 12
Answer:
(a) 48

1B. Match the pairs.

Question 1.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(a) Chairman (1) Proposal put before the meeting
(b) Quorum (2) Casting vote
(c) Motion (3) Amendment
(d) Minutes (4) Minimum number of members required for a valid meeting
(e) Notice (5) Voting
(f) Proxy (6) Maximum number of members required for a valid meeting
(7) Record of a meeting
(8) Accepted motion
(9) Intimation stating agenda, day, date, time and place of meeting
(10) Representative of a member
(11) Representative of a director
(12) Formal motion

Answer:

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(a) Chairman (2) Casting vote
(b) Quorum (4) Minimum number of members required for a valid meeting
(c) Motion (1) Proposal put before the meeting
(d) Minutes (7) Record of a meeting
(e) Notice (9) Intimation stating agenda, day, date, time and place of meeting
(f) Proxy (10) Representative of a member

1C. Write a word or a term or a phrase which can substitute each of the following statements.

Question 1.
The person who signs the minutes of the meeting.
Answer:
Chairman

Question 2.
A method of voting where members can vote in proportion to the number of shares held.
Answer:
Voting by-poll

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

Question 3.
A resolution passed by simple majority.
Answer:
Ordinary Resolution

Question 4.
A resolution passed by a 3/4 majority.
Answer:
Special Resolution

Question 5.
A company officer who is required to draft the minutes of the meeting.
Answer:
Secretary

Question 6.
A person who conducts the proceedings of the meeting.
Answer:
Chairman

1D. State whether the following statements are True or False.

Question 1.
Minutes are prepared before the meeting.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
A maximum number of members required to attend the meeting is called a Quorum.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

Question 3.
Meetings are held only to review the progress of the company.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Chairman has the right to conduct the meeting.
Answer:
True

1E. Find the odd one.

Question 1.
Next Business Motion, Previous Question Motion, Special Resolution.
Answer:
Special Resolution

Question 2.
Ordinary Resolution, Resolution requiring special notice, Substantive motion.
Answer:
Substantive Motion

1F. Complete the sentences.

Question 1.
The authority who can convene the general meeting of shareholders is ______________
Answer:
Board of Director

Question 2.
The advance intimation about the day, date, time, etc. of a meeting sent to the members is called as ______________
Answer:
Notice

Question 3.
The minimum number of members required to be present at a meeting is called as ______________
Answer:
Quorum

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

Question 4.
A person who attends a general meeting and votes on behalf of a member is called as ______________
Answer:
Proxy

Question 5.
A proposal put before a meeting for consideration and adoption is called as ______________
Answer:
Motion

Question 6.
A formal and final decision taken in a meeting is called as ______________
Answer:
Resolution

Question 7.
The written records of proceedings of a meeting is called as ______________
Answer:
Minutes

1G. Select the correct option from the bracket.

Question 1.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(1) Voting by-poll …………………
(2) ……………………… Special resolution
(3) Substantive Motion …………………..
(4) ……………………… Chairman

(Presides over the meeting, Proxy, an amended Motion, 3/4 or 75% majority)
Answer:

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(1) Voting by-poll Proxy
(2) 3/4 or 75% majority Special Resolution
(3) Substantive Motion an amended Motion
(4) Presides over a Meeting Chairman

1H. Answer in one sentence.

Question 1.
What are Minutes?
Answer:
Minutes are the written records of the proceedings of the meeting.

Question 2.
What is Notice?
Answer:
Notice is an advance intimation given by the company informing the day, date, time, and place of the meeting.

Question 3.
What is Ordinary Resolution?
Answer:
A resolution that is passed by a simple majority i.e., 50% or more is called Ordinary Resolution.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

Question 4.
What is the agenda?
Answer:
Agenda is a list of items to be discussed or things to be done at the meeting.

Question 5.
Who is Chairman?
Answer:
A chairman is a person who presides over a meeting.

Question 6.
What is the point of order?
Answer:
A point of order is an objection or question raised by any member regarding irregularity in the proceedings of the meeting.

1I. Correct the underlined word and rewrite the following sentences.

Question 1.
Minutes are prepared before the meeting.
Answer:
Minutes are prepared after the meeting.

Question 2.
Resolution is a proposal put before a meeting for discussion.
Answer:
Motion is a proposal put before a meeting for discussion.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

Question 3.
Polling papers are used for voting by show of hands.
Answer:
Polling papers are used for voting by-poll.

Question 4.
A Motion is a final decision taken in the meeting.
Answer:
A Resolution is a final decision taken in the meeting.

Question 5.
The agenda is prepared after the meeting.
Answer:
The agenda is prepared before the meeting.

1J. Arrange in proper order.

Question 1.
(a) Drafting Minutes
(b) Sending notice
(c) Confirming quorum
Answer:
(a) Sending Notice
(b) Confirming Quorum
(c) Drafting Minutes

Question 2.
(a) Motion
(b) Resolution
(c) Voting
Answer:
(a) Motion
(b) Voting
(c) Resolution

2. Explain the following terms/concepts:

Question 1.
Ordinary Resolution
Answer:
Ordinary Resolution (Section 114) A resolution that is passed by a simple majority i.e. 50% or more is called ordinary resolution. More than 50% of the votes should be in favour of the motion. An ordinary resolution need not be submitted to the Registrar of Companies. The notice of the meeting need not require to explain the particulars of an ordinary resolution.
Example:

  • Approval of Director’s report and Auditor report
  • Alteration of share capital
  • Declaration of dividend
  • Approval of final accounts
  • Election of director
  • Appointment of Secretary, Auditor, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

Question 2.
Agenda
Answer:
Agenda is a list of items to be discussed or things to be done or the business to be transacted at the meeting. It is sent along with the notice. A secretary prepares the agenda in consultation with the Chairman. The business at the meeting is transacted according to the order in which it appears in the agenda, routine matter first followed by special matters. The agenda is prepared as per the nature and the scope of the meeting.

Question 3.
Quorum
Answer:
Quorum (Section 103) is the minimum number of members required to be present for transacting a valid business. Without quorum proceeding of the meeting becomes invalid. The quorum should be present throughout the meeting i.e. from beginning till the end of the meeting. Secretary must check the quorum before the commencement of the meeting.

Question 4.
Proxy
Answer:
A proxy is a person, who can attend and vote at the meeting on behalf of an absent member. Every member of a company has a statutory right to appoint a proxy. When a member is not in a position to attend the meeting, he can appoint his representative. The representative of an absent member is called a Proxy. He has no right to speak at the meeting.

Question 5.
Amendment
Answer:
An amendment is any alteration proposed by a member to the original motion when a motion is under discussion. Amendments are generally moved to alter original motion by

  • Adding some new words or
  • Deleting some words or
  • Replacing some words or
  • Changing the position or place of words.

The amendment should be relevant to the main motion and it must not alter the original motion.

Question 6.
Motion
Answer:
A motion is a proposal put before the meeting for discussion and decision. A person who proposes a motion is called a proposer or a mover of a motion. A motion is subject to alteration before it is adopted by the meeting.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

Question 7.
Special Resolution
Answer:
The resolution which is passed by a special majority is called a Special resolution. It is passed by 3/4th or 75% majority. The purpose of passing this resolution should be mentioned in the notice of the meeting. A special resolution is passed in general meetings only. Notice of special resolution has to be given to the members 21 clear days before the meeting. A copy of the special resolution must be filed with the Registrar of companies through e-filing on the MCA portal within 30 days of passing the resolution.
Examples:

  • Change in the name of the company (Section 13).
  • Change in the registered office of the company from one state to another (Section 12).
  • Alteration in the object clause of the company.
  • Reduction in the authorized share capital of the company.
  • Alteration in the Articles of Association of the company (Section 14)

Question 8.
Notice
Answer:
Proper notice must be given to a proper person for a valid meeting. Notice is an advance intimation given by the company informing the day, date, time, and place of meeting and business to be transacted at the meeting. It is given in writing to all those who are entitled to receive it. In case of general meeting, 21 days clear notice before meeting and 7 days in case of the Board meeting.

Question 9.
Minutes
Answer:
Minutes are the written records of proceedings of a meeting. It is a summary of all discussions and decisions taken at the meeting. It is a concise and accurate record of business transacted at the meeting. Minutes are prepared by the secretary within 15 days after the meeting. Minutes are recorded in minutes book and written in the past tense. After preparing minutes, it should be passed in consecutive meetings. Minutes book for General meetings and Board meetings are maintained separately.

Question 10.
Point of order
Answer:
A point of order is a question or objection raised by any member when he wants to point out an irregularity in the proceedings of the meeting. It is raised to draw the attention of the chairman.
The point of order can be raised on the following points:

  • Absence of quorum
  • Breach of any rule related to meeting
  • Misbehavior of any member
  • Unparliamentary or Improper language used by any member.

3. Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

1. XYZ Ltd Co. sent notice of its Annual General meeting to its members. In the meeting, a resolution is to be passed on altering the Articles of Association.

Question (a).
Should agenda also be sent with Notice?
Answer:
Yes, the agenda should be sent along with the notice.

Question (b).
What type of resolution is needed to alter the Articles?
Answer:
A special resolution is needed to alter the Articles of Association.

Question (c).
Should the resolution for altering articles be filed with the Registrar of Companies?
Answer:
A copy of the special resolution passed for altering Articles of Association must be filed with the Registrar of Companies within 30 days of its passing.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

2. A General meeting of a public limited company is to be held. State the provision of quorum for-

Question (a).
meeting of the company which has less than 1000 members?
Answer:
The quorum for less than 1000 members is 5 members.

Question (b).
meeting of the company which has more than 5000 members?
Answer:
The quorum for more than 5000 members is 30 members.

Question (c).
meeting of the company which has 2500 members?
Answer:
The quorum for 2500 members is 15 members.

3. Mr. P is elected as chairman of the General Meeting. Please advise him on the following matters:

Question (a).
What should be done if the votes cast in favour and against the motion are equal?
Answer:
A chairman of the general meeting (Mr. P) can exercise casting votes in case of a tie in votes.

Question (b).
How many votes can a member cast under the poll method?
Answer:
Under the poll method, a member can cast his votes as per the number of shares held by him. ‘One shares One vote’ is a rule.
Eg. If Mr. A has 100 shares, he can cast 100 votes.

Question (c).
What should Mr. P do if any point of order is raised by a member?
Answer:
If the point of order is raised, Mr. P has to stop discussion on an original motion under discussion and give his ruling/decision immediately on point of order.

4. Distinguish between the following.

Question 1.
Agenda and Minutes
Answer:

Basis Agenda Minutes
1. Meaning Agenda is a list of ‘the things to be done or ‘business to be transacted at the meeting. Minutes are the record of the business transacted, resolutions passed and decisions arrived at by the meeting.
2. Contents Agenda, generally contains ‘what is to be done, motions, etc. Minutes generally contain ‘what has been done, resolution, etc.
3. When Prepared The agenda is prepared before the meeting. Minutes are prepared after the conclusion of the meeting.
4. Tense It is written in the future tense. It is always in the past tense.
5. Importance Agenda enables the members to know, what business the meeting is going to transact. The Chairman also can conduct the meeting as per the agenda. Minutes are evidence of the decisions taken at a meeting. Even an absent member can know about the proceedings of the meeting.
6. Legal Status Agenda has no legal importance. The Companies Act has not provided any rules regarding the drafting of an agenda. Minutes are the legal evidence of resolutions passed at the meeting. It provides abstract proof of the proceedings at the meeting. It can even be produced in the court of law as a legal document.
7. Approval The agenda is prepared by the secretary and approved by the Chairman, but no approval of the members is required. Minutes are prepared by the secretary and approved by the members, finally, it is confirmed by the Chairman.
8. Alterations Alterations in the order of items in an agenda can be made if the members attending the meeting agree to it. Minutes once recorded in the minute book, signed by the Chairman, and confirmed by the members cannot be altered.

Question 2.
Motion and Resolution
Answer:

Basis Motion Resolution
1. Meaning Motion is a written proposal placed before the meeting for discussion and decision. Resolution is a duly approved and accepted motion in the meeting.
2. Amendment Motion can be amended before it is put to vote. Resolution once passed, cannot be amended.
3. Recording A motion is not recorded in the minute’s book of a meeting. All resolutions must be recorded in the minute book of a meeting.
4. Filing The motion need not be filed with the Registrar of Companies. Special resolutions are required to be filed with the Registrar of the Companies within 30 days of the date of its passing.
5. Withdrawal It may be withdrawn by mover before it is put to vote. Once it is approved, it cannot be withdrawn.
6. Evidence It can not be used as evidence. It can be used as legal evidence.
7. Types Motion can be (a) Formal motion (b) Substantive motion Resolution can be (a) Ordinary resolution (b) Special resolution

Question 3.
Voting by show of hands and Voting by-poll.
Answer:

Basis Voting by show of hands Voting by-poll
1. Meaning Voting by show of hands is a method of voting in which members cast their votes by raising their hands. Voting by-poll is a method in which every member is given a paper to record their votes according to the number of shares held by them.
2. Secrecy Votes are given openly, hence secrecy is not maintained. Votes are recorded on voting papers, hence secrecy is maintained.
3. Voting by Proxy Proxies are not allowed to vote under this method. Proxies can vote only in this method.
4. No. of Votes ‘One man One vote’ is the principle of voting. ‘One share One vote’ is the principle of voting.
5. Effect The decision by show of hands is canceled, if the poll is demanded. The decision taken by-poll is final and it cannot be canceled.
6. Nature It is a democratic method of voting. It is a capitalistic method of voting.

5. Answer in brief.

Question 1.
State the importance of company meetings.
Answer:
The term meeting is derived from the Latin word ‘Maeta’ means ‘face to face.
A meeting may be defined as ‘Any gathering or assembly or coming together of two or more persons for transacting some lawful business of a common concern.’ – P.K.Ghosh.

Importance of Company Meetings:

  • Members get the opportunity to come together and discuss the work and progress of the company.
  • Minutes of the last meeting is read, which enables the absent and present member to get a clear idea about the matters discussed in the previous meeting.
  • It enables the management to discuss and decide about their policies, plan, programs, etc, and its implementation.
  • Problems faced by the company can be discussed at the meeting and a decision can be arrived.
  • Legal formalities related to convening and conducting meetings of the company are fulfilled by conducting meetings.
  • Appointment of directors and auditors, declaration of dividend, approvals of the annual report, financial statements, auditors report, etc. can be done in the meetings.
  • Strict action can be taken against defaulters in the meeting.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

Question 2.
State the legal provisions regarding Proxy.
Answer:
Legal Provisions regarding Proxy are as follows:

  • Appointment: Any member of a company entitled to attend and vote at the meeting shall be entitled to appoint a proxy to attend and vote at the meeting on his behalf. A minor cannot be appointed as a proxy. The proxy cannot be appointed for the Board Meeting. The appointment of a proxy is valid for an adjourned meeting.
  • Right: A proxy is not allowed to speak at the meeting. The proxy can vote only on resolutions passed by voting by-poll.
  • Membership: A person appointed as a proxy need not be a member of the company.
  • Proxy form: A member appointing a proxy must submit a duly completed proxy form in the registered office of the company at least 48 hours before the meeting.
  • Inspection: A member can inspect any proxy form by giving not less than three days’ notice to the company.

Question 3.
When can the point of order be raised?
Answer:
A point of order is a question or objection raised by any member when he wants to point out an irregularity in the proceedings of the meeting. It is raised to draw the attention of the chairman.
The point of order can be raised on the following points:

  • Absence of quorum
  • Breach of any rule related to meeting
  • Misbehaviour of any member
  • Unparliamentary or improper language used by any member.

When the point of order is raised, discussion on the original motion is stopped for some time. The chairman gives his decision on point of order. The decision given by the chairman is final and binding on the meeting.

Question 4.
Explain any four methods of Voting?
Answer:
Methods of Voting:
(i) Voting by Voice:
In this method, the members are requested to say ‘Yes’ if they favour the motion or say ‘No’ if they are against the motion. The decision is taken on the basis of the volume of voice. This method is rarely used. The volume of voice may not give a clear and correct idea about the majority of votes.

