## Maharashtra Board 8th Class Maths Practice Set 9.1 Solutions Chapter 9 Discount and Commission

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Maths Solutions covers the Practice Set 9.1 8th Std Maths Answers Solutions Chapter 9 Discount and Commission.

## Practice Set 9.1 8th Std Maths Answers Chapter 9 Discount and Commission

8th Standard Maths Practice Set 9.1 Question 1. If marked price = Rs 1700, selling price = Rs 1540, then find the discount.
Solution:
Here, Marked price = Rs 1700,
selling price = Rs 1540
Selling price = Marked price – Discount
∴ 1540 = 1700 – Discount
∴ Discount = 1700 – 1540
= Rs 160
∴ The amount of discount is Rs 160.

Discount and Commission Practice Set 9.1 Question 2. If marked price Rs 990 and percentage of discount is 10, then find the selling price.
Solution:
Here, marked price = Rs 990,
discount = 10%
Let the percentage of discount be x
∴ x = 10%
i. Discount

= Rs 99

ii. Selling price = Marked price – Discount
= 990 – 99
= Rs 891
∴ The selling price is Rs 891.

Practice Set 9.1 Question 3. If selling price Rs 900, discount is 20%, then find the marked price.
Solution:
Here, selling price = Rs 900, discount = 20%
Let the marked price be Rs 100
Since, the discount given = 20%
∴ Amount of discount = Rs 20
∴ Selling price = 100 – 20 – Rs 80
Let actual marked price be Rs x
∴ For marked price of Rs x, selling price is Rs 900
$$\frac{80}{100}=\frac{900}{x}$$
∴ 80 × x = 100 × 900
∴ $$x=\frac{100 \times 900}{80}$$
∴ x = Rs 1125
∴ The marked price is Rs 1125.

Discount and Commission Std 8 Question 4. The marked price of the fan is Rs 3000. Shopkeeper gave 12% discount on it. Find the total discount and selling price of the fan.
Solution:
Here, Marked price = Rs 3000, discount = 12%
Let the percentage of discount be x.
∴ x = 12%
i. Discount

= 30 × 12
= Rs 360

ii. Selling price = Marked price – Discount
= 3000 – 360
= Rs 2640
∴ The total discount is Rs 360 and the selling price of the fan is Rs 2640.

Discount and Commission 8th Standard Question 5. The marked price of a mixer is Rs 2300. A customer purchased it for Rs 1955. Find percentage of discount offered to the customer.
Solution:
Here, marked price = Rs 2300,
selling price = Rs 1955
i. Selling price = Marked price – Discount
∴ 1955 = 2300 – Discount
∴ Discount = 2300 – 1955
= Rs 345

ii. Let the percentage of discount be x

∴ x = 15%
∴ The percentage of discount offered to the customer is 15%.

Question 6.
A shopkeeper gives 11% discount on a television set, hence the cost price of it is Rs 22,250. Then find the marked price of the television set.
Solution:
Here, selling price = Rs 22,250, discount = 11%
Let marked price be Rs 100
Since, the discount given = 11%
∴ Amount of discount = Rs 11
∴ Selling price = 100 – 11 = Rs 89
∴ Let actual marked price be Rs x
∴ For marked price of Rs x, selling price is Rs 22,250

∴ x = Rs 25,000
∴ The marked price of the television set is Rs 25,000.

8th Std Maths Discount and Commission Question 7. After offering discount of 10% on marked price, a customer gets total discount of Rs 17. To find the cost price for the customer, fill in the following boxes with appropriate numbers and complete the activity.
Solution:
Suppose, marked price of the item = 100 rupees Therefore, for customer that item costs 100 – 10 = 90 rupees.
Hence, when the discount is [10] then the selling price is [90] rupees.
Suppose when the discount is [17] rupees, the selling price is x rupees.

∴ The customer will get the item for Rs 153.

Question 8.
A shopkeeper decides to sell a certain item at a certain price. He tags the price on the item by increasing the decided price by 25%. While selling the item, he offers 20% discount. Find how many more or less percent he gets on the decided price.
Solution:
Here, price increase = 25%,
discount offered = 20%
Let the decided price be Rs 100
∴ Increase in price = Rs 25
∴ Shopkeeper marks the price = 100 + 25
= Rs 125
∴ marked price = Rs 125
Let the percentage of discount be x
∴ x = 20%

∴ Selling price = Marked price – Discount
= 125 – 25
= Rs 100
∴ If the decided price is Rs 100, then shopkeeper gets Rs 100.
∴ The shopkeeper gets neither more nor less than the decided price i.e. he gets 0% more / less.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 Maths Chapter 9 Discount and Commission Practice Set 9.1 Intext Questions and Activities

Question 1.
Write the appropriate numbers in the following boxes. (Textbook pg. no. 51)

1. $$\frac { 12 }{ 100 }=$$ __ percent = __%
2. 47% = __
3. 86% = __
4. 4% of 300 = 300 × __ = __
5. 15% of 1700 = 1700 × __= __

Solution:

1. $$\frac { 12 }{ 100 }=$$ 12 percent = 12%
2. 47% = $$\frac { 47 }{ 100 }$$
3. 86% = $$\frac { 86 }{ 100 }$$
4. 4% of 300 = 300 × $$\frac { 4 }{ 100 }$$ = 12
5. 15% of 1700 = 1700 × $$\frac { 15 }{ 100 }$$ = 255

Question 2.
You may have seen advertisements like ‘Monsoon Sale’, ‘Stock Clearance Sale’ etc offering different discount. In such a sale, a discount is offered on various goods. Generally in the month of July, sales of clothes are declared. Find and discuss the purpose of such sales. (Textbook pg. no. 51)
Solution:
(Students should attempt the above activity on their own)

## Maharashtra Board 8th Class Maths Practice Set 10.2 Solutions Chapter 10 Division of Polynomials

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Maths Solutions covers the Practice Set 10.2 8th Std Maths Answers Solutions Chapter 10 Division of Polynomials.

