By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities
→ Some products obtained from primary activities are consumed directly by man.
→ However, some products need to be processed to make them more useful and durable.
→ Thus, products obtained from primary activities are used as raw materials in secondary activities.
→ Processing of products from primary activities takes place in manufacturing industries where they are changed into finished product to be sold in markets.
→ Thus, secondary activities increases the value of primary products by transforming raw material into finished products.
→ Extreme climate is not suitable for the development of industries. Hence, most of the industries develop in the areas of moderate climate.
→ Industries using perishable, heavy, bulky and weight-losing raw materials are located near the raw material producing areas.
→ Water is one of the most important factor for the industries. Power or energy like coal, electricity, etc., are indispensable resources for running the machinery of industries.
→ Different types of industries require different labour. Some industries need semi-skilled whereas some need skilled labour.
→ The cost of transportation and time required to transport raw material and finished product is known as economic distance.
→ Low cost of transportation is deciding factor of location of industry.
→ Large area is necessary for the construction of industry and therefore, flat and well-served areas with transportation facilities are important for the development of industries.
→ The entire process of manufacturing is futile until the finished goods reach the market. Therefore, nearness to market is an added advantage for quick disposal of finished products.
→ Capital is a very important factor in the development of industries as huge investments is necessary for establishing industries.
→ The government can encourage or discourage the development of industries in certain areas by providing facilities and vice-versa.
→ Governments support establishing zones or regions which are specially developed for industrial production. In India, they are called Special Economic Zones (SEZs).
→ Some productions are decentralized and are arranged at different places to reduce transport cost which is referred to as split location.
→ A proportionate saving in costs gained by an increased level of production is called economy of scale or agglomeration.
→ By using available opportunities according to ‘economies of scale’, the region attracts more and more industries in a region.
→ Footloose industries are industries which does not depend much on available resources, production skills and consumers on which it depends can be found in numerous places.
→ Most footloose industries produce low volume and high-value outputs.
Characteristic Features of Industrial Regions
- Agglomeration of industries.
- Dense population growth, large labour force.
- Employment to large working populations.
- Large banking and credit facilities.
- A large network of transportation.
- Excellent communication facilities
Classification based on raw material
→ Agro-based Industries:
Industries using agricultural produce as a raw material are known as agro-based industries.
→ Marine-based Industries :
All those units involved in processing and canning of fish, fish products and other marine products known as marine-based industries.
→ Forest-based Industries :
Industries using products from forests which are processed are known as forest-based industries.
→ Mineral-based Industries :
Industries in which manufacturing is based on minerals are mineral-based industries.
→ Pastoral-based Industries:
Industries which depend upon animals as their raw material are pastoral-based industries.
Classification based on the basis of capital investment
→ Large scale Industries
In India, industries requiring an investment of more than X 10 crore are large-scale industries.
→ Micro, Small and Medium Industries
Micro industries: Here, investment in plant and machinery is not more than X 25 lakh and investment in equipments not more than X 10 lakh.
→ Small scale industries:
Here, investment in plant and machinery more than X 25 lakh but does not exceed X 5 crore and investment in equipment is more than X 10 lakh but not more than X 2 crores.
→ Medium-scale industries:
Here, investment in plant and machinery is more than X 5 crores but does exceed X 10 crores and investment in equipment more than X 2 crores but does not exceed X 5 crores.
→ Cottage or Household Industry
Cottage industry is a basic industry. It needs little capital and involves less transportation cost.
Classification based on nature of output
→ Heavy Industries:
Industries producing materials, which are used as raw material in other industries, are known as heavy industries or basic industries.
→ Light Industries
Industries producing goods for direct consumption for consumers are called light industries or consumer goods industries.
→ Ancillary Industries
Industries which manufacture spare parts to be used in other industries are called ancillary industries.
Classification based on ownerships
→ Public sector industries
Industries owned by the State are called public sector industries.
→ Private-sector industries
Industries owned by private individual or partnerships of private individuals are known as private sector industries.
→ Joint sector industries
Industries which are managed by an individual and government or between two or more governments are called joint sector industries.
→ Co-operative sector industries
A group of people pool their resources to set up and manage industry on cooperative basis are called cooperative sector industries.
Privately or public owned industries in the process of manufacturing involve more than one country are called multinational corporation.