(ii) Voting by Division:
In this method, present members are divided into two groups. Members in favour and those against the motion are asked to go to different rooms. Then the sense of the meeting is ascertained by counting and the chairman declares the result.

(iii) Voting by show of Hands:
This method is used in the general meetings of a company. After the discussion on the motion, the Chairman requests the members to raise their hands in favour or against the motion. The chairman declares the result by counting a number of hands in favour or against the proposal. ‘One man One vote’ is the principle.

(iv) Voting by Poll:
The poll can be demanded after the declaration of result by show of hands. Under this method, each member can vote in proportion to the number of shares held by him. ‘One share One vote’ is the principle. Polling papers are given to members and proxies for recording their votes. The result of the poll is final and not to be challenged.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

Question 4.
State the importance of Minutes.
Answer:
The importance of Minutes are as follows:

  • Official record: Minutes provide a ready reference to all the activities related to the meeting. It is the most important, official, and authentic record on which people can trust.
  • Evidence: Minutes can be used as prima facie evidence in a court of law.
  • Future reference: Minutes is a permanent record. It can be used for taking future managerial decisions.
  • Legal provisions: Minutes are prepared in order to comply with the provisions of the Companies Act and Secretarial Standard.
  • Information to absent members: Minutes help the absent members to know the proceedings of the meeting, as it is not always possible for everyone to attend the meeting.
  • Reminder: The matters discussed at the meeting are noted down in minutes. It acts as a reminder to the concerned people.
  • Information about resolution: The motion and discussion on the motion are reflected in the resolution. Interested parties can always refer to the text of a resolution when there is contradiction or confusion.
  • Inspection of Minutes: As per the Companies Act, Minutes Book should be kept at the registered office of the company and every member has right to inspect the Minutes book at the general meetings.

6. Justify the following statements.

Question 1.
The meeting must be duly convened and properly constituted.
Answer:

  • A meeting is defined as Any gathering assembly or coming together of two or more persons for the transaction of some lawful business of the common concern.
  • A meeting becomes valid when it is duly convened and properly constituted.
  • A meeting should be convened by proper authority.
  • It must be convened as per the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.
  • Notice and Agenda of the meeting must be given 21 clear days before the meeting to all those who are entitled to receive it.
  • Thus, meetings must be duly convened and properly constituted.

Question 2.
Chairman is responsible for the proper conduct of meetings.
Answer:

  • A Chairman is a person who presides over a meeting.
  • There should be a proper person in the chair i.e. chairman to conduct the proceedings of the meeting smoothly, fairly, and properly.
  • A chairman should maintain overall discipline in the meeting.
  • A chairman has to maintain order at the debate and decide the priority of speakers so that members can get a chance to express their views.
  • A chairman should give his ruling on point of order at the earliest.
  • A chairman can initiate an order for voting and declare the result of voting.
  • A chairman must prevent improper behaviour, if any, by the member and prevent the use of unparliamentary language.
  • Thus, Chairman is responsible for the proper conduct of meetings.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

Question 3.
Motion can be amended.
Answer:

  • A motion is a proposal put before the meeting for discussion and decision.
  • The amendment is an alteration proposed by a member to the original motion under discussion.
  • Amendment can be done by adding some new words or deleting some words in the original motion.
  • Amendment can be done by replacing some words or by changing the position of words to the original motion.
  • The amendment should be relevant to the original motion.
  • The amendment is done to make the original motion more effective and meaningful.
  • Amendment can be accepted or rejected. If accepted, it is considered for discussion. If approved by the meeting, it is incorporated in the original motion.
  • Thus, the motion can be amended.

Question 4.
The proxy can not speak in the meeting.
Answer:

  • A proxy is a representative of a member.
  • A proxy can attend and vote on behalf of an absent member.
  • If a member is not in a position to attend the meeting, he can appoint a proxy on his behalf.
  • A proxy need not be a member of the company.
  • A minor cannot be appointed as a proxy.
  • A proxy has no right to speak at the meeting.
  • A proxy can vote only under the poll method.
  • A member appointing a proxy must submit the proxy form in the registered office of the company at least 48 hours before the meeting.
  • Thus, Proxy can not speak in the meeting.

Question 5.
Notice is issued to members for a meeting along with the agenda.
Answer:

  • Notice is an advance intimation given by the company informing the day, date, time, and place of the meeting.
  • Agenda is given along with notice so that members can come well prepared for the meeting.
  • Members come to know about the matters to be discussed at the meeting.
  • If a member is not in a position to attend the meeting, he can appoint a proxy.
  • Member can advise his proxy to vote on certain matters.
  • Thus, a Notice is issued to members for a meeting along with the agenda.

7. Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
Explain the powers and duties of the chairman.
Answer:
A chairman is a person who presides over a meeting. There should be a proper person in the chair i.e. chairman to conduct the proceedings of the meeting smoothly, fairly, and properly.

Powers of Chairman:

  • To maintain order and conduct the meeting properly.
  • To maintain order at the debate.
  • To decide the priority of speakers.
  • To prevent improper behaviour and unparliamentary language.
  • To adjourn the meeting.
  • To exercise a casting vote.
  • To declare the result of the voting.
  • To give a ruling on point of order.

Duties of Chairman:

  • To see that the meeting is duly convened and properly constituted.
  • To see that the meeting is held according to the rules.
  • To see that the items are discussed as per the order of the agenda.
  • To maintain overall discipline in the meeting.
  • To give a fair chance to members to express their views.
  • To declare the result of voting.
  • To check and sign minutes book.
  • To act in the best interest of the company.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

Question 2.
Explain the different methods of voting.
Answer:
Different methods of voting are as follows:
(i) Voting by voice:
In this method, the members are requested to say “Yes’ if they favour the motion or say ‘No’ if they are against the motion. The decision is taken on the basis of the volume of voice. This method is rarely used. The volume of voice may not give a clear and correct idea about the majority of votes.

(ii) Voting by division:
In this method, present members are divided into two groups. Members in favour and those against the motion are asked to go to different rooms. Then the sense of the meeting is ascertained by counting and the chairman declares the result.

(iii) Voting by ballot:
Under this method, every member entitled to vote is asked to record the vote on a ballot paper and deposit it in the ballot box. The votes are counted and the result is declared. This method ensures secrecy in voting.

(iv) Voting by show of hands:
This method is used in the general meetings of a company. After the discussion on the motion, the Chairman requests the members to raise their hands in favour or against the motion. The chairman declares the result by counting a number of hands in favour or against the proposal. ‘One man One vote’ is the principle.

(v) Voting electronically:
The Central Government may prescribe certain companies for having compulsory electronic voting in general meeting. Members may exercise his right to vote by electronic means.

(vi) Voting by postal ballot:
The Central Government may prescribe certain companies for having voting by postal ballot. Ballot papers are sent by post to members.

(vii) Voting by Poll:
Poll can be demanded after the declaration of result by show of hands. Under this method each member can vote in proportion to the number of shares held by him. ‘One share One vote’ is the principle. Polling papers are given to members and proxies for recording their votes. The result of poll is final and not to be challenged.

Question 3.
Explain the types of resolution.
Answer:
Types of Resolution:
(i) Ordinary Resolution:
A resolution which is passed by simple majority is called ordinary resolution. More than 50% of the votes should be in favour of motion. An ordinary resolution need not be submitted to the Registrar of Companies. The notice of the meeting need not require to explain the particulars of an ordinary resolution.

Examples:

  • Approval of Directors report and Auditor report.
  • Alteration of share capital
  • Declaration of dividend, etc.

(ii) Special Resolution:
The resolution which is passed by special majority is called as Special resolution. It is passed by 3/4th or 75% majority. The purpose of passing this resolution should be mentioned in the notice of the meeting. A special resolution is passed in general meeting only. Notice of special resolution has to be given to the members 21 clear days before the meeting. A copy of special resolution must be filed with the Registrar of Companies through e-filing on MCA portal within 30 days of passing resolution.

Examples:

  • Change in the name of the company.
  • Change in the registered office of the company from one state to another.
  • Alteration in the object clause of company, etc.

(iii) Resolution requiring special notice:
Some resolutions require special notice as per the companies Act or Articles of Association of the company, hence such resolutions are called resolution requiring special notice. Special Notice resolution may be ordinary or special resolution. A proposer of a motion has to give a special notice of 14 days to the company. The company should then give a notice of that resolution to all members atleast 7 days before the meeting.

Examples:

  • Resolution to appoint a person as an auditor other than a retiring auditors.
  • A resolution providing that a retiring auditor shall not be reappointed.
  • Resolution to appoint director other than retiring director, etc.

(iv) Resolution requiring registration:
Resolution which are required to be registered with the Registrar of Companies are called as resolution requiring registration. Resolution should be filed with Registrar within 30 days of its passing.

Examples:

  • All special resolutions.
  • Resolution made by Board of Directors regarding appointment or re-appointment of Managing director.
  • Resolution by members regarding dissolution of the company, etc.

(v) Resolution by Circulation:
When directors have to take important and urgent decisions and do not have a sufficient time to call a meeting, then a draft resolution is prepared and forwarded to all directors to pass resolution. It is called as resolution by circulation.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 7 Company Meetings - I

Activity: (Textbook Page No. 113)

Prepare an agenda for a meeting to discuss holding of Annual Day.
Answer:

AGENDA
Agenda for “Utsav – 2019”.
Annual day of Reliable Junior College, Mahim.

  1. To discuss the date, venue and time for Utsav – 2019.
  2. To decide and invite Chief guest for innaguration.
  3. To set up the various committees – Cultural Committee, Welcoming Committee, Refreshment Committee, Security Committee, Stage Committee.
  4. To assign the responsibilities to the various committees.
  5. To issue special passes for the VIP’s and guest.
  6. To fix the budget for the annual day.
  7. To decide the vendor for Momentos and Medals.

 

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

1A. Select the correct answer from the options given below and rewrite the statements.

Question 1.
_____________ comprises of a team of Directors.
(a) Board of Directors
(b) Board of Trustees
(c) Board of Managers
Answer:
(a) Board of Directors

Question 2.
_____________ can be a director.
(a) An Individual
(b) A Firm
(c) A Body corporate
Answer:
(a) An individual

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 3.
Upto _____________ as maximum directors are allowed to a company.
(a) five
(b) fifteen
(c) fifty
Answer:
(b) fifteen

Question 4.
A maximum of _____________ Directorships is allowed to a person.
(a) two
(b) ten
(c) twenty
Answer:
(c) twenty

Question 5.
A maximum of _____________ Directorships of a public company is allowed to a person.
(a) one
(b) ten
(c) twenty
Answer:
(b) ten

Question 6.
_____________ is a unique identification number required to be a Director.
(a) PIN
(b) DIN
(c) TIN
Answer:
(b) DIN

Question 7.
_____________ powers are the powers given to Board under the Act.
(a) Statutory
(b) Managerial
(c) Administrative
Answer:
(a) Statutory

Question 8.
Director represents company in his role as _____________
(a) Agent
(b) Managing Partner
(c) employee
Answer:
(a) Agent

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 9.
Managing Director is appointed for a period of _____________ years
(a) 5
(b) 10
(c) 15
Answer:
(a) 5

Question 10.
_____________ is required to work under superintendence, control, guidance of the Board.
(a) Government
(b) ROC
(c) Managing Director
Answer:
(c) Managing Director

Question 11.
_____________ is an employee of the company.
(a) Alternate director
(b) Non-executive Director
(c) Whole-time director
Answer:
(c) Whole time Director

Question 12.
_____________ need not be a director of the company.
(a) Manager
(b) Managing Director
(c) Whole-time director
Answer:
(a) Manager

Question 13.
_____________ needs a whole time director.
(a) Listed company
(b) Partnership
(c) OPC
Answer:
(a) Listed company

Question 14.
To provide guidance to Board is _____________ duty of Company Secretary.
(a) Personal
(b) General
(c) Statutory
Answer:
(c) Statutory

Question 15.
Only a member of _____________ can be a practicing Company Secretary.
(a) ICAI
(b) ACCA
(c) ICSI
Answer:
(c) ICSI

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 16.
_____________ is to be prepared in prescribed form MR-3.
(a) Annual Report
(b) Auditors Report
(c) Secretarial Audit Report
Answer:
(c) Secretarial Audit Report

1B. Match the pairs.

Question 1.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(a) Board of Directors (1) Nominated by the Board
(b) Managing Director (2) Assists and advises the Board
(c) Company Secretary (3) Automatic Appointment
(d) First Directors (4) Appointed by ROC
(e) Alternate Director (5) Extensive Powers of management
(6) Substantial Powers of management
(7) Appointed by Promoter
(8) Assist and Advises the Government
(9) Negligible Powers of management
(10) Nominated by Council

Answer:

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(a) Board of Directors (5) Extensive Powers of management
(b) Managing Director (6) Substantial Powers of management
(c) Company Secretary (2) Assists and advises the Board
(d) First Directors (7) Appointed by Promoter
(e) Alternate Director (1) Nominated by the Board

Question 2.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(a) Public company (1) Arises due to death of Director
(b) Private company (2) Collective Powers
(c) Secretarial Auditor (3) Individual Powers to Directors
(d) Casual Vacancy of a Director (4) Arises due to additional work
(e) Powers of the Board (5) Appointed by Managing Director
(6) At least 2 (two) Directors
(7) At least 3 (three) Directors
(8) At least 15 (fifteen) Directors
(9) At least 1 (one) Director
(10) Appointed by the Board

Answer:

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(a) Public company (7) At least 3 (three) Directors
(b) Private company (6) At least 2 (two) Directors
(c) Secretarial Auditor (10) Appointed by the Board
(d) Casual Vacancy of a Director (1) Arises due to death of Director
(e) Powers of the Board (2) Collective Powers

1C. Write a word or a term or a phrase that can substitute each of the following statements.

Question 1.
The organization with distinct features of separate ownership and management.
Answer:
Joint-stock company

Question 2.
The officer is responsible for the company’s finances.
Answer:
Chief Financial Officer

Question 3.
The body of elected representatives of the company.
Answer:
The Board of Directors

Question 4.
The officer is a statutory and administrative officer and also acts as co-ordinator of the company.
Answer:
Company Secretary

Question 5.
Qualification required to be a Company Secretary.
Answer:
Member of ICSI

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 6.
Agents, Trustees, and Managing Partners of the company.
Answer:
The Board of Directors

Question 7.
The audit which checks compliances of different legislations.
Answer:
Secretarial audit

Question 8.
This KMP signs documents of the company requiring authentication by the company.
Answer:
Company Secretary

Question 9.
The nature of the relationship of Directors with the company.
Answer:
Fiduciary

Question 10.
Name the Secretarial Standard – 1.
Answer:
Secretarial Standards on meetings of the BOD

Question 11.
Name the Secretarial Standard – 2.
Answer:
Secretarial Standards on General Meeting

Question 12.
Name the Secretarial Standard – 3.
Answer:
Secretarial Standards on Dividend

1D. State whether the following statements are True or False.

Question 1.
A large number of shareholders necessitates the company to have a separate managerial body.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
The maximum number of Directors allowed to a company is 15 (fifteen).
Answer:
True

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 3.
A public company should have a minimum of 10 (ten) directors.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
DIN is required for Secretaryship.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Executive Director is called an outside Director.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
The promoter of a company cannot be the Independent Director.
Answer:
True

Question 7.
Only individuals can be directors.
Answer:
True

Question 8.
The casual vacancy of the Board is filled by the members.
Answer:
False

Question 9.
To function as per Articles of Association of the company is the statutory duty of the Board.
Answer:
True

Question 10.
A Director is an employee of the company.
Answer:
False

Question 11.
The Managing Director is appointed by a resolution.
Answer:
True

Question 12.
The minimum and maximum age to be a Managing Director is 21 and 70 respectively.
Answer:
True

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 13.
A company may appoint more than one M.D.
Answer:
True

Question 14.
Indian companies prefer a Managing Director over a Manager.
Answer:
True

1E. Find the odd one.