## Practice Set 10.2 8th Std Maths Answers Chapter 10 Division of Polynomials

Division of Polynomials Class 8 Practice Set 10.2 Question 1. Divide and write the quotient and the remainder.
i. (y2 + 10y + 24) ÷ (y + 4)
ii. (p2 + 7p – 5) ÷ (p + 3)
iii. (3x + 2x2 + 4x3) ÷ (x – 4)
iv. (2m3 + m2 + m + 9) ÷ (2m – 1)
v. (3x – 3x2 – 12 + x4 + x3) ÷ (2 + x2)
vi. (a4 – a3 + a2 – a + 1) ÷ (a3 – 2)
vii. (4x4 – 5x3 – 7x + 1) ÷ (4x – 1)
Solution:
i. (y2 + 10y + 24) ÷ (y + 4)

∴ Quotient = y + 6
Remainder = 0

ii. (p2 + 7p – 5) ÷ (p + 3)

∴ Quotient = p + 4
Remainder = -17

iii. (3x + 2x2 + 4x3) ÷ (x – 4)
Write the dividend in descending order of their indices.
3x + 2x² + 4x³ = 4x³ + 2x² + 3x

∴ Quotient = 4x² + 18x + 75
Remainder = 300

iv. (2m3 + m2 + m + 9) ÷ (2m – 1)

∴ Quotient = m² + m + 1
Remainder = 10

v. (3x – 3x2 – 12 + x4 + x3) ÷ (2 + x2)
Write the dividend in descending order of their indices.
(x4 + x3 – 3x2 + 3x – 12) ÷ (x2 + 2)

∴ Quotient = x² + x – 5
Remainder = x – 2

vi. (a4 – a3 + a2 – a + 1) ÷ (a3 – 2)

∴ Quotient = a – 1
Remainder = a² + a – 1

vii. (4x4 – 5x3 – 7x + 1) ÷ (4x – 1)
Write the dividend in descending order of their indices.
(4x4 – 5x3 – 7x + 1) = (4x4 – 5x3 + 0x2 – 7x + 1)

∴ Quotient = $$x^{3}-x^{2}-\frac{x}{4}-\frac{29}{16}$$
Remainder = $$\frac { -13 }{ 16 }$$

## Maharashtra Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 2 The Indian Parliament

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 2 The Indian Parliament Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 2 The Indian Parliament

Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 The Indian Parliament System Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct option.

Question 1.
Candidates to the Lok Sabha are elected through ……….. .
(a) Territorial constituencies
(b) Religious constituencies
(c) Local bodies
(d) Proportional Representation System
(a) Territorial constituencies

Question 2.
The ………….. of India is the ex-officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
(a) President
(b) Vice-President
(c) Prime Minister
(d) Chief Justice
(b) Vice-President

2. Find and write.

Question 1.
Members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are known as ……………….. .
Members of Parliament (MPs)

Question 2.
The responsibility of making laws is with the ……………… .
Parliament

3. Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
Rajya Sabha is a permanent House.

1. The tenure of the members of Rajya Sabha does not get over at the same time.
2. 1/3rd of the total membership of Rajya Sabha retire after every two years and equal number of new members get elected.
3. Because the limited members of Rajys Sabha retire step by step, it can function continuously.
Since Rajya Sabha is never dissolved completely it is called a permanent House.

Question 2.
Lok Sabha is known as the first House.

1. Lok Sabha is the lower and the first House of the Parliament of India.
2. Lok Sabha is the House of Representatives directly elected by the people. Hence, Lok Sabha is known as the first House.

4. Answer the following in 25 to 30 words:

Question 1.
How are members of the Lok Sabha elected?

1. As per the Constitution, there can be a maximum of 552 members in Lok Sabha.
2. General elections to Lok Sabha are held after every five years and members are directly elected by the people.
3. To ensure equal representation to all sections of the community, some seats are reserved for members belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
4. In case there are no representation from the Anglo-Indian community, the President can appoint two members from this community to the Lok Sabha.
5. Thus, Lok Sabha is the representative body of the citizens of India.

Question 2.
Explain the functions of the Speaker of Lok Sabha.
The functions of the Speaker of Lok Sabha are :

1. To conduct the business of the House in an unbiased manner.
2. To take care of the rights and privileges of the members of Lok Sabha.
3. To interpret the rules of daily functioning of the House and work accordingly.
4. To maintain the decorum and dignity of the House.

5. Explain the step involved in the lawmaking process.

Question 1.
Parliament :

1. The Legislature at the national level is called the Parliament.
2. It consists of the President and two houses, i.e., the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
3. Though the President is an inseparable part of the Parliament, he/she cannot participate in the discussions in either of the Houses of the Parliament.
4. The Constitution of India has created the Parliament.

Question 2.
Amendment to the Constitution :

1. According to the changing times, certain necessary changes have to be made in some laws. The process of making such changes is called Amendment.
2. Only the Parliament has the right to make such amendments to the Constitution.
3. The Constitution amendment bill is considered to be an important bill.
4. The Parliament discusses why the amendment is required and decides whether to accept it or not.

Question 3.
Members of Parliament :

1. The members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are known as Members of Parliament (MPs).
2. The members of Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people.
3. The members of Rajya Sabha are elected from the constituent States and Union Territories.
4. MPs try to resolve the queries and complaints of their constituencies by raising questions in the Parliament.
5. MPs also participate in the process of formulation of laws.
6. The Government allocates funds to MPs to carry out development activities in their constituencies.

Question 4.
Bill of Law:

1. At the initial stage of lawmaking process, a rough draft of the law is prepared.
2. This rough draft or outline is known as ‘draft proposal of the law’ or ‘bill of law’.
3. The Bill clearly mentions the objectives and the details of the proposed law.
4. Every bill has to undergo three readings in both the Houses, and then it is put to vote.

Can you find out?

For the purpose of elections, the State is divided into territorial constituencies. The constituent States in India get seats on the basis of their population. For e.g.

• Maharashtra – 48 seats
• Gujarat – 26 seats
• Goa – 02 seats
• Uttar Pradesh – 80 seats

Understand It:
(The gist of the conversation held between Mazy, Radhika, Ran veer and others.)

1. Any Indian citizen who has completed 18 years of age is only eligible to vote.
2. An Indian citizens who has completed 25 years of age can contest for Lok Sabha election.
3. A citizen of India can contest for election from any constituency of any State.
4. Citizens of other countries cannot contest for elections of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
5. Just as there are set criteria for qualifying for election, there are set criteria for disqualification as well.

Rights regarding passing of Bills:

1. Though Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha have same set of rights, Lok Sabha has certain rights which are not available for Rajya Sabha.
2. Bills related to finance (Money Bills) and such other bills are first introduced and passed in Lok Sabha.
3. Rajya Sabha has limited powers with respect to money bills.
4. Rajya Sabha can pass a resolution on the subject in the State List.

Can you tell?

Certain laws which become out-of-date (obsolete) are abolished. Can you give examples of such obsolete laws? For example, Privy purses.

Know this too:

1. Every year, on 1 February the Union Finance Minister presents the national budget to the Lok Sabha. Previously, it was presented on 28 February.
2. The State Legislatures also follow the same procedure of law making as in the Parliament.
3. The bill passed can become a law only after it is signed by the President at the Union level and by the Governor at the State level.

Project:

The President nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha. Collect information on what are the criteria for their selection.

Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 The Indian Parliament Additional Important Questions and Answers

Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct option:

Question 1.
…………….. is the upper House of the Parliament.
(a) Legislative Assembly
(b) Lok Sabha
(c) Rajya Sabha
(d) Legislative Council
(c) Rajya Sabha

Question 2.
The …………… of India has created the Parliament of India.
(a) Legislature
(b) Executive
(c) Constitution
(d) British Law
(c) Constitution

Question 3.
1/3rd members of total membership of Rajya Sabha, who have completed their tenure of six years, retire after every ……………….. years.
(a) two
(b) four
(c) five
(d) six
(a) two

Question 4.
If ……………….. feels that the Parliament should make a law of the subject in the state list, it can pass a resolution to that effect.
(a) Lok Sabha
(b) Rajya Sabha
(c) Executive
(d) President
(b) Rajya Sabha

Question 5.
Every year in the month of February, the ………….. presents the national budget to the Lok Sabha.
(a) Prime Minister
(b) President
(c) Finance Minister
(d) Speaker
(c) Finance Minister

Question 6.
The President appoints ……………….. distinguished personalities to the Rajya Sabha.
(a) two
(b) eight
(c) fifteen
(d) twelve
(d) twelve

Find and write:

Question 1.
……………. represent the Lok Sabha.
The Speaker

Question 2.
The bill passed by the State legislature becomes a law after it is signed by the ………….. .
Governor

Question 3.
The House that gives representation to 29 States and 7 Union Territories is ………………. .
Rajya Sabha

Complete the following Concept maps:

Question 1.

Question 2.

Question 3.

Write short notes on:

Question 1.
The Chairman of Rajya Sabha :

1. The Vice-President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha.
2. He exercises a control over the functioning of Rajya Sabha.
3. Maintaining discipline in the House is the function of the Chairman of Rajya Sabha.
4. He also has the responsibility of facilitating discussions in the House by giving members a chance to speak, etc.

Question 2.
Speaker of Lok Sabha :

1. The speaker is elected in the very first meeting after the election of Lok Sabha.
2. The members of Lok Sabha elect one member among them as the Speaker.
3. Lok Sabha functions under the guidance and control of the Speaker.
4. It is the responsibility of the speaker to conduct the business of the House in an unbiased manner.
5. The Speaker has to maintain decorum and dignity of the House.
6. Moreover, he has to interpret the rules and work accordingly.

Question 3.
Control over Council of Ministers :

1. Council of Ministers are drawn from the Parliament and hence Parliament exercises control over them.
2. The members of Parliament exercise this control through multiple ways.
3. It is the responsibility of the Parliament to see that the Council of Ministers does not disregard the Parliament.
4. In case the Lok Sabha passes a no-confidence motion against the Council of Ministers, it has to resign.

Answer the following in 25 to 30 words :

Question 1.

1. Since Lok Sabha is a House of people’s representatives, elections are held after every five years.
2. Elections to Lok Sabha which are held every five years are known as General elections.
3. When Lok Sabha is dissolved before the completion of five years and elections are held, such elections are called mid- term elections.
4. When a member resigns or dies suddenly, election held for such a seat is called by-election.

Question 2.
Explain the composition of Rajya Sabha.
The composition of Rajya Sabha is as follows :

1. The total membership of Rajya Sabha is 250 members.
2. Amongst them, 238 members are elected from the constituent states and Union Territories.
3. Remaining twelve members, who are distinguished personalities from the fields of literature, arts, science, sports and social work, are appointed by the President.
4. The members of Rajya Sabha are elected through the system of proportional representation.

Question 3.
Explain the functions of the Parliament.
In order to achieve welfare of the people and the objectives of the 8 Constitution, the Parliament has to perform 8 following functions :

1. To formulate new laws and to repeal the outdated laws.
2. To make necessary changes in the existing laws.
3. To amend the Constitution wherever necessary.
4. To keep control over Council of Ministers.

Question 4.
Mention the ways of amending the Constitution.
The Constitution can be amended in following ways :

1. Few provisions in the Indian Constitution can be amended by simple majority.
2. Some provisions require special (2/3rd) majority of the Parliament.
3. Few other provisions can be amended by special majority plus consent from more than half of the constituent states.

Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
Though Lok Sabha is the Lower House, it is more powerful than Rajya Sabha.

1. Since members of Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people, it represents the people of the nation in the true sense.
2. Money bills related to financial matters are presented in Lok Sabha. Rajya Sabha has very limited powers with respect to Money Bills.
3. Since the total membership of Lok Sabha is more than Rajya Sabha, it always gets an upper hand when decisions are taken in the joint meeting of both the Houses.
4. Only Lok Sabha can pass a no-confidence motion against the Council of Ministers.

Hence, though Lok Sabha is the lower House, it is more powerful than Rajya Sabha.

Answer the following questions in details:

Question 1.
Explain the steps involved in the law-making process.
The Bill undergoes following process in order to be converted into a Law (Act).

• The minister of the concerned department/ministry or member of the Parliament presents the bill in the House.
• The objectives and the structure of the Bill are mentioned.

• The positive and negative points of the bill are discussed.
• The defects and faults in the bill are stressed.
• After removing the defects and the faults, the bill is put to vote.

3. Committee Stage :

• Sometimes, if required, the Bill is sent to the committee of the House.
• The Bill is discussed in the Committee in details.
• The Committee report consisting of instructions and recommendations is sent to the House.
• The Bill is discussed clause by clause and then voting is taken.

• The Bill is once again discussed in the House.
• Voting is taken for approving the Bill.

5. Approval of the other House :

• The Bill has to undergo the same procedure even in the other House.
• The Bill is approved by majority.

6. Assent by the President :

• After getting an approval from both the Houses, the Bill is further sent for assent by the President.
• After the final assent and signature of the President, the Bill is converted into Law.

Question 2.
Distinguish between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha on the basis of following points:
1. Number of members
2. Age limit
3. Election
4. Tenure

 Points Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha 1. Number of members Maximum 552 members Total 250 members. 2. Age limit 25 years 30 years 3. Election Directly elected by the people 238 members elected from the constituent states and Union Territories. 12 members appointed by the President. 4. Tenure 5 years Permanent House. Tenure of every member is 6 years.

Question 3.
Why, according to you, the Constitution must have granted the President, the right to appoint twelve members to the Rajya Sabha?
1. The President appoints twelve members to the Rajya Sabha. These members are usually experienced and distinguished personalities from the fields of literature, arts, science, sports and social service.

2. Such personalities are very active and totally devoted to their respective fields. Hence, they have no time for contesting the elections.

3. They keep themselves away from election procedures like campaigning, conducting meetings, etc. So their election to the Parliament is not possible.

4. But, to derive benefit from their profound knowledge and experience for making of laws, their presence in the Parliament is essential.
Therefore, I feel that the Constitution has granted the President, the right to appoint twelve members to the Rajya Sabha.

