Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 3 Chalcolithic Villages in India Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 3 Chalcolithic Villages in India
1A. Choose the correct alternative and write the complete sentences.
On one of the cemetery H pots, dead humans are seen carried by ____________ in their stomach.
The archaeological evidence shows that Balathal was a center of mass production of ____________
(a) stone pots
(b) copper pots
(c) earthen pots
(c) earthen pots
Permanent villages of farmers were first established in Maharashtra by ____________ people.
1B. Find the incorrect pair from set ‘B’ and write the correct ones.
|Set ‘A’||Set ‘A’|
|1. Savalda Culture||Daimadabad|
|2. Malwa Culture||Navadatoli|
|3. Ahar Culture||Sonpur|
|4. Jorwe Culture||Inamgaon|
3. Ahar Culture – Balathal
2A. Explain the statements with reasons.
Harappan people had to migrate.
- When the Mature (urban) Harappan civilisation collapsed completely, the people of Late Harappan cultures who had settled on the ruins of Mature Harappan cities had to migrate elsewhere.
- The urban Harappans and the Late Harappans dispersed. Wherever these people reached, new rural cultures came into being.
- Thus, as the Harappan civilisation collapsed, Harappan people had to migrate.
People of ‘Malwa’ culture were the first farmers of Maharashtra.
- The people of Malwa culture reached Maharashtra around 1600 B.C.E. Permanent villages of farmers were first established in Maharashtra by the Malwa people.
- After arriving in Maharashtra, they came into contact with the neolithic people in Karnataka.
- It resulted in a few changes in the pot-making technology of Malwa people as far as shapes of the pots and designs are concerned.
- Thus, they were considered the first farmers of Maharashtra as they were the first to establish in Maharashtra.
3. State your opinion.
It seems that the Harappan people had gone as far as Bihar.
- Chalcolithic sites have been discovered in Bihar, Bengal, Odisha, and Madhya Pradesh.
- The excavations at sites like Chirand, Sonpur, etc. yielded earthen pots of black-and-red ware.
- The shapes of these pots are similar to those of Harappan culture.
- Thus, it seems that the Harappan people had gone as far as Bihar, and the local cultures were influenced by them.
4. Write short notes.
- The chalcolithic culture in India generally belongs to, the Post-Harappan period.
- However, the ‘Ahar’ or ‘Banas’ culture in the Mewad region of Rajasthan was contemporary to the Harappan civilisation.
- Balathal and Gilund are important sites of Ahar culture.
- It was first discovered at Ahar near Udaipur, so it was named as ‘Ahar’ culture.
- Ahar is a tributary of the river Banas, so it is also known as ‘Banas culture’.
- The name ‘Malwa’ tells us that this culture originated and spread first in the Malwa region.
- It flourished in Madhya Pradesh during 1800 B.C.E. – 1200 B.C.E. Navadatoli, situated on the bank of Narmada is an important site of Malwa culture.
- The people of Malwa culture reached Maharashtra around 1600 B.C.E.
- Permanent villages of farmers were first established in Maharashtra by the Malwa people. They were the first farmers of Maharashtra.
- Kayatha is a chalcolithic site situated on the banks of the river known as Chhoti Kali Sindh at a distance of 25 km from Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh.
- Kayatha culture was contemporary to the Harappan civilisation.
- The Kayatha people followed agriculture and animal husbandry.
- They mainly used handmade pots and microliths.
5. Write about the chalcolithic cultures in Gujarat with the help of the given points.
(b) Means of livelihood
(c) Geographical spread
(d) Evidence of cultural contact with other people.
(a) Period: The chalcolithic settlements in Gujarat coincide with the following phases of the Harappan culture:
- Early Harappan phase (3950-2600 B.C.E.)
- Mature (urban) phase (2600-1900 B.C.E.)
- Post-Harappan phase (1900-900 B.C.E.)
(b) Means of livelihood: There are ample sources of semi-precious stones in Gujarat. Making beads of these stones was a big industry during Harappan times. The Neolithic settlements in Gujarat played a major role in procuring these stones. People residing in the neolithic settlements of Gujarat were mainly pastoral, that is people whose primary occupation was animal husbandry. Thus, making beads, animal husbandry, pottery making were some of the means of livelihood.
(c) Geographical spread: There are regional variations in the characteristics of the chalcolithic cultures of Gujarat. The chalcolithic pottery of Kutch – Saurashtra and Northern Gujarat are distinct from each other. The chalcolithic villages in Kutch-Saurashtra were abandoned by 1900 B.C.E.
(d) Evidence of cultural contact with other people: In the post-Harappan period there were two chalcolithic cultures in Gujarat. The culture in south Gujarat was known as ‘Prabhas’ culture and the one in northeastern Gujarat was known as ‘Rangpur’ culture. These cultures existed till 1800-1200 B.C.E.
With the help of the Internet, reference books, field trips, newspaper articles, etc. obtain pictures of excavated artifacts and architectural remains and arrange an exhibition under the guidance of your teachers.
To be done by students.