Question 1.
Woman Director, Promoter, Executive Director.
Answer:
Promoter

Question 2.
Absent at Board Meeting, failure to disclose an interest, DIN.
Answer:
DIN

1F. Complete the sentences.

Question 1.
Separate ownership and management is a unique feature of _____________
Answer:
Company

Question 2.
Minimum number of Directors for a private company should be _____________
Answer:
Two

Question 3.
Minimum number of Directors for a public company should be _____________
Answer:
Three

Question 4.
Minimum number of Directors for an OPC should be _____________
Answer:
One

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 5.
First Directors of a company are appointed by _____________
Answer:
Promoter

Question 6.
At least one Woman Director is required by _____________ company.
Answer:
Listed Company

Question 7.
Casual vacancy on Board is filled by _____________
Answer:
Board

Question 8.
Director is the guardian of interest of company as _____________
Answer:
Trustees

Question 9.
First Secretary is appointed by _____________
Answer:
Promoters

Question 10.
The audit which checks the compliance of Companies Act is called as _____________
Answer:
Secretarial Audit

1G. Select the correct option from the bracket.

Question 1.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(1) Rotational Director …………………..
(2) ………………………. Alternate Director
(3) Woman Director …………………..
(4) ………………………. First Director

(Every Listed Company, Appointee by Promoters, Appointed in Place of a director who is absent, Retire by Rotation)
rotation)
Answer:

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(1) Rotational Director Retire by Rotation
(2) Appointed in Place of a director who is absent Alternate Director
(3) Woman Director Every Listed Company
(4) Appointee by Promoters First Director

1H. Answer in one sentence.

Question 1.
Who is the officer responsible for the company’s financial plan?
Answer:
Chief Financial Officer is responsible for the company’s financial plan.

Question 2.
What is the importance of Secretarial Standards?
Answer:
The main aim of Secretarial Standards is to standardize all diverse secretarial practices prevailing in the corporate world.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 3.
Who provides guidance to the Board of Directors?
Answer:
Company Secretary provides guidance to the Board of Directors.

Question 4.
What is the tenure of ‘Managing Director?
Answer:
The tenure of the Managing director is Five Years.

1I. Correct the underlined word and rewrite the following sentences.

Question 1.
A public company must have a minimum of 15 directors.
Answer:
A public company must have a minimum of 03 directors.

Question 2.
First Directors are appointed by ROC.
Answer:
First Directors are appointed by Promoters.

Question 3.
Secretarial Standards are given by the Companies Act, 2013.
Answer:
Secretarial Standards are given by the Institute of Company Secretaries of India.

2. Explain the following terms/concepts.

Question 1.
Director
Answer:
Director is a person appointed to manage, direct and supervise the company. According to Sec-2(34) of the act, “Director means a director appointed to the Board of the company”.

Question 2.
Managing Director
Answer:
Managing Director is a director appointed by virtue of an agreement with the company; or by passing a resolution in the general meeting or by its Board of Directors or by virtue of Memorandum of Associations or Articles of Association. He is entrusted with substantial powers of management of the affairs of the company. He is appointed for a period of 5 years.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 3.
Independent Director
Answer:
As per section 149 of the Companies Act, 2013, any director other than a managing director, whole-time director, or a nominee director is termed as an independent director.

Question 4.
Executive Director
Answer:
Executive Director is also called as ‘Whole Time Director’, He is in full-time employment with the company. He plays an important role in the day-to-day management of the company.

Question 5.
Non-Executive Director
Answer:
Non-Executive Director is known as ‘Outside Director’. Non-Executive Director is not involved in the day-to-day management of the company. He is appointed to get second opinions from the board.

Question 6.
Alternate Director
Answer:
Alternate Director is a director who is nominated by the board in the place of absence director. He is appointed for a minimum of 3 months.

Question 7.
Casual vacancy of Director
Answer:
The casual vacancy is created due to the death of a director, which is filled by the board at the board meeting. It is valid till the vacating director’s incomplete term.

Question 8.
Chief Financial officer
Answer:
An officer responsible for the company’s finances is called Chief Financial Officer. He need not be a director of the company. He has to compulsory sign the audited financial statements of the company.

Question 9.
Company Secretary
Answer:
The company secretary is appointed to perform functions of the company and he is appointed by a resolution of the Board. He has to follow the terms and conditions decided by the board. He should be a member of ICSI.

Question 10.
Secretarial Standard
Answer:
It is formulated by ICSI and approved by Central Government through the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA). The main purpose of setting Secretarial Standards is to standardized fine corporate government practices prevailing in companies.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 11.
Secretarial Audit
Answer:
It is an audit that monitors the compliance requirements of the company. The main aim of such an audit is to detect errors and mistakes in compliance with the rules and regulations of the Companies Act. It builds confidence among regulators, management, and shareholders of the company.

Question 12.
The Board of Directors
Answer:
Representatives elected by the Equity Shareholder in their Annual General Meeting are called as Board of Directors. They are allotted certain powers to control and manage the business of the firms.

3. Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

1. Mr. A is a commerce graduate. He has vast experience in the field of finance and the financial market. He wishes to become a director of PQR Co. Ltd.

Question (a).
Is he required to obtain DIN?
Answer:
He was required to obtain DIN. It is compulsory to acquire DIN for every Director.

Question (b).
Can PQR Co. Ltd. object to his directorship on lack of specialized qualification?
Answer:
The company act has not prescribed any academic or professional qualification for directors, so he can obtain directorship.

Question (c).
If he is appointed as director of PQR Co. Ltd, is he entitled to remuneration?
Answer:
The managerial position entitles him to get managerial remuneration so if Mr. A is appointed as director of PQR Co. Ltd then he is entitled to remuneration.

2. Mr. Z is a member of the Institute of Company Secretaries of India.

Question (a).
Can Mr. Z be appointed as pro-tem Secretary of LMN Ltd. which is under formation?
Answer:
Yes, Mr. Z can be appointed as pro-tem secretary of LMN Ltd. which is under formation. The First Secretary is appointed by the promoters of the company.

Question (b).
Can Mr. Z work as Secretarial Auditor?
Answer:
Yes, Mr. Z can work as Secretarial Auditor because he is a member of ICSI.

Question (c).
Mr. Z wishes to be employed as whole time Secretary in companies ABC Ltd. and OPC Ltd. Is he allowed?
Answer:
Mr. Z, as a whole-time secretary, cannot hold office in more than one company. So, Mr. Z can be employed either in ABC Ltd or One Person Company and not in both.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

3. Mr. M wishes to be the Managing director of QRS Ltd.

Question (a).
The age of Mr. M is 30 years. Can he be appointed as MD of a company?
Answer:
Yes, Mr. M is 30 years old and the age required to be completed for MD’s post is 21 years. So he can be appointed as MD of a Company.

Question (b).
Is it necessary that Mr. M should be one of the directors on the Board of QRS Ltd?
Answer:
Yes, It is necessary that Mr. M should be one of the directors on the board of QRS Ltd. He should be appointed by the board.

Question (c).
For how long a period QRS Ltd. can appoint Mr. M. as a Managing Director?
Answer:
QRS Ltd can appoint Mr. M. as a managing director for a period of 5 years.

4. Distinguish between the following.

Question 1.
Director and Managing Director
Answer:

Basis Director Managing Director
1. Meaning Director is the elected representative of the shareholders of the company. The managing director represents the board in the day-to-day activities of the business.
2. Appointment He is elected at the Annual General Meeting by the members of the company. He is appointed by the board of directors.
3. Tenure Directors of public companies retire by rotation. Maximum tenure is of 3 years, 1/3 of Independent Director is not liable to retire by rotation. The tenure of managing director is for a term of five years.
4. Remuneration Remuneration for services is given as per specific provisions. The director is given sitting fees to attend the board meeting which may extend up to ₹ 1 lakh plus remuneration. M.D is entitled to either a monthly salary or 5 % of the net profit. If more than one M.D. is appointed then maximum remuneration cannot be more than 10% of the net profit.
5. Status Directors are elected representatives of the shareholders managing company in absence of shareholders. They can be agents of the company but not employees of the company. Managing Director has dual status i.e. a director and a manager (employee).
6. Positions held Director is the only member or person on the board. The managing director is the director on the Board. M.D. is the whole time manager in the company.
7. Number of companies Director can work in 20 companies at a time wherein a maximum of 10 public companies at a time. A person can be an M.D. of a maximum of 2 companies at a time.

Question 2.
Managing Director and Manager
Answer:

Basis Managing Director Manager
1. Meaning The Managing Director is appointed by the Board to look after the day-to-day administration of the company. The manager is in charge of the whole management affairs of the company.
2. Appointment The managing director is appointed by an agreement with the company or by resolution passed by the company in a Board meeting or by virtue of its Articles of Associations of the company. The manager is appointed under a contract of service.
3. Remuneration MD is entitled to either a monthly salary or 5% of net profit. If there is more than one managing director, the maximum remuneration payable is 10% of the net profit. Maximum remuneration to a manager cannot be more than 5% of the net profit.
4. Number of posts A company may have more than one Managing Director. He can be M.D. in maximum of 2 companies. The company can have only one post of manager.
5. Power He is given substantial powers of management. He is entrusted with whole powers of management.
6. Position held The managing director must be the director of the company. The manager need not be a director of the company.

Question 3.
Managing Director and Whole Time Director
Answer:

Basis Managing Director Whole Time Director
1. Meaning The managing director represents the board in the day-to-day management of the company. The whole time director devotes whole time to the working of the company.
2. Powers The Managing Director is given substantial powers of management. A whole-time director does not have the power to take decisions on policy matters.
3. Number of posts A person can be an M.D. of a maximum of 2 companies at a time. More than one whole-time directorship is not possible at a time.
4. Performance He manages the affairs and business of the company. He performs important administrative functions of the company.

5. Answer in brief.

Question 1.
What is DIN?
Answer:

  • It means Director Identification Number.
  • DIN is a Unique Identification Number for an existing director or person intending to be the director of a company.
  • It is compulsory to acquire DIN by Director.
  • It helps in the detection and handling of offenses committed by a director.
  • It is obtained through an online process by filing an application.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 2.
State any four powers of the Board of Directors.
Answer:

  • Director is a person appointed to manage, direct and supervise the affairs of the company.
  • The power of the Board of Directors are as follows:
  • To appoint or remove key managerial personnel: The Board of Directors has the power to appoint and remove key managerial personnel.
  • To recommend dividend: The board of directors recommends the dividend to the shareholders.
  • To fill a casual vacancy in the Board: Casual vacancy in the board arises due to different reasons such as the death of a director who is filled by the Board at the Board meeting.
  • To issue securities whether in India or abroad: Board of Director’s issue securities means shares, debentures, bonds) in India and abroad also.

Question 3.
Mention any four ways in which the office of a director becomes vacant.
Answer:
The office of a Director shall automatically become vacant in the following ways:

  • Any disqualification: A person cannot be appointed as a director if he is of unsound mind or insolvent or convicted by the court.
  • Absentee at Board meeting: Director who has been absent in the meeting of the board of directors held during the period of 12 months with or without taking leave of absence of the Board.
  • Disqualification by Court or Tribunal: Director has to vacate office if he has been disqualified by an order of a court or the Tribunal.
  • Provision of the Act: Director has to vacate office if he is removed under the provisions of the Companies Act.

Question 4.
State the powers of a Managing Director.
Answer:
As it is stated in the definition itself the Managing Director is entrusted with the substantial powers of management, which clearly indicates that he has been given certain important powers of routine business matters of a company.
The powers exercised by him are fellows:

  • To act as a link between the Board of Directors and the managerial staff.
  • To look after the management and administration of a company.
  • To appoint the company employees.
  • To participate in policymaking as well as policy execution.
  • To sign contracts on behalf of a company.
  • To decide about the investment of funds of a company.
  • To receive remuneration from a company.

Question 5.
State the statutory duties of a company secretary.
Answer:
Secretary is an employee of the company. He enjoys the power and advises the management.
Statutory duties of a company secretary are as follows:

  • To organize meetings and be present at all the meetings of the company.
  • To maintain the minutes of all meetings.
  • To issue notices and circulars to the members of the company.
  • To maintain and update the Register of members and debenture holders and other books of the company.
  • To file all necessary returns with the Registrar of Companies.
  • To communicate with the shareholders on various matters.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

6. Justify the following statements.

Question 1.
Directors are managing partners.
Answer:

  • Directors have to work as a team as Board of Directors, not as an individual.
  • The powers by Board are subject to provisions of the Companies Act and Memorandum and Articles of Associations.
  • Director is required to perform his functions.
  • He represents shareholders to conduct and manage the business of the company on their behalf.
  • They are entrusted with vast powers of management and perform several functions which are proprietary in nature like allotment of shares, raising of loans, investing funds of the company.
  • This is because they themselves are significant shareholders of the company.
  • In fact, they are the most active shareholders of the company.
  • Thus, Directors are the managing partners of the company.

Question 2.
A Director is an agent of the company.
Answer:

  • Since the company is an artificial person, it needs to be represented by the Director.
  • They deal on behalf of the company.
  • Directors should deal skillfully, carefully, and diligently.
  • Directors are held liable as an, while company is held liable as the principal.
  • A Director is an agent as he acts between the company and shareholders.
  • Thus, a director is an agent of the company.

Question 3.
The company has a distinct feature of separate ownership and management.
Answer:

  • The company has a unique feature of separate ownership and management.
  • Shareholders are its owner and Directors are its managers.
  • Being an artificial person, it needs a human agent to manage and control the working of the company.
  • Shareholders are scattered all over therefore management of the company by them is not possible.
  • Also, the shareholders are not interested in the management of such a big organization.
  • The company as an artificial person having no physical existence needs humans to control its affair.
  • Thus, the company has a distinct feature of separate ownership and management.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 4.
DIN helps investors of the company.
Answer:

  • DIN is a unique identification number for an existing director or person intending to be the director of the company.
  • It is compulsory to acquire DIN by every Director.
  • Din is Pre-require for e-filling of company’s documents.
  • It helps the investors of the company to make a more accurate and informed decisions because they get to known the composition of the top management of the company.
  • It also helps to handle the problems created due to a company after collecting or raising money from the public.
  • Thus, I agree with the given statement.

Question 5.
Directors have to work as a team.
Answer:

  • Directors have to work as a team of “Board of Directors” and not individually.
  • He exercises the power as a Board which is subject to provision of the Act.
  • Director is a representative of shareholders so he has to work collectively in the best interest of the company and its shareholders.
  • He cannot take decisions alone on behalf of the company.
  • Thus, directors have to work as a team.

Question 6.
Directors play a triple role.
Answer:

  • Directors play a triple role i.e. in the form of an agent, as a managing partner, and as a trustee.
  • As an agent, the director deals skillfully, carefully, and elegantly while representing the company with outsiders.
  • As a managing partner, the director acts as a representative of the shareholder and manages the company on their behalf.
  • As a trustee, the director acts as a guardian of the interest of shareholders and a company.
  • They use the company’s funds in the most appropriate manner and cautiously.
  • They are also the trustee of all the assets of the company.
  • Thus, directors play a triple role.

Question 7.
Company Secretary plays a triple role.
Answer:

  • Company Secretary plays a three-fold role in the form of – as a statutory officer, as a coordinator, and as an administration officer.
  • As a statutory officer, the secretary signs the document for authentication, files annual returns to ROC, maintains various statutory registers and ensures compliance with the law.
  • As a coordinator, the secretary acts as a network between the Board of Directors and other executive officers at different levels. He acts as an internal as well as external coordinator for the company.
  • As an administrative officer, the secretary ensures the implementation of various policies of the company and also supervises and controls the functioning of various departments of the company.
  • Thus, Company Secretary plays a triple role.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 8.
A director cannot be called an employee of the company.
Answer:

  • Directors are elected representatives of the company’s shareholders.
  • The status of an employee is within the limits of his contract and service.
  • His employer holds the ultimate control to guide his activities and functions.
  • These limits of an employee cannot be applied to a director.
  • So a director cannot be called an employee of the company.
  • Thus, a director cannot be called an employee of the company.