## Maharashtra Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 6 Bureaucracy

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 6 Bureaucracy Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 6 Bureaucracy

Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Bureaucracy Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Identify if the following statements are correct or wrong and rewrite the wrong statements in their correct form:

Question 1.
In a Parliamentary democracy, representatives elected by the people and ministers bear the administrative responsibility.
Correct.

Question 2.
Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) recruits candidates for civil services in Maharashtra.
Wrong – Maharashtra Public Service Commission recruits candidates for civil services in Maharashtra.

2. Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
Reservation policy is followed even in Civil Services.

1. A part of the society comprising of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Women, Other Backward Castes and specially-abled is termed as the weaker section of the society.
2. It was essential to empower these weaker sections.
3. They were left out of civil services due to social inequality.
4. In order to establish social justice and provide opportunities to weaker sections of the society, reservation policy is followed even in civil services.

Question 2.
It is necessary for civil servants to be politically neutral.

1. In Parliamentary democracy, in India, a new government comes in power after every five years. But the bureaucracy is permanent, i.e. they remain same.
2. Bureaucracy is expected to implement the policies and decisions of the earlier government with same efficiency and commitment.
3. Civil servants are expected to keep away from taking a political stand and remain neutral while discharging their duties.
4.  If civil servants work according to their political views it will lead to chaos. Hence, they should be politically neutral.

3. Answer the following questions in 25 to 30 words:

Question 1.
Explain the role of the ministers and civil servants in the efficient administration of the department.

1. The efficiency of a particular department depends upon the inter-relationship between the Minister and his Secretary and Deputy secretary.
2. The decisions taken by the Ministers are based on the necessary information provided by the bureaucracy.
3. The bureaucracy, i.e. civil servants have complete information about the financial provisions for a particular scheme or plan and also about the history of successes and failures of policies.
4. Hence, if the Ministers develop mutual trust and transparency with the civil servants, it will help in the efficient administration of the department.

Question 2.
Explain how the bureaucracy provides stability to the political system.

1. Bureaucracy does the work of implementing decisions taken by the ministers.
2. Several important reforms introduced during the post-independent period have been effectively implemented by the bureaucracy.
3. It consistently provides services like water supply, public cleanliness, transport, electricity, etc. to the people and brings stability in their day-to-day life.
4. It acts as an instrument of social transformation and democratisation. In this way, it gives stability to the political system.

4. Complete the concept picture.

Question 1.

5. Discuss characteristics of bureaucracy.

Question 1.
Bureaucracy:

1. It is the administrative system that works under the Union Executive.
2. As this administrative system includes civil servants i.e. bureaucrats, it is called Bureaucracy.
3. It has the responsibility of actual implementation of government’s policies.
4. Though the ministers control the bureaucracy, they are dependent on the bureaucracy for information and efficient functioning.

Question 2.
Armed Forces and Civil Services:

1. Defending the country from external aggression and internal threats and ensuring security of the country is carried out by the Armed Forces.
2. Services provided to the citizens for making their daily lives comfortable and enabling them to develop themselves and the society are called Civil Services.
3. The administrative system developed to provide services to citizens are called Civil Services.
4. The armed forces help the civil services for internal security.

Meaning of the Headlines given In the box:

1. In the box, a few posts like District Collector, Municipal Commissioner, flnance Secretary, and Divisional Commissioner are mentioned.
2. They are civil servants in the government’s administrative system, working for the welfare of the people.

Project:

Question 1.
Prepare a questionnaire and interview a civil servant in your locality

Choose the correct options and complete the statements:

Question 1.
…………….. is permanent in nature.
(a) Election Commission
(b) Bureaucracy
(c) President
(d) Prime Ministers
(b) Bureaucracy

Question 2.
The bureaucracy is politically ……………….. .
(a) positive
(b) negative
(c) biased
(d) neutral
(d) neutral

Question 3.
The Parliament holds the ……….. responsible for malpractices.
(a) bureaucracy
(b) Prime Minister
(c) minister
(d) President
(c) minister

Question 4.
The ………….. has established autonomous institutions like the Public Service Commissions for selecting efficient civil servants.
(a) Constitution
(b) Council of Ministers
(c) Parliament
(d) President
(a) Constitution

Question 5.
The ‘Indian Foreign Service’ is included under ……………
(a) All India Services
(b) Union or Central Services
(c) State Civil Services
(d) Armed Forces
(b) Union or Central Services

Identify if the following statements are correct or wrong and rewrite the wrong statements in their correct form:

Question 1.
Bureaucracy is an important instrument of social transformation.
Correct.

Question 2.
Civil servants are not aware of the history of successes and failures of policies.
Wrong – Civil servants are aware of the history of successes and failures of policies.

Question 3.
Civil servants are never publicly criticised.
Correct.

Complete the following concept maps:

Question 1.

Question 2.

Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
Coordination between the Civil Servants and Ministers help in efficient functioning of the government.

1. In Parliamentary democracy, the Executive is responsible for the efficient governance of the country.
2. The decisions relating to the concerned department are made by the minister-in-charge, but necessary information to make such decisions is given by the civil servants.
3. The ministers are dependent on the civil servants for many reasons.

Hence, coordination and mutual trust between the civil servants and ministers help in efficient functioning of the government.

Question 2.
The Bureaucracy is not held directly responsible for any success or failure of policy.

1. It is the Minister who is responsible for the efficient and smooth functioning of his department.
2. Though providing necessary information and giving advice is the function of the bureaucracy, it is not accountable for any inefficiency.
3. The Parliament holds the Minister responsible for inefficiency and malpractices.
4. In such case, the Minister bears the responsibility and protects the bureaucracy.

Thus, the anonymity of bureaucracy is preserved, which means they are not held directly responsible for any success or failure of policy. ‘

Question 3.
Bureaucracy is considered as an important instrument of social transformation.

1. Many laws are enacted by the government for empowerment of women, protection of children and marginalised sections of the society.
2. Social change is brought through the implementation of such policies.
3. These laws are successfully implemented by the bureaucracy.

Hence, Bureaucracy is considered as an important instrument of social transformation.

Answer the following questions in 25 to 30 words:

Question 1.
Explain the characteristics of Bureaucracy.

1. Bureaucracy is the administrative system which actually implements the government’s policies.
2. Though the government changes, bureaucracy remains constant. Thus, it is permanent in nature.
3. It has to remain politically neutral and discharge its duties.
4. Its anonymity is maintained, i.e. it is not held directly responsible for any success or failure of policies and it is never publicly criticized.

Thus, the structure of Bureaucracy in India is extensive and complex.

Question 2.
Explain the significance of Indian bureaucracy.

1. The Indian bureaucracy implements the policies made by the government for the welfare of the people effectively.
2. It provides several essential services to the people consistently and brings stability in their day to day life.
3. It provides stability to the political system.
4. It acts as an important instrument of social transformation and democratization of society.