Question 9.
The managing Director has substantial powers of management.
Answer:
As it is stated in the definition itself the Managing Director is entrusted with the substantial powers of management, which clearly indicates that he has been given certain important powers of routine business matters of a company.
The powers exercised by him are as follows:

  • To act as a link between the Board of Directors and the managerial staff.
  • To look after the management and administration of a company.
  • To appoint the company employees.
  • To participate in policymaking as well as policy execution.
  • To sign contracts on behalf of a company.
  • To decide about the investment of funds of a company.
  • To receive remuneration from a company.

Question 10.
Indian companies prefer to appoint a Managing Director than a Manager.
Answer:

  • Indian company prefers to appoint managing director rather than manager because Managing Directors holds dual authorities and he is able to influence the board of director in a better way.
  • Manager need not be a director of a company while the managing director has to be director of a company,
  • The company cannot have more than one manager, while it can have more than one managing director.
  • Thus, Indian companies prefer to appoint a managing director than a manager.

Question 11.
Pro-tem secretary is helpful to the company.
Answer:

  • The first secretary of the company is appointed by the promoters of the company.
  • The first secretary is called as ‘pro-tem’ secretary.
  • Pro-tem secretary appointed by promoters may or may not be appointed as full-time or regular Secretary.
  • Pro-tem secretary helps in fulfilling different formalities during the formation of the company.
  • Thus, the Pro-tem secretary is helpful to the company.

Question 12.
Secretarial Standards should be in conformity with the Act.
Answer:

  • The Secretarial Standards are formulated by the Institute of Company Secretaries of India and approved by the Central Government through the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.
  • The Companies Act, 2013, makes compliance with the Secretarial Standard mandatory.
  • It leads to provide better monitoring of compliances of law, strengthening the process of the Board, and create confidence in investors.
  • The Secretarial Standards aim at achieving integrating, harmonizing, and standardizing fine corporate governance practices across all companies.
  • Thus, Secretarial Standards should be in conformity with the Act.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 13.
Secretarial Standards lead to better legal compliance.
Answer:

  • Companies follow diverse practices based on differing business cultures and varied usages over a period of time.
  • The Secretarial Standards aim at achieving integrating, harmonizing, and standardizing fine, corporate governance across all companies
  • It leads to provide better monitoring of compliance of the law, strengthening the process of the Board, and create confidence in investors.
  • Secretarial Standards are reviewed by Secretarial Standard Board (SSB) once a year or whenever changes are made in the law.
  • Thus, Secretarial Standards lead to better legal compliance

Question 14.
A secretarial Audit is required under the laws.
Answer:

  • It is an audit that checks the compliance of various legislation including the Companies Act, other Corporate Acts, and economic laws.
  • It aims at detecting errors and mistakes in the compliance mechanisms.
  • It gives confidence to regulators, management authorities, and shareholders that the company is following a disciplined approach of evaluation and improve effectiveness and risk management.
  • Thus, Secretarial Audit is required under the laws.

7. Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
Explain the Role of Directors.
Answer:
Director is a person appointed to manage, direct and supervise the affairs of the company.
The elected representatives of the shareholders are called Directors.

Role of the Directors:

  • He helps the investors to take accurate decision.
  • He has to fill casual vacancies on the board.
  • He has to recommend dividends.
  • He has to issue securities in India or abroad.
  • He manages a company on behalf of the shareholder.
  • He appoints the first auditor of the company.
  • He can appoint or remove Key Managerial Personnel.
  • He can borrow the money on behalf of the company.
  • His role is full of trust, loyalty, care, and good faith.
  • Directors act as a trustee, agent and managing partner for the company.

Question 2.
Explain the duties of a Director.
Answer:
A director’s relationship with a company is regarded as fiduciary in nature. It means his duty is full of trust, care, and good faith.
The duties of directors can be categorized into two heads:

  1. Statutory Duties:
    • To file a return of Allotment.
    • To act in accordance with the Articles of the company.
    • To disclose an interest in a transaction.
    • To attend Board meetings.
    • To appoint first Auditors of the company.
  2. General Duties:
    • Duty of good faith i.e. he must act in the best interest of the company.
    • Duty of care i.e. he must take utmost care in the performance of work assigned.
    • Duty not to delegate i.e. he is required to perform his function personally. He may delegate in case of emergency.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 3.
Explain the Managing Director.
Answer:
Definition: The Companies Act, has defined a Managing Director as “A Director who by virtue of an agreement with the company or of a resolution passed by a company in the general meeting or by its Board of Directors or by virtue of its Memorandum or Articles of Association, is entrusted with substantial powers of management of the company”.

Disqualification:

  • Any person less than 21 years of age and more than 70 years of age.
  • A person who is an undischarged insolvent person or has at any time been adjudged as an insolvent.
  • A person who has suspended payment to his creditors or made a composition with them.
  • A person who is, or has been convicted by a court of an offense with a sentence of more than 6 months period.

Appointment:
A Managing Director may be appointed by any one of the following ways:

  • by an agreement with a company.
  • by the resolution passed at the general meeting.
  • by the Board of Directors.

Term of office:
The term of office of the Managing Director cannot exceed 5 years at a time, but he can be reappointed as such for a further period of five years.

The number of Managing Directorship:
A Managing Director can not act as such for more than two companies at the same time.

Remuneration:
The remuneration paid to the Managing Director is subject to the maximum limit of 5% of the net profit of a company or a monthly salary. If a company has more than one Managing Director then total remuneration paid to them (all) shall not exceed 10% of the net profit.

Powers of a Managing Director:

  • To act as a link between the Board of Directors and the managerial staff.
  • To look after the management and administration of a company.
  • To appoint the company employees.
  • To participate in policymaking as well as policy execution.
  • To sign contracts on behalf of a company.
  • To decide about the investment of funds of a company.
  • To receive remuneration from a company.

Duties of a Managing Director:

  • To act on behalf (agent) of the Board of Directors.
  • To implement the decision of the Board.
  • To supervise, direct, control, and guide the day-to-day affairs of the business.
  • To guide the senior executives in their administrative work.
  • To report to the Board about programmes made or any problem faced by a company.
  • To chair the Board meetings and general meetings, if necessary.
  • To manage routine work of a company.
  • To sign all the contracts and documents on behalf of the company.

Question 4.
Explain the Company Secretary.
Answer:
Meaning:

  • Secretary is an employee of the company and he is appointed to perform functions of a company secretary,
  • He should be a member of the Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI).
  • The first secretary is appointed by the promoter of the company and he is called a ‘pro-tem’ secretary.
  • He holds liable for non-compliance with the provisions of the Act.

Duties of a Company Secretary:
It is categorized as (A) Statutory Duties and (B) General Duties.

(A) Statutory Duties:

  • To organize and attend meetings of the company.
  • To prepare minutes of meetings.
  • To communicate with shareholders on various matters.
  • To issue notices and circulars to the members of the company.
  • To maintain various Registers and books of the company
  • To file returns with the ROC.

(B) General Duties:

  • To provide guidance to the Board of Directors as needed.
  • To discharge duties towards regulators and authorities of the company.
  • To assist the Board of Directors in conducting the business of the company.
  • To perform duties allotted by the Board.

Rights of a Secretary:

  • To control and supervise the working of departments of the company.
  • To get indemnified by the company, if any loss is suffered by the secretary.
  • To sign documents requiring authentication.
  • To get remuneration from the company.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Secretarial Practice Solutions Chapter 6 Directors and Key Managerial Personnel of a Company

Question 5.
Explain the role of the Company Secretary.
Answer:
The company secretary plays a crucial and important role in the administration of the company.
The emphasis on good governance has increased the role of the secretary in protecting the interest of investors.

Role of Company Secretary:

  • Secretary as a Statutory officer:
  • To sign documents for authentication.
  • To sign and deliver Annual Returns and other documents and to the Registrar of Companies.
  • To maintain different statutory registers like
    • Minutes of General and Board meetings of the company.
    • Registers of Members and Debenture holders Register of Directors and KMP and their shareholdings.
  • To ensure compliance with the law

(ii) Secretary as a Co- ordinator:

  • To implement policies framed by the Board.
  • To act as a link between the Board and other executives at different levels.
  • To act as a mouthpiece or spokesperson of the Board.
  • To act as an internal and external coordinator.

(iii) Secretary as an Administration officer:

  • To ensure implementation of the policies of the company.
  • To supervise and control the functioning of different departments of the company.
  • To take an overall view of different aspects of the company’s administration and develop a strong and efficient organizational setup.
  • To contribute to the administration of the company.

Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board 11th Maths Book Solutions Pdf Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6

Question 1.
Find the value of
(a) 15C4
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q1 (i)

(b) 80C2
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q1 (ii)

(c) 15C4 + 15C5
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q1 (iii)

(d) 20C1619C16
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q1 (iv)

Question 2.
Find n if
(a) 6P2 = n(6C2)
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q2 (i)

(b) 2nC3 : nC2 = 52 : 3
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q2 (ii)

(c) nCn-3 = 84
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q2 (iii)

Question 3.
Find r if 14C2r : 10C2r-4 = 143 : 10.
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q3
∴ 2r(2r – 1) (2r – 2) (2r – 3) = 14 × 12 × 10
∴ 2r(2r – 1) (2r – 2) (2r – 3) = 8 × 7 × 6 × 5
Comparing on both sides, we get
∴ r = 4

Question 4.
Find n and r if,
(a) nPr = 720 and nCn-r = 120
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q4 (i)

(b) nCr-1 : nCr : nCr+1 = 20 : 35 : 42
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q4 (ii)
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q4 (ii).1

Question 5.
If nPr = 1814400 and nCr = 45, find n+4Cr+3.
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q5

Question 6.
If nCr-1 = 6435, nCr = 5005, nCr+1 = 3003, find rC5.
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q6
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q6.1
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q6.2

Question 7.
Find the number of ways of drawing 9 balls from a bag that has 6 red balls, 8 green balls, and 7 blue balls so that 3 balls of every colour are drawn.
Solution:
9 balls are to be selected from 6 red, 8 green, 7 blue balls such that the selection consists of 3 balls of each colour.
∴ 3 red balls can be selected from 6 red balls in 6C3 ways.
3 reen balls can be selected from 8 green balls in 8C3 ways.
3 blue balls can be selected from 7 blue balls in 7C3 ways.
∴ Number of ways selection can be done if the selection consists of 3 balls of each colour
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q7

Question 8.
Find the number of ways of selecting a team of 3 boys and 2 girls from 6 boys and 4 girls.
Solution:
There are 6 boys and 4 girls.
A team of 3 boys and 2 girls is to be selected.
∴ 3 boys can be selected from 6 boys in 6C3 ways.
2 girls can be selected from 4 girls in 4C2 ways.
∴ Number of ways the team can be selected
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q8

Question 9.
After a meeting, every participant shakes hands with every other participants. If the number of handshakes is 66, find the number of participants in the meeting.
Solution:
Let there be n participants present in the meeting.
A handshake occurs between 2 persons.
∴ Number of handshakes = nC2
Given 66 handshakes were exchanged.
66 = nC2
66 = \(\frac{\mathrm{n} !}{2 !(\mathrm{n}-2) !}\)
66 × 2 = \(\frac{n(n-1)(n-2) !}{(n-2) !}\)
132 = n (n – 1)
n(n – 1) = 12 × 11
Comparing on both sides, we get n = 12
∴ 12 participants were present at the meeting.

Question 10.
If 20 points are marked on a circle, how many chords can be drawn?
Solution:
To draw a chord we need to join two points on the circle.
There are 20 points on a circle.
∴ Total number of chords possible from these points
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q10

Question 11.
Find the number of diagonals of an n-sided polygon. In particular, find the number of diagonals when
(i) n = 10
(ii) n = 15
(iii) n = 12
(iv) n = 8
Solution:
In n-sided polygon, there are ‘n’ points and ‘n’ sides.
∴ Through ‘n’ points we can draw nC2 lines including sides.
∴ Number of diagonals in n sided polygon = nC2 – n (n = number of sides)
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q11

Question 12.
There are 20 straight lines in a plane so that no two lines are parallel and no three lines are concurrent. Determine the number of points of intersection.
Solution:
There are 20 lines such that no two of them are parallel and no three of them are concurrent.
Since no two lines are parallel, they intersect at a point.
∴ Number of points of intersection if no two lines are parallel and no three lines are concurrent = 20C2
= \(\frac{20 !}{2 ! 18 !}\)
= \(\frac{20 \times 19 \times 18 !}{2 \times 1 \times 18 !}\)
= 190

Question 13.
Ten points are plotted on a plane. Find the number of straight lines obtained by joining these points if (a) no three points are collinear (b) four points are collinear
Solution:
There are 10 points on a plane.
(a) When no three of them are collinear.
A line is obtained by joining 2 points.
∴ Number of lines passing through these points = 10C2
= \(\frac{10 !}{2 ! 8 !}\)
= \(\frac{10 \times 9 \times 8 !}{2 \times 1 \times 8 !}\)
= 5 × 9
= 45

(b) When 4 of them are collinear.
If no three points are collinear, we get a total of 10C2 = 45 lines by joining them. …..[From (i)]
Since 4 points are collinear, only one line passes through these points instead of 4C2 lines.
4C2 – 1 extra lines are included in 45 lines.
Number of lines passing through these points
= 45 – (4C2 – 1)
= 45 – \(\frac{4 !}{2 ! 2 !}\) + 1
= 45 – \(\frac{4 \times 3 \times 2 !}{2 \times 2 !}\) + 1
= 45 – 6 + 1
= 40

Question 14.
Find the number of triangles formed by joining 12 points if
(a) no three points are collinear
(b) four points are collinear
Solution:
There are 12 points on the plane.
(a) When no three of them are collinear.
A triangle can be drawn by joining any three non-collinear points.
∴ Number of triangles that can be obtained from these points = 12C3
= \(\frac{12 !}{3 ! 9 !}\)
= \(\frac{12 \times 11 \times 10 \times 9 !}{3 \times 2 \times 1 \times 9 !}\)
= 220

(b) When 4 of these points are collinear.
If no three points are collinear, total we get 12C3 = 220 triangles by joining them. ……[From (i)]
Since 4 points are collinear, no triangle can be formed by joining these four points.
4C3 extra triangles are included in 220 triangles.
∴ Number of triangles that can be obtained from these points = 12C34C3
= 220 – \(\frac{4 !}{3 ! \times 1 !}\)
= 220 – \(\frac{4 \times 3 !}{3 !}\)
= 220 – 4
= 216

Question 15.
A word has 8 consonants and 3 vowels. How many distinct words can be formed if 4 consonants and 2 vowels are chosen?
Solution:
There are 8 consonants and 3 vowels.
From 8 consonants, 4 can be selected in 8C4
= \(\frac{8 !}{4 ! 4 !}\)
= \(\frac{8 \times 7 \times 6 \times 5 \times 4 !}{4 \times 3 \times 2 \times 1 \times 4 !}\)
= 70 ways.
From 3 vowels, 2 can be selected in 3C2
= \(\frac{3 !}{2 ! 1 !}\)
= \(\frac{3 \times 2 !}{2 !}\)
= 3 ways.
Now, to form a word, these 6 ietters (i.e., 4 consonants and 2 vowels) can be arranged in 6P6 = 6! ways.
∴ Total number of words that can be formed = 70 × 3 × 6!
= 70 × 3 × 720
= 151200
∴ 151200 words of 4 consonants and 2 vowels can be formed.