Question 3.
Explain the role of bureaucracy in the democratisation of society.

1. Equality and social justice are important values of democracy.
2. Bureaucracy has helped in bringing marginalised sections of society into the mainstream by implementing the reservation policy effectively.
3. Their participation has been increased in the process of decision¬making.
4. Democratisation of society not only requires progressive laws and policies but also effective participation of bureaucracy in implementing it.

Thus, bureaucracy plays an important role in the democratisation of society.

Question 4.
Why have autonomous institutions like Public Service Commissions been established?
The Constitution of India has established autonomous institutions like Public Service Commissions for following reasons:

1. To select civil servants.
2. To conduct competitive exams for selecting candidates on the criteria of merit and efficiency.
3. To decide other aspect to like the nature of the exam, syllabus, eligibility, etc.
4. To select efficient and deserving candidates through interviews and recommend them to the government for appointment.

Open-Ended Question:

Question 1.
Express your views on ‘ideal bureaucracy’.
Bureaucracy includes civil servants and all the employees working in various government offices. In India, bureaucracy is criticised most of the times and is seldom praised.
According to me, an ideal bureaucracy should function as follows:

1. The bureaucracy should advise and force the ministers to adopt policies of public welfare.
2. It should give full cooperation to the ministers for implementing policies effectively.
3. It should adopt the principle of equality and an unbiased approach while implementing the policies so that maximum people are benefitted.
4. It should make the people aware of different beneficial policies.
5. It should strictly keep away from ill- practices like corruption, unnecessary delay, cheating and frauds, etc.
6. It should aim at establishing social justice by extending maximum benefits to weaker sections.
7. It should function as an effective medium for development of the country, social transformation and democratisation of society.

(B) Oral Examination:

Question 1.
Who is the Chief Civil Servant of your district?

Question 2.
Name any two schemes/plans implemented by the government officers for your village/city.

Question 3.
How do armed forces help the civil servants?

Question 4.
Who is the Chief Civil Servant of a taluka/tehsil?

Formative Evaluation:

Oral Work:

1. Interview:
Prepare a questionnaire and interview a civil servant in your locality.

2. Group discussion:
Conduct a group discussion in your class on the topic ‘Role of bureaucracy in the development of city/village.’

Project:

Question 1.
Collect information about the working of bureaucracy at taluka/tehsil level.

## Maharashtra Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 5 The State Government

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 5 The State Government Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 5 The State Government

Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 The State Government Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Choose the correct option and complete the statements:

Question 1.
The winter session of Maharashtra Legislature takes place at ……………… .
(a) Mumbai
(b) Nagpur
(c) Pune
(b) Nagpur

Question 2.
The ……………. appoints the Governor.
(a) Chief Minister
(b) Prime Minister
(c) President
(d) Chief Justice
(c) President

Question 3.
The right to summon the state legislature lies with the …………… .
(a) Chief Minister
(b) Governor
(c) President
(d) Speaker
(b) Governor

2. Complete the table:

Question 1.

3. Write short notes on:

Question 1.
The Governor:

1. The Governor is the titular/ nominal head of the state.
2. The government of the state is run in the name of the Governor.
3. He is appointed by the President and holds the office during the pleasure of the President.
4. He appoints the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers.
5. As the head of the state, he enjoys certain important Legislative and Executive powers.
6. He has a right to summon the session of the state legislature.
7. In case the need arises, he can issue ordinance to make the law.

Question 2.
Functions of the Chief Minister:
The functions of the Chief Minister, as an Executive head of the state, are as follows:

1. To form an able Council of Ministers giving maximum representation to various regions and social groups.
2. To distribute portfolios considering the political experience, administrative skills, public awareness, leadership, etc. of the ministers.
3. To develop proper cooperation and coordination between Departments, resolve their conflicts and make them work effectively.
4. To lead the state, frame proper policies and implement them effectively, intervene in issues of the state and solve them for the comfort of the people.

4. Answer the following in brief:

Question 1.
Enumerate the functions of the Speaker of the Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly).
The Speaker is elected by the members of Vidhan Sabha. His functions are as follows:

1. To prepare the order of daily proceedings in the House.
2. To carry out the proceedings of the House in a disciplined manner.
3. To suspend the members for misbehaviour or misconduct.
4. To control and guide the proceedings of the House during sessions.

Question 2.
Why did the Constitution adopt a federal system for India?

1. India is a country having large geographic expanse.
2. It has a multicultural population.
3. There is a great diversity in language, religion, ways of life and regional characteristics.
4. It would not have been possible to govern such a huge country from a centralised place. Hence, the Constitution adopted a federal system of India.

Question 3.
What are the considerations of the Chief Minister while allocation of portfolios?
OR
Formation of Council of Ministers is a challenging task for the Chief Minister.
After the formation of the Council of Ministers, the Chief Minister has to distribute portfolios among the ministers. He has to consider following aspects:

1. Some portfolios are of prime importance while others are of secondary importance. He has to select appropriate people for each portfolio.
2. He has to consider the experience i and the efficiency of the ministers he has selected.
3. The political experience and administrative skills of the concerned ministers is also taken into consideration by him.
4. Other factors like the awareness of public issues, effective leadership, etc. are also considered by him.
5. If the government is in a coalition, he has to distribute portfolios appropriately among the constituent parties in the alliance.

Do you know?

1. At present, India has 29 Constituent States and 7 Union Territories.
2. All Constituent States have Legislative Assemblies.
3. Out of the 7 Union Territories, only Delhi and Puducherry have Legislative Assemblies (Vidhan Sabha).
4. Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh have Bicameral Legislatures (both the Houses).

Project:

Visit official website of the Maharashtra Government and collect information of various ministers and the working of their respective departments.

Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 The State Government Additional Important Questions and Answers

Choose the correct option and complete the statements:

Question 1.
The Indian Union has totally …………….. constituent states.
(a) 22
(b) 25
(c) 29
(d) 32
(c) 29

Question 2.
In India, only ……………… states have Bicameral legislatures.
(a) three
(b) five
(c) six
(d) seven
(d) seven

Question 3.
Maharashtra’s legislature conducts minimum ………………. sessions in a year.
(a) two
(b) three
(c) four
(d) five
(b) three

Question 4.
Distinguished personalities from various fields are nominated by the ……………. to the Vidhan Parishad.
(a) Chief Minister
(b) Speaker
(c) Governor
(d) Chairman
(c) Governor

Question 5.
When the legislature is not in session and need arises to make law, the Governor can issue ……………….. .
(a) a Bill
(b) a Proposal
(c) an Ordinance
(d) an Order
(c) an Ordinance

State whether the following statements are True or False. Correct the False statements and rewrite:

Question 1.
States in India have been formed on the basis of population.
False. States in India have been formed on the basis of language.