Question 16.
Find n if,
(i) nC8 = nC12
Solution:
nC8 = nC12
If nCx = nCy, then either x = y or x = n – y
∴ 8 = 12 or 8 = n – 12
But 8 = 12 is not possible
∴ 8 = n – 12
∴ n = 20

(ii) 23C3n = 23C2n+3
Solution:
23C3n = 23C2n+3
If nCx = nCy, then either x = y or x = n – y
∴ 3n = 2n + 3 or 3n = 23 – 2n – 3
∴ n = 3 or n = 4

(iii) 21C6n = \({ }^{21} \mathrm{C}_{\left(\mathrm{n}^{2}+5\right)}\)
Solution:
21C6n = \({ }^{21} \mathrm{C}_{\left(\mathrm{n}^{2}+5\right)}\)
If nCx = nCy, then either x = y or x = n – y
∴ 6n = n2 + 5 or 6n = 21 – (n2 + 5)
∴ n2 – 6n + 5 = 0 or 6n = 21 – n2 – 5
∴ n2 – 6n + 5 = 0 or n2 + 6n – 16 = 0
If n2 – 6n + 5 = 0, then (n – 1)(n – 5) = 0
∴ n = 1 or n = 5
If n = 5 then
n2 + 5 = 30 > 21
∴ n ≠ 5
∴ n = 1
If n2 + 6n – 16 = 0, then (n + 8)(n – 2) = 0
n = -8 or n = 2
n ≠ -8
∴ n = 2
∴ n = 1 or n = 2

Check:
n = 2
∴ n2 + 5 = 22 + 5 = 9
21C6n = 21C12
and \({ }^{21} \mathrm{C}_{\left(\mathrm{n}^{2}+5\right)}\) = 21C9
nCr = nCn-r
21C12 = 21C9
∴ n = 2 is a right answer.

(iv) 2nCr-1 = 2nCr+1
Solution:
2nCr-1 = 2nCr+1
If nCx = nCy, then either x = y or x = n – y
∴ r – 1 = r + 1 or r – 1 = 2n – (r + 1)
But r – 1 = r + 1 is not possible
∴ r – 1 = 2n – (r + 1)
∴ r + r = 2n
∴ r = n

Check:
2nCr-1 = 2nCn-1
and 2nCr+1 = 2nCn+1
using nCr = nCn-r, we have
2nCn+1 = 2nC2n-(n+1) = 2nCn-1
2nCr-1 = 2nCr+1

(v) nCn-2 = 15
Solution:
nCn-2 = 15
nC2 = 15 …..[∵ nCr = nCn-r]
∴ \(\frac{n !}{(n-2) ! 2 !}=15\)
∴ \(\frac{n(n-1)(n-2) !}{(n-2) ! \times 2 \times 1}=15\)
∴ n(n – 1) = 30
∴ n(n – 1) = 6 × 5
Equating both sides, we get
∴ n = 6

Question 17.
Find x if nPr = x nCr.
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q17

Question 18.
Find r if 11C4 + 11C5 + 12C6 + 13C7 = 14Cr.
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q18

Question 19.
Find the value of \(\sum_{r=1}^{4}{ }^{(21-r)} \mathrm{C}_{4}\).
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q19

Question 20.
Find the differences between the greatest values in the following:
(a) 14Cr and 12Cr
Solution:
Greatest value of 14Cr.
Here, n = 14, which is even.
Greatest value of nCr occurs at r = \(\frac{n}{2}\) if n is even.
∴ r = \(\frac{n}{2}\)
∴ r = \(\frac{14}{2}\) = 7
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q20 (i)
∴ Difference between the greatest values of 14Cr and 12Cr = 14Cr12Cr
= 3432 – 924
= 2508

(b) 13Cr and 8Cr
Solution:
Greatest value of 13Cr.
Here n = 13, which is odd.
Greatest value of nCr occurs at r = \(\frac{n-1}{2}\) if n is odd.
∴ r = \(\frac{\mathrm{n}-1}{2}\)
∴ r = \(\frac{13-1}{2}\) = 6
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q20 (ii)
∴ Difference between the greatest values of 13Cr and 8Cr = 13Cr8Cr
= 1716 – 70
= 1646

(c) 15Cr and 11Cr
Solution:
Greatest value of 15Cr.
Here n = 15, which is odd.
Greatest value of nCr occurs at r = \(\frac{n-1}{2}\) if n is odd.
∴ r = \(\frac{n-1}{2}\)
∴ r = \(\frac{15-1}{2}\) = 7
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q20 (iii)
∴ Difference between the greatest values of 15Cr and 11Cr = 15Cr11Cr
= 6435 – 462
= 5973

Question 21.
In how many ways can a boy invite his 5 friends to a party so that at least three join the party?
Solution:
Boy can invite = (3 or 4 or 5 friends)
Consider the following table:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q21
∴ Number of ways a boy can invite his friends to a party so that three or more of join the party = 10 + 5 + 1 = 16

Question 22.
A group consists of 9 men and 6 women. A team of 6 is to be selected. How many of possible selections will have at least 3 women?
Solution:
There are 9 men and 6 women.
A team of 6 persons is to be formed such that it consist of at least 3 women.
Consider the following table:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q22
∴ No. of ways this can be done = 1680 + 540 + 54 + 1 = 2275
∴ 2275 teams can be formed if team consists of at least 3 women.

Question 23.
A committee of 10 persons is to be formed from a group of 10 women and 8 men. How many possible committees will have at least 5 women? How many possible committees will have men in majority?
Solution:
(i) A committee of 10 persons is to be formed from 10 women and 8 men such that the committee contains at least 5 women.
Consider the following table:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q23
∴ Number of committees with at least 5 women
= 14112 + 14700 + 6720 + 1260 + 81
= 36873

(ii) Number of committees with men in majority = Total number of committees – (Number of committees with women in majority + women and men equal in number)
= 18C10 – 36873
= 18C8 – 36873
= 43758 – 36873
= 6885

Question 24.
A question paper has two sections. Section I has 5 questions and section II has 6 questions. A student must answer at least two questions from each section among 6 questions he answers. How many different choices does the student have in choosing questions?
Solution:
There are 11 questions, out of which 5 questions are from section I and 6 questions are from section II.
The student has to select 6 questions taking at least 2 questions from each section.
Consider the following table:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q24
∴ Number of choices = 150 + 200 + 75 = 425
∴ In 425 ways students can select 6 questions, taking at least 2 questions from each section.

Question 25.
There are 3 wicketkeepers and 5 bowlers among 22 cricket players. A team of 11 player is to be selected so that there is exactly one wicketkeeper and at least 4 bowlers in the team. How many different teams can be formed?
Solution:
There are 22 cricket players, of which 3 are wicketkeepers and 5 are bowlers.
A team of 11 players is to be chosen such that exactly one wicket keeper and at least 4 bowlers are to be included in the team.
Consider the following table:
Maharashtra Board 11th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.6 Q25
∴ Number of ways a team of 11 players can be selected
= 45045 + 6006
= 51051

Question 26.
Five students are selected from 11. How many ways can these students be selected if
(a) two specified students are selected?
(b) two specified students are not selected?
Solution:
5 students are to be selected from 11 students.
(a) When 2 specified students are included,
then remaining 3 students can be selected from (11 – 2) = 9 students.
∴ Number of ways of selecting 3 students from 9 students = 9C3
= \(\frac{9 !}{3 ! \times 6 !}\)
= \(\frac{9 \times 8 \times 7 \times 6 !}{3 \times 2 \times 1 \times 6 !}\)
= 84
∴ Selection of students is done in 84 ways when 2 specified students are included.

(b) When 2 specified students are not included, then 5 students can be selected from the remaining (11 – 2) = 9 students.
∴ Number of ways of selecting 5 students from 9 students = 9C5
= \(\frac{9 !}{5 ! 4 !}\)
= \(\frac{9 \times 8 \times 7 \times 6 \times 5 !}{5 ! \times 4 \times 3 \times 2 \times 1}\)
= 126
∴ Selection of students is done in 126 ways when 2 specified students are not included.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

1. (A) Choose the correct alternative and complete the statements.

Question 1.
The process whereby an individual learns to conform to the norms of society is called …………………..
(assimilation / socialization / co-operation)
Answer:
socialization

Question 2.
Family is a ………………….. agency of socialization.
(primary / secondary / tertiary)
Answer:
primary

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

Question 3.
School is an ………………….. agency of socialization.
(primary / secondary / tertiary)
Answer:
secondary

Question 4.
Television is a / an ………………….. medium of communication.
(audio / visual / audio visual)
Answer:
audio-visual

1. (B) Correct the incorrect pair.

Question 1.
(a) Language, behaviour – Family
(b) Social values like friendship – Peer Group
(c) Teamwork, discipline – Neighbourhood
(d) To build opinion – Mass media
Answer:
(c) Team work, discipline – Workplace

1. (C) Identify the appropriate term from the given options.

(Internet, Peer Group, Childhood, Socialization)
Question 1.
Takes place in the early years of life.
Answer:
Socialization

Question 2.
Global impact in today’s world.
Answer:
Internet

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

1. (D) Correct the underlined words and complete the sentence.

Question 1.
Radio is an audiovisual medium.
Answer:
Radio is an audio medium.

Question 2.
Peer group is an example of an authoritarian agency.
Answer:
Family is an example of an authoritarian agency.

2. Write short notes.

Question 1.
Formation of ‘self ’ according to Mead.
Answer:
George Mead has elaborated on the process of building social self which does not exist at birth. According to Mead, formation of self occurs in three distinct stages.
Stage 1 – Imitation : In this stage, children imitate behaviour of adults without understanding it. Example : A little boy might drive his mother to her office by driving his toy car or help his parents clean the floor by pushing a broom.

Stage 2 – Play stage : A child plays, sometimes as being a mother or a teacher, at times a postal worker, a police officer etc. In this stage, responses are not organized. A child internalises the attitudes of others who are significant to her/his through enacting the roles of others. A significant other is someone whose opinions matter to us and who is in a position to influence our thinking.

Stage 3 – Game stage : As a child matures, and as the self gradually develops, one internalises the expectations of a large number of people. Children learn to behave according to the impressions of others. They understand that role play in each situation involves following a consistent set of rules and expectations. For example, a child at this stage is likely to be aware of the different responsibilities of people in a restaurant who together, make for a smooth dining experience. Thus, the self is mainly formed through our interactions with others and our understanding of others responses. Socialization, in this sense is a process of self-awareness.

Question 2.
Agencies of socialization.
Answer:
There are different social groups which can be seen as agencies of socialization.
1. Family : Family is the main agent of socialization. The child learns language and other basic behavioural patterns in family. Socialization through family is varied because there is no single, uniform pattern to do so. A child brought up in nuclear family will undergo different pattern of socialization. Patterns of child rearing vary across families with different caste, class, and ethnic backgrounds.

2. Peer groups : Peer groups are friendship groups made up of people of similar age. In peer groups, the interactions are reasonably egalitarian as there is a greater amount of give and take, when compared to family or school. Peer groups use informal sanctions including positive sanctions like approving gestures or laughing at your jokes, and negative sanctions like disapproving jokes, labelling or rejecting your company.

3. Schools : Schooling and education are considered as secondary agencies. School involves learning values and norms at a step higher than those learnt in a family. Skills and values like team work, discipline, conformity to authority are learnt in schools and this helps prepare students for the adult world.

4. Mass Media : One of the significant forces of socialization in modern culture is mass media. Mass media are the means for delivering impersonal communication directed to a vast audience. Mass media includes traditional print media like newspapers and magazines, electronic media like radio and television and current IT enabled media and social media. Television has an influence on children from a very young age and affects their cognitive and social development. Modern technological advancements have strengthened and changed the role of mass media. Technology has certainly increased the spread of mass media.

5. Neighbourhood : A neighbourhood community is an important agency of socialization. A neighbourhood is a geographically localized community within a larger city, town or suburb. Neighbourhoods are formed through considerable face to face interaction among members often living near one another. A neighbourhood community provides the base for an individual to extend social relations and interactions beyond the narrow limits of the home.

6. Workplace : Socialization is a life long process. Adult socialization indicates this continuous process of learning. One of the significant agents of adult socialization is the workplace.

Adult individuals spend significant amount of time at the workplace. Socialization through work place involves acquiring new skills, knowledge and behaviour patterns suitable to the requirements of the job.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

Question 3.
Resocialization.
Answer:
The process of unlearning old norms, roles, values and behavioural patterns and learning new patterns is called re-socialization. Sometimes an individual is caught in a situation where one has to break away from past experience and internalise different norms and values. Re-socialization can also be defined as a process which subjects an individual to new values, attitudes and skills according to the norms of a particular institution and the person has to completely re-engineer one’s sense of social values and norms.

The person may be in a jail, hospital, in religious organization, police, army etc. In such institutions there is total break up from the normal social life outside. A prison sentence is a good example. The individual not only has to change and rehabilitate one’s behaviour in order to return to society but must also accommodate the new norms required for living, while in prison.

3. Explain the following concept with an example.

Question 1.
Primary socialization
Answer:

  1. The most critical process of socialization happens in the early years.
  2. This learning in the early years is termed as primary socialization.
  3. Primary socialization takes place in infancy and childhood and involves intense cultural learning.
  4. A child gets acquainted with values, customs, behavioural norms and manners. It is an informal process.

Example : Family is the main agent of primary socialization. Peer group and neighbourhood is also seen as a primary socializing agency.

Question 2.
Secondary socialization
Answer:

  1. Socialization as a process is lifelong.
  2. The learning which extends over the entire life of a person is known as secondary socialization. It is a formal process of socialization.

Example : Schooling and education are considered as secondary agencies of socialization. What we learn through a formal curriculum with specific subjects and skills. Schooling involves learning values and norms at a step higher than those learnt in family.

4. (A) Complete the concept maps.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization 2

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

4. (B) State whether the following statements are true or false with reasons.

Question 1.
Socialization is a life-long process.
Answer:
This statement is True.
(i) The process of learning attitudes, norms and behaviour patterns and becoming members of different social groups like family, kin network, peer group and later, formal groups like school, professional networks etc., is a life long process.

(ii) Socialization is an ongoing process of continuous learning The birth of a child is a new experience of parenting for a couple. Similarly, older people become grandparents thus creating another set of relationships connecting different generations with each other.

(iii) Thus, socialization as a learning process is life long even though the most critical process happens in the early years but secondary socialization extends over the entire life of a person.

Question 2.
Advertisements influence consumer behaviour.
Answer:
This statement is True.

  1. Mass media has become an integral part of our day to day life. Advertisements through mass media are the means for delivering impersonal communication directed to a vast audience.
  2. Advertisements transmit information and messages which influence the behaviour of the consumer to a great extent.
  3. The use of colours, words, music, images, videos influence our behaviour and persuades us to take action. Advertisements through mass media has wider approach.

5. Give your personal response.

Question 1.
‘Breaking News’ tends to create panic or emotional responses. Why do you think this happens? Give relevant examples to illustrate.
Answer:
Many newspapers as well as some private news channels very frequently transmit news of murders, accidents, stealing, dacoity, beating, rape, economic cheating, fraud, scams, etc., as breaking news. Constant hearing of such news affects the minds of the people and it weakens the faith in ideals and values of life. This happens because breaking news get much more viewers than normal news.

Question 2.
The use of ‘unacceptable language’ is often picked up by children even if this kind of language is not used within the home. Explain how this might happen.
Answer:
Even though the new born is initiated with this learning process in family it is not the only agency of socialization. School, peer groups, neighbourhood, mass media are different social groups and social contexts which can be seen as agencies of socialization. Children pick up unacceptable language from variety of other sources like television which has strong influence on viewers. The child might hear one of his friends or someone in neighbourhood using slang words or abusing language.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

6. Answer the following question in detail (About 150-200 words).

Question 1.
You belong to a generation that has been exposed to internet. Discuss how internet has brought about positive and negative results.
Answer:
Modern technological advancements have strengthened and changed the role of mass media as an agent of socialization. Technology like internet has certainly increased the spread of mass media. People spend most of their time in touch with the world. Internet has enhanced communication and social connection. It has also increased political and civic participations. Social media allow students to learn outside of their class rooms. ‘School in the cloud’ is yet another example of how the internet and social media can help to improve global education.

Internet has helped to transmit information and create awareness about a wide range of issues and events among members of the society. It influences attitudes, values and moulds public opinion and acts as an effective way to change the society. Through the internet we can access online educational courses or training. In fact, any type of information from any part of the world can be accessed through the internet.

There is also negative impact of internet on society as – Youth access the internet and indulge in chatting, emailing, watching restricted site that leads to cyber crimes instead of creating interest in reading and creative activities. Sometimes internet may not give accurate information hence the validity and accuracy of the messages must be considered. Internet reaches the masses in developing countries, but there are many tribal, rural and poor urban people having no access to any kind of information. Communication technologies are expensive and need maintenance. Thus, internet may help to develop knowledge and spread information but it also has adverse effects on the society and have promoted values like individualism and materialism.

11th Sociology Digest Chapter 6 Socialization Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITY (Textbook Page No. 68)

Question 1.
Conduct a group discussion on the threatening challenge of online games like ‘Blue Whale’. Try to find answers to issues like why do children even consider participating in such games? Are parents to be blamed? What is the role of Law?
Answer:
Games like ‘Blue Whale’ has the challenges of self-harm. It exploits vulnerable people. It blocks the boundary between virtual and real world. There’s a constant competition, level up, which drive the children to perform their best amongst others.

Most games are addictive become of the challenges involved. Once the children are engrossed in it, there is no coming back and they strive hard to achieve the next level, the next goal. This sense of achievement targets the brain’s reward system and compels the gamer to perform the act again and again.

Are parents to be blamed?
Children are becoming addictive to online games because they are designed to be addictive and not because parents allow them to play too much.

What is the role of Law?
With dangerous online games like ‘Blue Whale’ claiming several innocent lives in the recent past, the supreme court has directed the centre to constitute a panel of experts to block such life-threatening games.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

Question 2.
Watch advertisements or messages on T.V. and see how effective mass media is in creating awareness against corruption, drug addiction, smoking or any other relevant social issue. (Textbook Page No. 68)
Answer:
The mass media has potential to create awareness against various issues like corruption, drug addiction, smoking etc., by propagandise simple and focused messages to large audiences repeatedly, overtime, at a low cost. They are able to reach a large heterogeneous population. Media campaigns can help in the reduction of smoking and drug addiction and have shown positive results in number of other relevant social areas. Techniques of mass media can be effectively used to counter corruption as well.

Question 3.
Do you think resocialization requires total institutions? Why? Why not? (Textbook Page No. 70)
Answer:
In the process of resocialization old behaviours are removed because they are of no use. Resocialization is necessary when a person moves to a senior care centre, goes to a boarding school or serves time in jail. I think, resocialization requires ‘total institutions’ in a new environment as they can learn new norms and unlearn existing behaviours. The most common way of resocialization occurs in a total institution where people are isolated from society and made to follow new rules and behaviours. A ship at sea military camps, religious convents, prisons or some cult organizations. They are cut off from a larger society. Members entering an institution have to leave behind their old identify to be socialized.

Question 4.
Collect data from five students regarding their experience with social networking sites (example Facebook, Snapchat, Twitter). Find out about how much time they spend online, what kinds of people they interact with, what topics are usually discussed, the uses and problems of social networking sites. Write a 100-word Report on your findings. (Textbook Page No. 71)
Answer:
With respect to overall media consumption, most students spend hours on social networking sites using mobile phones, tablets, laptops, desktops, etc. This age group restricts watching television and is considered as the largest part of change in the media landscape. Example: More three to eleven years of age group are online than in 2016, with much of this growth coming from increased use of tablets. Unsurprisingly, tablets and other portable, connected devices are also playing an important role.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

Uses:
Social networking sites allow users living at distant places within their network to connect to another thus increasing social connection, share ideas, photographs, videos, information and other happenings around the world.

Problem:

  1. Untrustworthy Member Data.
  2. Users submit inaccurate information on their profile.
  3. Leaving social networking is difficult; there are saved accounts, and ways to continue to reconnect to the site, even after an individual uninstall the account.
  4. Less time for face to face connections with family members.
  5. Being too much online diminishes our skills and can have serious side effects. These side effects are becoming more and more frequent amongst the waves of generations.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 5 Culture

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 5 Culture Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 5 Culture

1. (A) Choose the correct alternative and complete the statements.

Question 1.
Culture is ……………….
(natural / personal / adaptive)
Answer:
adaptive

Question 2.
Material culture is ……………….
(concrete / abstract / intangible)
Answer:
concrete

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 5 Culture

Question 3.
Bollywood music is an example of ……………….
(high culture / popular culture / folk culture)
Answer:
popular culture

1. (B) Correct the incorrect pair.

Question 1.
(a) Classical singing of Bhimsen Joshi – High culture
(b) Shakespeare’s literature – Folk culture
(c) Harry Potter books – Popular culture
(d) Religious group – Sub-culture
Answer:
(b) Shakespeare’s literature – High culture

1. (C) Identify the appropriate term from the given options.

(Folk Culture, Material Culture, Popular Culture)
Question 1.
Songs transmitted from one generation to the next.
Answer:
Folk Culture

Question 2.
Use of mobile phones today.
Answer:
Material Culture

1. (D) Correct underlined words and complete the sentence.

Question 1.
Belief in superstition is an example of material culture.
Answer:
Belief in superstition is an example of non-material culture.

Question 2.
E-commerce is an example of popular culture.
Answer:
E-commerce is an example of mass culture.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 5 Culture

2. Write short notes.

Question 1.
Characteristics of Culture.
Answer:
The term culture refers to the way of life of a member of various societies or groups. Culture has the following characteristics:

  1. Culture is acquired : Culture is learnt by each member through socialization. Cultural learning takes place through experience and symbolic interactions. Culture is propagated through generations.
  2. Culture is abstract : Culture exist in the minds or habits of the members in a society. We cannot see culture but can see human behaviour.
  3. Culture is shared : Culture is shared by a group of people belonging to the same community. They share same values, beliefs and traditions. These aspects develop a sense of unity.
  4. Culture is man-made : Culture is a human product and does nothing on its own.
  5. Culture is idealistic : Culture embodies the ideas and norms of a group. It consists of intellectual, artistic and social ideas which are followed by members of the society.
  6. Culture is transmitted among the members of the society : The cultural ways are learned by persons from persons and many of them are handed down by one’s elders, parents, teachers and others.

Question 2.
Social Benefits of Culture.
Answer:
Culture has many social benefits:

  1. Fundamental benefits : Cultural experiences are opportunities for leisure, entertainment, learning and sharing experiences with others. These benefits are intrinsic to culture. They are what attracts us and the reason why we participate.
  2. Improved, learning and valuable skills for the future : In children and youth, participation in culture helps to develop thinking skills and build self-esteem, which enhance educational outcomes.
  3. Better health and well-being : Participation in culture contributes and cultural engagement improves both mental and physical health.
  4. Social solidarity and cohesion : Culture helps build social capital – the bond that holds communities together. Cultural activities such as festivals, bring people together and build social solidarity. Our diverse cultural heritage develops a feeling of pride and a sense of belonging to a wider community.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 5 Culture

3. Differentiate between.

Question 1.
Material Culture and Non-Material Culture.
Answer:

Material Culture Non-Material Culture
(i) Material culture refers to the physical objects which are man-made. (i) Non-material culture refers to non¬physical ideas created by human beings.
(ii) Material culture is concrete and tangible in nature. (ii) Non-material culture is abstract and intangible in nature.
(iii) It consists of manufactured objects like clothing, roads, jewellery, computers, airplanes etc. (iii) It consists of norms, regulations, values, signs, symbols, knowledge, beliefs, etc.
(iv) The material aspect of culture changes very fast. (iv) Change in non-material culture is difficult and not readily accepted by society.

Question 2.
Folkways and Mores.
Answer:

Folkways Mores
(i) Folkways are mildly enforced social expectations. (i) Mores are strictly held beliefs about behaviours.
(ii) Violation of folkways is not seen as a serious threat to social order. (ii) Violation of mores is seen as a serious threat to social order.
(iii) Folkways are less deeply rooted in society and change more rapidly. (iii) Mores are more deeply rooted and change less frequently.
(iv) Folkways are customary, normal and habitual ways of a group, to meet certain needs or solving day to day problems. (iv) Mores are more serious norms and have serious binding on groups.
(v) The manner of speech, dressing, the time of meals and numerous other practices of daily life are some examples of customary practices to which an individual confirm in their personal habits. (v) Murder, stealing, lying, incest are examples of social Mores in almost all cultures.

4. Explain the following concept with suitable examples.

Question 1.
Norms
Answer:

  1. Norms are rules and behavioural expectations by which a society guides the behaviours of its members.
  2. Some norms are prescriptive and some are prescriptive norms Most norms apply universally but some norms are culture specific.
  3. Social norms are further divided into folkways and mores. Folkways are mildly enforced social expectations, while mores are strictly held beliefs about behaviours.
    Example : Folkways – the concept of appropriate dress. Mores – Religious doctrines, taboos, customs, laws, etc.

Question 2.
Folk Culture
Answer:
Folk culture refers to the culture of ordinary people particularly those living in pre-industrial societies. It is an authentic culture. It never aspire to be an art but its distinctiveness is accepted and respected.

Example : Parents expect obedience from children, the time of meals, the number of meals per day, the manner of taking meals the manner of speech; dressing; forms of etiquette and numerous other practices of daily life.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 5 Culture

5. Complete the concept maps.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 5 Culture 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 5 Culture 2

6. Give your personal response.

Question 1.
Very few people make an effort to learn classical music today.
Answer:
Classical music is not popular among people today because like any other form of music one requires exposure over a period of time to become familiar. While pop music is appreciated by a large number of people with no cultural expertise.

Question 2.
It is not easy to give up superstitious beliefs.
Answer:
Superstitious beliefs are form of non-material culture which are rooted in society for many decades and centuries. Change in this aspect is not readily accepted by the society or certain sections of the society. It is rooted in society for many decades and centuries. Hence, change in these aspects is not easy

11th Sociology Digest Chapter 5 Culture Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITY (Textbook Page No. 61)

Question 1.
Presentation : students make groups of 5 in class and present an aspect of culture, (e.g., language, dialect, dress, folklore, dances, music, art, food habits, architecture, literature, tribal life, rural life, urban life) of any state in India.
Answer:
Students should conduct a presentation in the classroom with the help of using power point, charts to explain the various cultural elements of any one state in India.

Question 2.
Culture varies from society to society. Each Society or a group will have different culture. These cultures are sometimes overlapping and sometimes exclusive. Give examples. (Textbook Page No. 51)
Answer:
Compare culture of different states in India, how they are different in their lifestyles, food habits, dressing styles etc. Also explain by giving examples how certain elements of culture overlap or have similarities. Many cultural elements of different states are also exclusive in nature, peculiar to that region to maintain the ethnicity.

Both Gujarat and Maharashtra were created on May 1, 1960. The dialects spoken in each state are also different. In Maharashtra, the majority of the people speak the Marathi language. The same is true for the Gujarati language in Gujarat this is an example of exclusive culture.
Hindi, one of the official language of India, is a common language. This is an example of overlapping culture.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 5 Culture

Question 3.
Observe cultural change around you and list examples of cultural lag in society. (Textbook Page No. 52)
Answer:
Make a note of cultural changes around you.
Example:

  1. Younger generations have become more independent.
  2. Indian culture today allows young men and woman to have more freedom of choice with respect to marriage partner.
  3. Impact of internet similarly, list examples of cultural lag in society.

Example of cultural lag
For example, expectant parents can use genetic engineering to select their unborn child’s eye colour or sex. However, many people view this type of genetic engineering as unethical and believe it could lead to unintended social consequences. This an example of cultural lag.

Question 4.
Look at your surrounding and list out the examples of cultural hybridisation in the areas of food, toys, religious practices, festivals, celebrations. (Textbook Page No. 59)
Answer:

  1. Burger and pizza with a pinch of Indian spices, Indianisation of Chinese food.
  2. Celebration of Valentine’s Day.
  3. Hybrid version of Barbie, fusion music, formation of new language after blending different languages etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 4 Social Institutions

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 4 Social Institutions Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 4 Social Institutions

1. (A) Choose the correct alternative and complete the statements.

Question 1.
A rule that prescribes marriage within a group is called ……………….
(exogamy / endogamy / polygamy)
Answer:
endogamy

Question 2.
A family that comprises at least three generation is a ………………… family.
(nuclear / joint / cohabitation)
Answer:
joint

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 4 Social Institutions

Question 3.
The 10 + 2 + 3 system is part of the ………………. system of education.
(informal / formal / universal)
Answer:
formal

1. (B) Correct the incorrect pair.

Question 1.
(a) School – Distance Education
(b) Peer group – Informal Education
(c) Health care training – Non-formal Education
(d) Family – Informal Education
Answer:
(a) School – Formal education

1. (C) Identify the appropriate term from the given options.

(Homosexual Marriage, Matrilocal, Heterosexual Marriage)
Question 1.
A married couple is expected to live at the wife’s residence.
Answer:
Matrilocal

Question 2.
A form of marriage between persons of the same sex.
Answer:
Homosexual Marriage

1. (D) Correct underlined words and complete the sentence.

Question 1.
X married Y. Later she divorced her spouse and married Z. This is an example of polygamy.
Answer:
X married Y. Later she divorced her spouse and married Z. This is an example of monogamy.

Question 2.
Mass production and factory system are found in agricultural society.
Answer:
Mass production and factory system are found in industrial society.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 4 Social Institutions

2. Write short notes.

Question 1.
Types of family based on authority.
Answer:
On the basis of authority within family, two broad forms of family can be identified. Matriarchal Family : In matriarchal family authority rests at the hands of the mother and she is considered the head of the family. In matriarchal family descent is traced through mother’s line, known as matrilineal system. Residence of the marriage is matrilocal i.e., the bridegroom lives with the wife’s family and the name follows the mother’s line. It is matronymic. The Garo and Khasi tribes of North East India and the Nair’s of South India follow the matriarchal system.

Patriarchal Family : In patriarchal family all authority rests at the hands of the male head and the eldest male is regarded as the head of the patriarchal family. It is patrilineal i.e., descent is traced through father’s line. Residence after marriage is patrilocal. The married couples live with the husband’s family, and the name of the father’s side continues to the next generation. It is patronymic. Patriarchal family is the most widespread form of family in India and most parts of the world.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 4 Social Institutions

Question 2.
Stages of Economy.
Answer:
Human society has evolved through various stages, depending upon the way it evolved mechanisms to adapt to changing material needs.

With respect to the changing nature of work and economy three broad stage of economy are as follows: Agriculture Revolution : From hunting-gathering and then pastoral phases, human society entered into a new stage with discovery of agriculture. With development of agriculture, food production increased. Complex division of labour, advanced trade and permanent settlement are the result of economy expansion through agricultural technology.

Industrial Revolution : Industrial revolution which happened around the middle of the 18th century, first in England transformed social and economic life like never before. It brought four notable economic changes.

  1. New forms of energy : With the pioneering invention of the steam engine in 1765 by James Watt, the use of animal and human muscle energy was significantly reduced.
  2. Centralisation of work in factories : Use of machinery gave rise to a new workplace called factory.
  3. Mass production : Industrial economy developed the manufacturing sector very fast and produced goods on a large scale.
  4. Division of labour : The factory system reduced the importance of human skills and resulted to specialised division of labour.
  5. Industrialization transformed the whole society and also created huge economic gaps in the society.

The Information Revolution : By the middle of the 20th century the nature of production started to change. The use of automated machinery drastically reduced the role of human labour in manufacturing. Three key changes were seen due to the development of computer and information technology.

  1. Tangible products to idea : The tertiary or service sector providing services and dealing with production of ideas and symbols is expanding very fast.
  2. Mechanical skills to literacy skills : The information revolution demands a new set of skills such as literacy skills – the ability to communicate, to write, to present and use computer technology.
  3. Work from anywhere : Computer technology is allowing for decentralisation of work.

Question 3.
Importance of Education.
Answer:
Education is broad process of learning that broadens an individual’s cognitive horizons and develops in them the skills to choose, evaluate and add to existing knowledge.
The functions of education can be as follows:
1. Inculcate common values and moral beliefs : Children coming from diverse family and community backgrounds gain an understanding of the common values and moral beliefs in society through school education.