Question 2.
In exceptional circumstances, elections to Vidhan Sabha can be held before the completion of 5 years.
True.

Question 3.
Absence of cooperation and coordination between Departments can affect the working of the government.
True.

Question 4.
The people look at the Governor as a ‘Problem Solver’.
False. The people look at the Chief Minister as a ‘Problem Solver’.

Question 5.
Every constituent state has a Vidhan Parishad.
False. Every constituent state has a Vidhan Sabha.

Find and write:

Question 1.
The State having a government machinery different than other states
Jammu and Kashmir

Question 2.
The Vidhan Bhavan of Maharashtrais located in:
Mumbai

Question 3.
The member of Vidhan Sabha are called:
MLA

Question 4.
Major challenges faced by Maharashtra:
Terrorism and Naxalite movements

Question 5.
The place where the winter session of Maharashtra’s legislature is conducted:
Nagpur.

Complete the following concept maps:

Question 1.

Question 2.

Explain the following concepts:

Question 1.
Session:

1. A session is a meeting where members of both the Houses meet.
2. Maharashtra’s legislature conducts minimum three sessions in a year.
3. The budget session and monsoon session of Maharashtra is held in Mumbai while the winter session is held at Nagpur.
4. The Governor has the right to summon and conclude the session.
5. During the session, new laws are passed, existing laws are amended and out-dated laws are repealed.
6. The sessions are conducted under the leadership and guidance of the Speaker and the Chairman.

Question 2.
Council of Ministers:

1. The Council of Ministers consists of the Chief Minister and other ministers.
2. The leader of the majority party in Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor.
3. The Governor also appoints the other ministers chosen by the Chief Minister to form Council of Ministers.
4. Framing appropriate laws, working for the welfare of the people, governing the state efficiently are some of the functions of the Council of Ministers.
5. The Chief Minister along with his Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly.

Write short notes on:

Question 1.
Powers of the Governor:
The Governor enjoys certain important Legislative and Executive powers as the head of the state.

1. The Bills passed by Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad are converted into laws only after receiving his assent.
2. He has the right to summon the session of the state legislature and to conclude it.
3. He can issue an ordinance to make law, on important subject if required, when the Legislature is not in session.
4. He appoints the Chief Minister and the other Council of Ministers.

Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
The Governor is the titular/nominal head of the state.

1. The Constitution has granted Executive powers to the Governor as the head of the state.
2. The government of the state is run in the name of the Governor.
3. But in reality, the administration is carried out by the Chief Minister. Hence, the Governor is the titular/ nominal head of the state.

Question 2.
Vidhan Parishad (Legislative Council) is a permanent House.

1. All members of the Vidhan Parishad (MLCs) do not retire at the same time.
2. A specific number (1/3rd) of the members retire every 2 years.
3. These vacant seats are filled again by conducting fresh elections for those seats.
4. The tenure of each member is 6 years.
5. Since the Vidhan Parishad is never fully dissolved, it is a permanent House.

Question 3.
India has 29 constituent states, but 31 Vidhan Sabha.

1. According to the Constitution, every constituent state must have a Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly).
2. India has 29 constituent states and each state has its Vidhan Sabha.
3. Out of the 7 Union Territories in India, Delhi and Puducherry have Vidhan Sabha. Hence, India has 29 constituent states, but 31 Vidhan Sabha.

Question 4.
The Chief Minister’s post is most important in the state.

1. The Chief Minister can select his Council of Ministers according to his choice.
2. He can ask any of his ministers to resign.
3. Framing policies of public welfare and developing the state in a progressive manner entirely depends upon the Chief Minister.
4. The Chief Minister leads the state and people look at him as a problem solver.
5. His intervention in solving the problems of the state comforts the people.

Hence, all these executive powers makes the Chief Minister’s post most important in the State.

Question 1.
Mention the eligibility conditions for contesting Vidhan Sabha elections.
Following are the eligibility conditions for candidates contesting for Vidhan Sabha elections:

1. He/She should be a citizen of India.
2. He/She should have completed 25 years of age.
3. He/She should be a resident of Maharashtra.

Question 2.
Do you consider Maharashtra to be progressive state?

1. Industrial development has taken place in Maharashtra on a large scale. It has many industries based on modern technology.
2. Maharashtra’s literacy rate is higher than many other states.
3. It has a rich tradition of saints and social reformers who have nurtured progressive thinking among people.
4. Maharashtra is leading in many fields like education, health, agriculture, sports, tourism, etc.
5. Maharashtra has been a land of Movements. Many important movements like the Labour movement, Farmer’s movement have been initiated here.
6. Similarly, many progressive laws have been passed in Maharashtra.
7. Maharashtra is facing many challenges like terrorism, poverty, crime, Naxalite movements, etc. Even then, I feel that Maharashtra is a progressive state.

## Maharashtra Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 4 The Indian Judicial System

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 4 The Indian Judicial System Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 4 The Indian Judicial System

Class 8 Civics Chapter 4 The Indian Judicial System Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Choose the correct option and complete the statements:

Question 1.
Laws are made by …………………. .
(a) Legislature
(b) Council of Ministers
(c) Judiciary
(d) Executive
(a) Legislature

Question 2.
The Chief Justice of Supreme Court is appointed by the …………………… .
(a) Prime Minister
(b) President
(c) Home Minister
(d) Law Minister
(b) President

2. Explain the concepts:

Question 1.
Judicial Review:

1. The Constitution is the fundamental law of the nation and to protect it is the prime responsibility of the Supreme Court.
2. The Parliament cannot pass any law that violates the Constitution.
3. Every act or policy made by the Executive should be consistent with the Constitution.
4. If any law passed by the Legislature or any act of the Executive violates any provision of the Constitution, the said law or act is declared illegal.
5. So, it is struck down by the Supreme Court.
6. This power of the Supreme Court is known as Judicial Review.

Question 2.
Public Interest Litigation (PIL):

1. Public Interest Litigation (PIL) refers to litigations filed on issues of public importance and issues related to the welfare of the people.
2. It can be filed by individual citizens, social organisation or Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) on behalf of all the people.
3. Issues related to rehabilitation of people who have lost their homes/lands, protection of environment, protection of the weaker sections of society, etc. have been effectively handled through PIL.
4. PILs are effective tool which require minimum expenditure and get immediate justice.

3. Write short notes on:

Question 1.
Civil Law:

1. It is one of the two main branches of law.
2. It deals with conflicts which affect or interfere with the rights of an individual.
3. Conflicts regarding land and property, rent agreement, divorce, etc. are included under Civil law.
4. After filing a petition in the relevant court, the court gives a decision.