2. Fosters self-discipline : Through education children learn self-discipline. They internalise the social rules that contribute to the smooth function of society.

3. Teaches specialised skills: The education system teaches specialised skills needed for a complex modern economy. For example, technical schools are specially designed to provide technical / vocational training.

4. Instils the value of achievement in children : Schools like wider society, largely operate on a meritocratic basis. Those with ability and talent achieve their just rewards.

3. Differentiate between.

Question 1.
Matriarchal Family and Patriarchal Family.
Answer:

Matriarchal Family Patriarchal Family
(i) Authority rests at the hands of the mother in a matriarchal family. She is considered the head of the family. (i) The eldest male is regarded as the head of the patriarchal family. All authority rests at the hands of the male head.
(ii) Matriarchal families follow a matrilineal system of lineage i.e., descent through mother’s line. (ii) Patriarchal family is also patrilineal i.e., descent is traced through father’s line.
(iii) Residence after marriage is matrilocal i.e., the bridegroom lives with the wife’s family. (iii) Residence after marriage is patrilocal. The married couple lives with the husband’s family.
(iv) The name follows the mother’s line. It is matronymic. (iv) The name of the father’s side continues to the next generation. It is patronymic.
(v) The Garo and Khasi tribes of North East India and the Nair’s of South India follow the matriarchal system. (v) The most widespread form of family in India and most parts of the world is patriarchal family.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 4 Social Institutions

Question 2.
Agriculture Revolution and Industrial Revolution.
Answer:

Agriculture Revolution Industrial Revolution
(i) From hunting – gathering and then pastoral phases, human society entered into a new stage with discovery of agriculture. (i) Industrial revolution happened around the middle of the eighteenth century and transformed social and economic life.
(ii) Agricultures involved using technology of large -scale farming using ploughs harnessed to animals. (ii) Industrialisation involved using of machinery and new forms of energy.
(iii) This increased the productive power of hunting and gathering more than tenfold. (iii) This increased more mass production which turned raw materials into a wide range of goods.
(iv) griculture revolution resulted into expansion of economy through agricultural technology, complex division of labours permanent settlement and advanced trade. (iv) Industrial revolution resulted into centralisation of work in factories and specialized division of labour.

4. Explain the following concept with suitable examples.

Question 1.
Cohabitation
Answer:

  1. Cohabitation is the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple.
  2. Live in relations or cohabitation may or may not lead to marriage.
    Example : Younger generations specially in many parts of Europe and in some urban areas in India are preferring cohabitation as family relation. This is especially true among same sex couples.

Question 2.
Formal Education
Answer:

  1. Formal education is planned with a specific end in view.
  2. It involves direct schooling and instruction. Since it is provided to fulfill specific ends, formal education is limited to a specific period. Formal education has a well-defined and systematic curriculum based on aims designed according to the needs of society.

Example : Schooling and education are considered as a formal education based on formal curriculum with specific subject and skills.

5. State whether the following statements are true or false with reasons.

Question 1.
In a modernizing society the role of parents are changing.
Answer:
This statement is True.

  1. Rapid growth of divorce and changing roles of woman give rise to a new family form and relation which has led to changes in the role of parents.
  2. The average age at which people get married is also increasing. There is also an increasing trend of individuals not getting married. There is a changing role of women due to education and employment. All these changes are affecting family as an institution.
  3. In our contemporary society, the traditional belief of fathers are the breadwinners and mothers only do household chores is no longer true. With the advent of globalization, their roles are changing which is vastly different from their previous generations.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 4 Social Institutions

Question 2.
India is in the stage of industrial revolution.
Answer:
This statement is False.

  1. India is in the stage of information revolution. The development of computer and information technology have changed the nature of work in India.
  2. The use of automated machinery has reduced the role of human labour in manufacturing. Service industries like public relations, banking and sales, media, advertising have expanded.
  3. The introduction of computer and information have changed the character of work in India.

6. Give your personal response.

Question 1.
What are your views about love marriage? Do you support it? Explain.
Answer:
The basic concept of love marriage lies in the fact that the girl or boy chooses his or her life partner. The restrictions of caste, religion, physical appearance does not apply when a person falls in love. In India these restrictions are seriously enforced which limit the number of desirable matches for a person. Also, it curbs the practice of dowry as one does not need to prove one’s worth. Therefore, I support love marriages.

Question 2.
How has the information revolution impacted your life?
Answer:
Information revolution has made our life easier. Information revolution has made it possible to do many things from the comforts of one’s own home. I can take virtual tour of museums, buildings etc. It has exposed one to different cultures. One can do all of shopping online. It has created abundance of data on every possible subject or interest.

7. Answer the following in detail (About 150-200 words).

Question 1.
Show how the role of family has changed in the present times. Illustrate with your own examples.
Answer:
Families are the nexus of activities that include parenting , employment and leisure. As society changes, families must adapt to the new structures and processes resulting from this change. One of the most striking features of modern societies has been rapid growth of divorce.

The average age at which people get married is also increasing along with an increasing trend of an individuals not getting married. The changing roles of woman through increased education and employment, has put additional pressures on the family to adapt to dual-earner, households and changing needs of child care. All these changes are affecting family as an institution.

It has given rise to new family relationship:
(i) Single-parent Family : Majority of single parent families are headed by single mothers. This may result from divorce, separation, death or by choice. Sometimes growing up in a single parent family can be a disadvantage for children.

(ii) Cohabitation : Cohabitation is the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple. Younger generations, especially in many parts of Europe and in some urban areas in India are preferring cohabitation as family relation. This is especially true among some same sex couples.

(iii) Step-parenting : As rates of divorce and remarriage is steadily on an increase, it gives rise to a new family form and relation of step-parenting. The extent of children staying in step families is increasing.

In the traditional family living, the wife had no voice in family decision making but in contemporary family she has equal power role to play. The authority has shifted from patriarchal to parents who consult their children an all-important issues before taking any decisions about them. Younger generations now claim more individuality. Change in family does not mean the complete erosion of previous norms and structure.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 4 Social Institutions

11th Sociology Digest Chapter 4 Social Institutions Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITY (Textbook Page No. 41)

Question 1.
Discuss why hypogamous marriages are resisted in society. Take help of newspapers, magazines and cinema.
Answer:
Reasons for resisting hypogamous marriage. Hypergamy is a term used for the practice of a person marrying a spouse of higher caste or social status than themselves. Young women generally marry older men of higher status, with general rule that older men have more time to create wealth and status than younger men. Today such marriages are on decline, as most people marry their approximate social equals and in some parts of the world hypergamy has decreased. Also, it is becoming less common for women to marry older men though hypergamy does not require the man to be older but only of higher status.

Question 2.
Look at the matrimonial advertisements in newspapers, magazines and internet and discuss the findings. Do you think endogamy is still the prevalent norm in India? (Textbook Page No. 42)
Answer:
Religion and Caste endogamy still dominates while choosing a life partner. Women have the freedom to select a spouse in urban areas, yet, the choice can be restricted. So, in general, marriage is often seen as socially determined institutions.

Question 3.
Watch the classic movie ‘Modern Times’ made by Charlie Chaplin and have a discussion on the effects of mechanisation on human labour. (Textbook Page No. 44)
Answer:
The film ‘Modern Times’ is a comment on the desperate employment and financial conditions that people faced during the great depression conditions created, by the modern industrialization in the view of Chaplin. Modern Times’ portray Chaplin as a factory worker where he is subjected to such indignities as being forced fed by a malfunctioning ‘feeding machine’. In the movie, industry is portrayed as something bigger and more valuable than the people who work within it. Chaplin tries to point out the fact at the industrialized world functions in a way that suppresses human agency and creativity.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 4 Social Institutions

Question 4.
Eminent personalities having achieved social prestige and position on the basis of their educational qualification. (Textbook Page No. 48)
Answer:
(i) Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar : Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was born on 14th April 1891. During his childhood he was subjected to socio-economic discrimination and faced severe humiliation. Dr. Ambedkar earned his doctorates in Economics from both Columbia University and the London School of Economics. He gained reputation as a scholar for his research in Law, economics and political science. In his initial career, he worked as an economist, professor and lawyer. He was posthumous awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award, in 1990.

(ii) A. P. J. Abdul Kalam : A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was born on 15th October 1931. His father was an owner of a boat, an imam of local mosque. Due to destruction in business and loss of the family fortune, Kalam’s family suffered poverty. To help his family, he started selling newspapers at an early age. Abdul Kalam completed his graduation from the Madras Institute of Technology and joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as a scientist after becoming a member of Defence Research and Development Service (DRDS). He came to be known as the Missile Man of India’. He was the 11th President of India.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology

1. (A) Choose the correct alternative and complete the statements.

Question 1.
Society is based on ……………….
(co-operation / competition / conflict)
Answer:
Co-operation

Question 2.
Villages are a part of ……………….. community.
(rural / city / metropolitan)
Answer:
rural

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology

Question 3.
Family is an example of a ………………. group.
(large / primary / formal)
Answer:
primary

Question 4.
Social status refers to ……………… in a group.
(function / position / purpose)
Answer:
position

1. (B) Correct the incorrect pair.

Question 1.
(a) Family – Voluntary Group
(b) Caste – Involuntary Group
(c) Village – Primary Group
(d) Workplace – Secondary Group
Answer:
(a) Family – Involuntary Group

1. (C) Identify the appropriate term from the given options.

(Role, Folkways, Society)
Question 1.
Punctuality in class is the duty of a student.
Answer:
Role

Question 2.
In many places in India, eating with hands is a common practice.
Answer:
Folkways

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology

1. (D) Correct underlined words and complete the sentence.

Question 1.
Norms which can be applied in daily life are called law.
Answer:
Norms which can be applied in daily life are called standard norms.

Question 2.
Family is an example of a/an voluntary group.
Answer:
Family is an example of a/an involuntary group.

2. Write short notes.

Question 1.
Characteristics of Society.
Answer:
(i) Society includes likeness : According to Maclver ‘society’ means likeness. Social relationships exist among those who are alike in body and mind. People have similarities with regard to their needs aim, ideals, values, outlook towards life and so on.

(ii) Society includes difference : A society together with likeness is also based on differences. Differences is an important factor for a healthy society. Different types of personalities are essential in our society in order to satisfy the different needs. These differences are based on sex, age, physical strength, intelligence, talent, personality and unequal possessions of material objects and wealth.

(iii) Interdependence : Individuals in a society depend upon one another for the satisfaction of needs. One group, one nation, one community depends upon the other for its development, t Interdependence is seen in family groups as well. The existence of society depends upon different types of social relationships.

(iv) Co-operation : Every society is characterized by co-operation and division of labour. It is necessary for survival.

(v) Normative nature : In a society, social behaviour is evaluated by social control. These controlling means are known as norms. Norms control the misbehaviour or the acts which are harmful to society thus protecting the society.

(vi) Society is dynamic : No society is static. It changes continuously; old customs, traditions, I values, norms and institutions replace the new customs, traditions, values, norms and institutions.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology

Question 2.
Characteristics of Primary Group.
Answer:

  1. Physical proximity : This is essential for a primary group as people have close relations with each other. Hence, they experience physical proximity.
  2. Smallness of the group : These social groups are small in size and bring out the close relations among its members.
  3. Permanence of relationship : Close relations create more unity among the members.
  4. Face-to-face relationship : These social groups are small in size and are based on greater closeness. It is useful for maintaining group stability.
  5. Similar objectives and goals : This group is homogeneous in nature. Hence, there is uniformity of objectives and goals among its members.
  6. The relationship is an end in itself: The relationships in this group are very natural.
  7. Informal control: This group is conventional and based on emotional bonds.

Question 3.
Types of Norms.
Answer:
Folkways : The term was first used by William Sumner. According to him, folkways are the recognized ways of behaving and acting in society. Example, eating using one’s fingers, eating with chopsticks, eating with fork and spoon; different ways of wearing a sari.

Mores : Mores are more rigid than folkways. They are instruments of social control and deals with higher values of people. Example, sexual relations before marriage are not permitted.

Law : Law is an important and essential element of society.
They are deliberately formulated rules of behaviour. It is universal in nature and common for all to follow. There are two types of law- Customary Law and Enacted Law.

  1. Customary law – It is not in a written form but orally transmitted. It is followed in tribal as well as in rural society.
  2. Enacted law – This law is in a written form. It is important as well as obligatory in a modern, complex and dynamic society. For example, The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955; The Domestic Violence Act, 2005.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology

3. Differentiate between.

Question 1.
Primary Group and Secondary Group.
Answer:

Primary Group Secondary Group
(i) Primary group is a group in which relationships are personal, informal, face to face and intimate in nature. (i) Secondary group is a group in which relationships are impersonal, formal and contractual in nature.
(ii) This group is small in size. (ii) This group is large in size.
(iii) Relationships are personal, so physical proximity is more. (iii) Due to formal relationships there is no physical proximity between the members.
(iv) Relations are permanent. (iv) Relations are temporary.
(v) Behaviour is controlled in an informal way. (v) Behaviour is controlled in a formal way.
(vi) Example Family, peer group, neighbourhood, etc. (vi) Example Nation, State, Labour unions, etc.

Question 2.
Voluntary Group and Involuntary Group.
Answer:

Voluntary Group Involuntary Group
(i) Membership is based on choice. (i) Membership is based on birth.
(ii) It may be temporary or permanent in nature. (ii) It is mostly permanent in nature.
(iii) Individual has choice to continue or to leave the membership. (iii) One cannot leave the membership or it may be difficult to leave the group.
(iv) Example : Political parties, youth organisation, cultural association, etc. (iv) Example : Family, caste, race, religion, etc.

4. Explain the following concept with suitable examples.

Question 1.
Reference Group
Answer:
The concept of reference group was introduced by Robert Merton. A reference group is a group to which an individual or another group is compared. We use reference groups in order to guide our behaviour and attitudes that help us to identify social norms.

Reference Groups are of two types Informal and Formal.

  1. Informal reference groups are formed by the individual as per their likes, interests and attitudes.
    Example : Family, peer groups, teachers, siblings, associates, etc.
  2. Formal Reference Group are the ones that have a specific goal or mission.
    Example : Labour unions, supreme court, military units, corporations, worship place, universities, etc.

Question 2.
Role Conflict
Answer:

  1. Role conflict refers to a clash between roles.
  2. When one faces incompatibility between two or more roles at the same time or in a given situation. Role conflict is inevitable.

Example: A boss will suffer role conflict if forced to fine an employee who is also a close friend. A newly married bride experiences role conflict because she has to adjust with her in-laws, household work and office work.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology

5. (A) Complete the concept maps.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology 2

5. (B) State whether the following statements are true or false with reasons.

Question 1.
Society never changes.
Answer:
This statement is False.
1. Society is a web of social relationships. These relationships and interactions are based upon different institutions, traditions, customs, values and norms of the society.

2. Changes in any one of this is reflected in the changes in relationship and interaction among the individuals. Change is a universal phenomenon. No single society is static. Factors like, westernisation, modernisation, industrialisation, education have brought various changes in society.

3. Today, educational system, family patterns, norms, values, needs, etc., are changed. People have become more self-centred. Individual freedom, consciousness towards one’s own rights are increasing. Hence, society is changing continuously.

Question 2.
People living in a community must have awareness of sharing a way of life.
Answer:
This statement is True.

  1. Individuals are emotionally attached to their community. People those who live in a particular community occupy a definite territorial area. They share common objectives and needs.
  2. They have love and affection towards each other.
  3. This develops a sense of belongingness. Therefore, people living in a community must have awareness of sharing a way of life.

6. Give your personal response.

Question 1.
Show how folkways, mores and laws may clash with each other.
Answer:
Folkways is one of the essential elements of culture. Folkways govern our daily routine and ordinary contacts with other people. Whereas mores are considered as vital to the welfare of the group. Folkways and mores are the customary way of life and standards of right and wrong. Example: wearing clothes are mores and wearing clothes of different styles are folkways.