Question 2.
Criminal Law:

1. Serious crimes are dealt under Criminal law.
2. Crimes like theft, robbery, dowry, murder, etc. are included under Criminal law.
3. In these cases, the first step is to file a ‘First Information Report’ (FIR) with the police, who investigate the matter and file a petition in the court.
4. If the charges are proved, there are provisions for severe punishment.

Question 1.
Why are laws necessary in society?

1. Differences in opinions, thoughts, perspectives, different cultures of people give rise to conflicts. These conflicts can be resolved impartially by the Judiciary.
2. Social justice and equality in society can be established with the help of law.
3. It also helps to bring weaker sections of the society, women, children differently-abled and transgenders into the mainstream of the society.
4. Law helps the common man to get the benefits of values of freedom, equality and democracy.
5. Law helps to protect the rights of the people.
6. It prevents emergence of repressive and authoritarian groups and individuals.
Hence, laws are necessary in society.

Question 2.
Enumerate the functions of the Supreme Court.
The functions of the Supreme Court are as follows:

1. As a federal court, it has the responsibility to settle disputes between the centre and the states; and states on one side and states on the other.
2. It gives orders to relevant authorities to protect the fundamental rights of the people.
3. It has the power to review decrees and orders of the lower courts and also review its own decisions.
4. It provides necessary advice to the President if he/she asks for advice to understand the legal aspects in matters of public importance.

Question 3.
Which are the provisions that preserve the independence of the judiciary?
The Constitution has made following provisions to preserve the independence of the judiciary:

1. To avoid any political pressure, judges are appointed by the President.
2. Judges enjoy the security of tenure. They cannot be removed from the post for trivial reasons or for political motives.
3. The salaries of the judges are drawn from the Consolidated Fund of India. No discussion regarding this takes place in the Parliament.
4. Personal criticism cannot be made on judges for their acts and decisions. It is considered as contempt of court and is a punishable offence.
5. The Parliament cannot discuss the decisions of the judges.

5. Complete the table:

Question 1.

See this example:

1. The court had asked the candidates contesting in elections to declare their property and income details and educational qualifications through or affidavit.
2. The idea behind this was to ensure that the voters will vote on the basis of accurate information about the candidates.
3. This is an attempt to make our election process more transparent.
4. It is mandatory for the contesting candidates to declare whether there are any charges filed against them,
and the nature of the charges whether civil or criminal also has to be declared.

Do it:

High Courts having jurisdiction over more than one state:

1. Mumbai High Court: Maharashtra, Goa and Union Territories of Diu Daman and Dadra-Nagar Haveli.
2. Guwahati High Court: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Mizoram and Nagaland.
3. Kerala High Court: Kerala and Union Territory of Lakshadweep islands.
4. Kolkata High Court: West Bengal and Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar islands.
5. Chandigarh High Court: Punjab and Haryana.

Project:

Question 1.
Organise a Moot Court’ in your school, prepare and ask questions related to Public Interest Litigations in this Moot Court.

Question 2.
Visit the nearest police station and understand the procedure of filing a First Information Report (FIR) with the help of your teacher.

Class 8 Civics Chapter 4 The Indian Judicial System Additional Important Questions and Answers

Choose the correct option and complete the statements:

Question 1.
When the common man benefits from the values of freedom, equality and justice, it leads to the widening and deepening of ……………… .
(a) values
(b) democracy
(c) Judiciary
(d) Law
(b) democracy

Question 2.
…………. helps to protect the rights of people.
(a) Prime Minister
(b) President
(c) Judiciary
(d) Social Organisation
(c) Judiciary

Question 3.
The …………. is the fundamental law of the nation.
(a) Parliament
(b) Judiciary
(c) Constitution
(d) President’s order
(c) Constitution

Question 4.
If any law passed by the Legislature or any act of the Executive violates any provision of the Constitution, the said law or act can be declared illegal by the ………….
(a) Prime Minister
(b) Speaker
(c) President
(d) Supreme Court
(d) Supreme Court

Question 5.
The …………. has the power to establish a High Court in every state of India.
(a) Supreme Court
(b) Parliament
(c) President
(d) Prime Minister
(b) Parliament

Question 6.
Currently, there are ……………. High Courts in India.
(a) 20
(b) 29
(c) 24
(d) 22
(c) 24

Find and write:

Question 1.
Nature of Judiciary in India:
Integrated System

Question 2.
In the criminal cases, the first step is to file:
First Information Report (FIR)

Question 3.
The District judges are appointed by
The Governor

Question 4.
The High Court judges are appointed by:
The President.

Complete the following concept map:

Question 1.

Write short notes on:

Question 1.
Judicial Activism:

1. The courts settle the disputes whenever they are approached for that purpose.
2. But, in the recent times, this image of the courts has undergone a change.
3. They have become increasingly active.
4. The courts are now trying to fulfill the constitutional goals of justice and equality.
5. The courts have tried to provide legal protection to the marginalised sections of society, women, tribal, workers, farmers and children.
6. Public Interest Litigations related to issues like victimisation of women, malnourishment among children, etc. have played an important role in boosting Judicial Activism

Question 2.
High Court:

1. The Indian Constitution confers the Parliament with the power to establish a High Court in each constituent state in the Union.
2. Normally, each state has a High Court. But, in certain cases where the population and area of the states is less, one High Court has jurisdiction over more than one state.
3. For example, the Bombay High Court’s jurisdiction covers the states of Maharashtra and Goa, and the Union Territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.
4. Currently, there are 24 High Courts in India.

Question 3.
Supreme Court of India:

1. Judiciary in India is an integrated system where Supreme Court is at the apex position.
2. The Chief Justice of India (CJI) is the head of the Supreme Court of India.
3. By convention, the seniormost judge of the Supreme Court is appointed as the Chief Justice.
4. The President appoints the Chief Justice of India and other judges of the Supreme Court.
5. The Supreme Court of India is located at New Delhi.

Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
Judiciary in India is an integrated system.

1. India is a Union of States. The Centre and the Constituent States have a separate Legislature and Executive.
2. But there is one judicial system for the whole of India.
3. The Supreme Court is the apex court under which there are High Courts.
4. The High Courts control the district courts and below them are the lower courts. Hence, this structure makes Judiciary in India an integrated system.

Question 2.
The Constitution has made provision for independence of Judiciary.
1. The Constitution wants Judiciary to work freely, without any kind of pressure.
2. The independence of the judiciary is maintained so as to enable the judges to fearlessly carry out the function of giving justice.
For this purpose, the Constitution has made provisions for independence of Judiciary.

Question 3.
The Indian judiciary has made a significant contribution in the development of the country.

1. The Indian judiciary has always given importance to social values while protecting the Constitution.
2. It has exposed wrong practices like superstitions, discrimination, injustice to weaker sections, etc. and forced the legislature to pass laws against them.
3. It has protected individual freedom, the federal system and the Constitution of India.
4. Common people have a lot of respect and trust in the judicial system.