Laws are deliberately formulated rules of behaviour that are enforced by a special authority, e.g., there are laws that can punish people for marrying more than one person. Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

Mores, folkways and laws are taught through the process of socialisation by various sources like family, friends, peer groups, schools, etc. However, these three clash each other in various ways. In today’s complex, competitive society, one finds it difficult to cope up with these three elements of society. Example: there is a man who belongs to a poor family and has the responsibility of marriage of his sister. Being born in a poor family, he doesn’t have enough money for his sister’s marriage. As per the laws, asking for dowry is illegal, but due to his financial condition, he has to ask for dowry from his in-laws to get his sister married. In such situation folkways, mores and law clash each other.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology

Question 2.
Do you think that role conflict is inevitable in social life?
Answer:
Yes, the role conflict is inevitable in social life.
When an individual has to play several roles at a time, then it is not possible to perform one role appropriately, it is called as role conflict. In today’s society, everyone wants to achieve high status in society. Everyone wants to achieve a life of luxury and comfort. People want to earn more and more money. Expectations have been increased. In order to adjust with such competitive situation, one has to play different role in the society. That creates role conflict.

Example: A woman working as a nurse in the hospital, has to look after her sick in-laws at home, because of which she can’t pay proper attention towards her duty. A husband who has to attend urgent meeting as a manager, can’t give time to his family. One has to perform multiple roles in a complex society. That is why role conflict is inevitable in social life.

7. Answer the following in detail (About 150-200 words).

Question 1.
Identify any two secondary groups of which you are a member. Discuss any four characteristics with reference to the groups that you have named.
Answer:
Secondary groups have impersonal, formal, indirect, temporary and goal oriented relationships with large number of members. It is not possible to have regular, permanent, close and intimate relations with everyone. People meet each other only for serving specific purposes. Relations are maintained only when the specific purposes are fulfilled and people are satisfied.

People are always very busy and it is necessary to have appointments before meeting. Secondary group are heterogeneous and formal in natural. People are given time to meet but for that purpose only. People do not meet for long term goals. Free expressions of emotions, feelings and intimacy is not allowed. In secondary group, members have to follow rules and regulations strictly.

Example : (i) Student of a college
(ii) Member of NSUI – National Students Union of India (or) ABVP – Akhil Bhartiya Vidhyarthi Parishad
Characteristics of secondary group with reference to the above mentioned group. Large Size: In college or in NSUI number of students and members is large. Here, the membership is unlimited as compared to primary group.

Indirect relations : Due to large size, direct relations among all the students and members are not possible. To convey any message, we take help of modern means of communication, e.g., mobile phones, e-mail, WhatsApp, etc.

Impersonal relations : As the members are large in size personal interactions is very rarely seen. Here, we do not know each other personally. That is why, relationship is not personal.

Formal relations : Informal relations is not possible because face to face contact can’t take place. People are more goal oriented. Membership is strictly based upon laws and regulations.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology

11th Sociology Digest Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITY (Textbook Page No. 25)

Question 1.
Visit a rural, tribal or urban community and speak to 3-5 people and find out about their work, families, customs, beliefs etc. Write a report or make a short film on your mobile phone.
Answer:
Tribal, Rural and Urban Community – Work, Families, Customs, Beliefs-
(i) The Tribal Community : The tribal community is small in size. Each tribe has its own culture. They are close to nature and their life is influenced by religion. Therefore, they worship natural forces and seek assistance from the shaman and magician for solving their problems. Their economy and usage of technology is simple. This is known as subsistence economy.

(ii) Rural Community : The rural community is largely homogeneous. The main occupation of the people in this community is agriculture and non-agricultural occupations such as dairy farming, poultry, etc. This community is influenced by nature and they worship it as God or Goddess.

The rural community is influenced by the institution of family and characterized by primary relations. Joint family continues to exist in rural areas though some modification has occurred.

(iii) Urban Community : The urban community is large in size and consists of mostly nuclear families. It is a settlement of socially heterogeneous people. Occupations of the urban people are non agricultural. There is more scope for division of labour. This community is greatly impacted by artificial or man-made environment rather than natural environment on the urban community.

Question 2.
Prepare a photo essay regarding interactions observed within primary and secondary groups. Students should go around in their neighbouring localities and capture with their devices (like mobiles), the interaction patterns based on characteristics of various types of groups. How to write a photo essay? (Textbook Page No. 29)
Answer:
(Students are required to perform this activity themselves by visiting the link http://www. collectivelens.com/blog/creating-photoessay/ as a guideline.)

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology

Question 3.
Conduct a role play exercise to understand the concept of role conflict and role strain. For example: Working women performing various roles inside and outside the home. (Textbook Page No. 32)
Answer:
Understanding 1: Women consider that the household affairs and care for the family is their primary duty. Women are thus confronted with the challenge of playing the dual role, to excel at home, as well as at the workplace. To prove her competence on both the fronts, women are facing the problem of overwork and are often being stressed or drained of their energy. Yet, they find themselves unable to match the expectations at any of the two places, which gives rise to role conflict and role strain.

Understanding 2:
Role Conflict:
Role conflict occurs when conflicting expectations arise from two or more statuses than an individual occupies.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology 3

Role Strain:
Role strain arises when conflicting expectations are built into a single status.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 3 Basic Concepts in Sociology 4

Question 4.
List out various folkways and mores that we find in our day-to-day lives. (Textbook Page No. 33)
Answer:
Folkways: The folkways are the recognized ways of behaving and acting in society. Folkways are norms that stem from and organize casual interactions and emerge out of repetition and routines. We engage in them to satisfy our daily needs and they are most often unconscious in operation, though they are quite useful for the ordered functioning of the society.

  1. Waiting in a queue
  2. Appropriate dressing.
  3. Practice of raising one’s hand to take turns while speaking in a group.
  4. While eating using one’s fingers, eating with chopsticks, eating with fork and spoon.
  5. Different ways of wearing a sari.

Mores : “More are the popular habits and traditions when they include a judgment that are conductive to social welfare and when they exert a coercion on an individual to conform to them”.

More are stricter than folkways, as they determine what is considered moral and ethical behaviour. Mores structure the difference between right and wrong. Violation of mores results in disapproval or ostracizing. As such mores play a key role in shaping our value, beliefs, behaviour, and interactions than folkways.

  1. Religious doctrine.
  2. Sexual relations before marriage are not permitted.
  3. It is not acceptable to use drugs such as heroin and cocaine.
  4. It is expected that one will be one time for work.
  5. Talking to oneself in public is not considered normal behaviour.
  6. Nudity in public is not acceptable.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists

1. (A) Choose the correct alternative and complete the statements.

Question 1.
The Industrial Revolution took place in ………………..
(North America / Europe / Australia)
Answer:
Europe

Question 2.
Science is based on …………………
(beliefs / facts / guess work)
Answer:
facts

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists

Question 3.
Significant work has been done on kinship organisation in India, by female sociologist ………………
(Iravati Karve / Suma Chitnis / Neera Desai)
Answer:
Iravati Karve

Question 4.
The ……………….. stage of societal growth is characterised by explanations which are abstract but not God-centred.
(Theological / Metaphysical / Positive)
Answer:
Metaphysical

1. (B) Correct the incorrect pair.

Question 1.
(a) Abdul Rahman Ibn-Khaldun – North Africa
(b) Auguste Comte – France
(c) Harriet Martineau – England
(d) Karl Marx – Russia
Answer:
(d) Karl Marx – Germany

1. (C) Identify the appropriate term from the given options.

(Polarization. M. N. Srinivas, R. N. Mukherjee)
Question 1.
Marx argues that classes will become hostile towards each other.
Answer:
Polarization

Question 2.
The Indian sociologist who coined the term westernisation.
Answer:
M. N. Srinivas

1. (D) Correct the underlined words and complete the sentence.

Question 1.
The stage of society where empirical evidence forms the basis for explanation is the theological stage.
Answer:
The stage of society where empirical evidence forms the basis for explanation is the positive / scientific stage.

Question 2.
The book ‘Le Suicide’ was written by Hobbes.
Answer:
The book ‘Le Suicide’ was written by Emile Durkheim

2. Write short notes.

Question 1.
Contribution of G. S. Ghurye to Indian Sociology.
Answer:
1. Govind Sadashiv Ghurye was the first who introduced sociology in India after independence. Therefore, he is considered as the ‘Father of Indian Sociology’. He established ‘Indian Sociological Society’ and started the journal ‘Sociological Bulletin’.

2. Ghurye’s work on scheduled tribes, were based on the historical, administrative and social dimensions of Indian tribes. He wanted the tribals to be integrated with the wider Indian society. He has written on tribes like Mahadev Kolis in Maharashtra. His book, ‘Caste and Race in India’ is one of the most important contribution to Indian sociology.

3. Ghurye referred to the long process of Hinduisation of the tribes from different parts of India. He considered cultural unity between tribes and caste as the only means to promote integration in Indian society.

4. His book, ‘Caste and Race in India’, published in 1932 combines historical, anthropological and sociological perspectives to understand caste and kinship system in India.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists

Question 2.
Types of suicide according to Durkheim.
Answer:
Suicide is a type of death carried by an individual intentionally or deliberately. According to Durkheim suicide is a social phenomenon. Following are the types of suicide.
1. Egoistic suicide : It takes place when an individual is very much self-centred and least bothered about the other members of society, e.g., it is committed by people who become introvert and have less desires to live in the company of others, suicide rates are higher for those widowed, single and divorced.

2. Anomic suicide : When situations go against the norms and values of a person. In such condition individual finds it difficult to face the situation and adjust with that, e.g., suicide of farmers.

3. Altruistic suicide : This type of suicide is different from egoistic suicide. This type of suicide means sacrificing own life for the betterment of people or society, e.g., Sati system, a patient commits suicide for the sake of family.

4. Fatalistic suicide : When an individual is under excessive control from the outside factors fatalistic suicide takes place e.g., Dowry death. According to Durkheim social situations, circumstances, factors are responsible for suicide and become a ‘social fact.’

3. Differentiate between.

Question 1.
Theological Stage and Positive Stage.
Answer:

Theological Stage Positive Stage
(i) Theological stage is the first stage of Comte’s Law of three stages. (i) Positive stage is last or third stage of Comte’s law of three stages.
(ii) Human thinking, ideas and views were influenced by spiritual and supernatural factors. (ii) This is an improved rational, scientific form of human thinking.
(iii) All societies believed that God controls all events in the world. (iii) Instead of imagination and superstitious belief, societies turn towards empirical scientific approach.
(iv) Example : Natural calamities like flood, drought etc., were the expressions of God’s anger. (iv) Example : Discoveries of Newton and Galileo, enlightement.

Question 2.
Anomic Suicide and Altruistic Suicide.
Answer:

Anomic Suicide Altruistic Suicide
(i) Anomic suicide takes place in situations where one is not able to adjust with circumstances which arise unexpectedly. (i) Altruistic suicide means, an individual commits suicide with the object of doing well for others.
(ii) This is due to economic instability and personal struggle. (ii) This is due to fanatical love for one’s own community.
(iii) It reflects a normlessness. (iii) It is value-oriented.
(iv) Example : Businessman committed suicide due economic depression or extreme prosperity. (iv) Example : Sati system (committed by Indian women in the past), Hara-kiri (committed by Japanese)

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists

4. (A) Complete the concept maps.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists 2

4. (B) State whether the following statements are true or false with reasons.

Question 1.
According to Marx, capitalism gives rise to we feeling among workers.
Answer:
This statement is True.

  1. Capitalists accumulate profit through the exploitation of labour. The poverty of the workers’ class grows with increasing exploitation of labour.
  2. Economic exploitation and inhuman conditions lead to the increasing alienation of workers.
  3. The classes tend to become internally homogeneous and class struggle, more intensified and creates class solidarity and we feeling among the workers.

Question 2.
Iravati Karve has made significant contribution to the study of Kinship in India.
Answer:
This statement is True.

  1. Iravati Karve has contributed in the field of Sociology as well as Anthropology. She wrote a book ‘Kinship Organization in India’ in which she describes major kinship systems in India.
  2. Kinship is one of the concepts which is socially and culturally related with factors like family, caste and languages in India.
  3. According to her, kinship system is based on the geographical and linguistic group differences.
    Thus, Iravati Karve has made significant contribution to the study of Kinship in India

5. Give your personal response.

Question 1.
Do you think globalization has led to polarization of classes? Discuss with relevant examples of your own.
Answer:
Yes, globalization has led to polarization of classes. This has led to segregation of people in the society that may emerge from income inequality, economic restructuring etc. It leads to differentiation of groups on the basis of high income and low income. Skilled people manage to get high paying jobs while the less educated/skilled people receive low wages.

Question 2.
Do you think Kinship bonds are weakening? Give reasons for your response?
Answer:
Yes, I think as we Indians are progressing and trying to establish our nation as a developed nation, we on the other side are losing importance of our family ties. Kinship bonds means ties based on blood and marriage.
Following are some of the reasons which are axing Kinship bonds.

  1. Urbanisation, one of the major reasons of migration of people from rural to urban resulting into formation of a nuclear family.
  2. Modernisation, making individuals self-centred, career oriented simultaneously detach from family.
  3. Change in the medium of recreation, earlier it was family get together or celebration of festivals or religious ceremony now it is Cinema Hall or Visit to Mall.
  4. Increasing control of electronic gadgets like T.V., Mobile Internet, etc., which make virtual world closer but taxing to kinship bond, care and attachment.
  5. Dominance of materialistic world results into abundance of needs. Above all, todays smart and modern generation is chopping their own roots, meaning, weakening kinship bonds.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists

6. Answer the following in detail (About 150-200 words).

Question 1.
You have studied about Comte’s Law of Three Stages of human thought. With reference to the first and third stage, comment on the challenges it poses for Indian society.
Answer:
Auguste Comte believed that the evolution of human mind had taken place along with the evolution of the individual mind. Comte’s social philosophy is based on the concept of three stage of human thought.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists 3

Theological stage : In this stage human beings believed in supernatural and spiritual factors. It was believed that three was a control of God on all events in the world. The human mind, at this level, supposed that all phenomena was produced by the immediate action of supernatural beings. For example, all natural calamities were the expressions of God’s anger. This stage is dominated by priests and ruled by military men.
Following are the challenges which poses for Indian society:

  1. During this stage, human mind is dominated by sentiments, feelings and emotions.
  2. Certain section of Indian society believed that all actions/events happened due to power of God/ Supernatural beings.
    E.g. drought, flood, earthquake etc., natural calamities were nothing but anger of God.
  3. Explanation for all happening events are the form of myths concerning spirits and supernatural beings.
  4. During this stage, military society was basically dying and priests were dominated.
  5. In short, due to effect of theological stage there was lack of logical and orderly thinking in the Indian society.

Positive/Scientific stage : Comte says, scientific stage is an improved and scientific form of human thinking. Now, instead of imagination, we turn to observation. Since Reason and examination were basic planks of knowledge at this stage hence, one seeks to establish laws which link facts and which govern social life.

Effect of scientific stage on Indian Society:

  1. Finally, in this stage, Indian society turned towards the scientific way of thinking.
  2. Instead of imaginations, society turned towards observation, reason and examination all these were basic planks of knowledge.
  3. The concept of God started vanishing from human mind.
  4. Society adopted the scientific rational way of thinking and there is no place for any belief or superstition in it.
  5. In this way, Comte’s first and third stage affected the Indian Society.

11th Sociology Digest Chapter 2 Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITY (Textbook Page No. 16)

Question 1.
Discuss how ‘polarization of classes’ and ‘class solidarity’ are relevant in the present times.
Answer:
In present times, polarization of classes and class solidarity is associated with the segregation within a society which are immediate cause of emergence of income inequality, economic displacements, formation of various social groups from high income to low income, economic restructuring particularly in cities, economic inequality etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists

Question 2.
Read newspaper articles related to caste issues (e.g. representation, atrocities, reservation) and share the findings with your class. (Textbook Page No. 19)
Answer:
Reference : Times of India (March 29, 2019)
The Indian Express (June 6, 2019)
Times of India (June 3, 2019)