Thus, the Indian judiciary has made a significant contribution in the development of the country.

Question 1.
What are the eligibility criteria for appointment of Supreme Court judges?
The eligibility criteria laid down by the Constitution for appointment of Supreme Court judges are as follows:

1. He/She must be a citizen of India.
2. He/She must be a legal expert.
3. He/She must have served as a High Court judge or as an experienced advocate in the High Court.

Question 2.
Mention the functions of the High Court.
The functions of the High Court are as follows:

1. To supervise over the District and other lower courts in its jurisdiction.
2. To maintain control over the functioning of the lower courts.
3. To give orders to protect the fundamental rights of the citizens.
4. To give advice to the governor while appointing judges in the district courts.

Question 3.
Should the Supreme Court have the power of Judicial Review?
The Supreme Court must have the power of Judicial Review for following reasons:

1. Protecting the Constitution is the most important responsibility of the Supreme Court.
2. Many a times, laws violating the Constitution are passed under public pressure or for gaining popularity.
3. The Executive may pass laws or frame policies violating the Constitution.
4. Laws violating the fundamental rights of the citizens may be passed which may prove to be harmful for democracy.
5. The power of Judicial Review helps in curbing all anti-constitutional practices and protects and strengthens democracy.
6. It also helps in keeping the Executive under control.

Question 4.
Why does the President seek the advice of the Supreme Court on any issue of public importance? Can you tell?

1. Decisions taken on issues of public importance have long-lasting effect on the lives of the people.
2. Such decisions should also be according to the Rule of Law which treats everyone equally.
3. Care has to be taken that such decisions should not violate the Constitution.
4. Since the President is not a legal expert, he has to seek advice of the Supreme Court on any issues of public importance.

## Maharashtra Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 3 The Union Executive

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 3 The Union Executive Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

## Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Civics Solutions Chapter 3 The Union Executive

Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 The Union Executive Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Choose the correct option and rewrite the statement:

Question 1.
In India, the executive power is vested in the ………………. .
(a) President
(b) Prime Minister
(c) Speaker
(a) President

Question 2.
The tenure of the President is of ………… years.
(a) three
(b) four
(c) five
(c) five

Question 3.
The Council of Ministers is led by the ………………. .
(a) Party Chief
(b) Prime Minister
(c) President
(b) Prime Minister

2. Find and write:

Question 1.
The President, the Prime Minister, the Council of Ministers are called the ……………. .
Executive

Question 2.
During the Parliamentary session, the period around 12 noon is known as ……………… .
Zero hour

3. write the following concepts in your own words:

Question 1.
Impeachment procedure:

1. The responsibility of protecting the Constitution is shouldered by the President.
2. But, if any act of the President violates the Constitution, the Parliament has the authority to remove him.
3. This process known as process of Impeachment.

The procedure for impeachment is as follows:

1. Anyone House can lay the charge of violation of the Constitution.
2. The investigation of the charge is carried out by the other House.
3. If the resolution is passed by special (2/3rd) majority of both the Houses, the President can be removed from his post.

Question 2.
No-confidence motion:

1. In the Parliamentary system of government, the Legislature tries to keep control over the Executive.
2. The Executive stays in power till it enjoys the support of the majority in Lok Sabha.
3. The members of the Lok Sabha can move a No-confidence motion by simply expressing “We do not have confidence in the government”.
4. If the motion is passed with majority support, the Council of Ministers (the Executive) has to resign.
5. Thus, this is the most effective way to keep a check on the Council of Ministers.

Question 3.
Jumbo Ministry:

1. A huge Council of Ministers with more than necessary ministers is referred to as Jumbo Ministry.
2. There was a trend to keep large Council of Ministers in our country.
3. Later, a constitutional amendment was made to limit the size of the Council of Ministers.
4. As per this amendment, the number of ministers in the Council should not be more than 15% of the total number of members in the Lok Sabha.

Question 1.
Enumerate the functions of the Council of Ministers.
The functions of the Council of Ministers are as follows:
1. The Council of Ministers takes initiative in the process of Law-making by drafting the bills/proposals.
2. It introduces and discusses the bills/ proposals in the House.
3. It introduces bills on various subjects like education, agriculture, industry, health, foreign relations, etc. in the Parliament, conducts discussions on them and tries to get them approved by the Parliament.
4. It also takes the responsibility of implementing the policies approved by the Parliament.

Question 2.
How does the Parliament keep a check on the Executive?
The Parliament keeps a check on the Executive in the following ways:
1. The bills/proposals presented by the Council of Ministers are discussed in the Parliament.
2. These discussions and debates help the members to scrutinize the bills/ proposals and point out the shortcomings and help in a creation of healthy laws.
3. During Parliamentary sessions, the proceedings of the House begins with questions asked by the members of the House. The concerned Ministers are expected to give satisfactory answers to these questions.
4. During the Parliamentary sessions, the period around 12 noon is called as ‘Zero House’. During this period, any question of public importance can be raised and discussed.
5. The Parliament can pass a No-confidence motion on the Executive. If the motion is passed with majority support, then it has to resign.

5. Complete the concept picture.

Question 1.

Do it:

Find out the text of the oath taken by the President. Understand its meaning with the help of your teachers.

Do you know:

Jumbo Ministry:

1. Earlier, there was a trend to keep large Council of Ministers.
2. Such huge Councils were known as jumbo Ministry’.
3. Later, a constitutional amendment was made to limit the size of the Council of Ministers.
4. As per this amendment, the number of ministers in the council should not be more than 15% of the total number of members in the Lok Sabha.

Can you tell?

What should the members of the Parliament do to participate effectively in debates and discussions?

Understand it :
(The gist of the conversation between Rama and Vidya.)

1. The President is the nominal head and the Prime Minister is the executive head.
2. The Prime Minister meets the President regularly and informs him about the conduct of administration.
3. The President has the right to seek information about new laws and policies framed by the Parliament. from the Prime Minister.

Project:

Question 1.
If you become the Prime Minister what works will you prioritise? Create a priority-wise list and present it in class.

Question 2.
Collect pictures and information of India’s Presidents since independence.

Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 The Union Executive Additional Important Questions and Answers

Choose the correct option and rewrite the statement:

Question 1.
The ………………. bears the responsibility of protecting the Constitution and ensuring that the government runs as per the Constitution.
(a) Speaker
(b) President
(c) Vice-President
(b) President

Question 2.
The President can be removed if the impeachment resolution is passed by ………………. majority in both the Houses of Parliament.
(a) 1/3rd
(b) 2/3rd
(c) 3/4th
(b) 2/3rd

Question 3.
The ………………. is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.
(a) Prime Minister
(b) Vice-President
(c) President
(c) President

Question 4.
In case a minister is not a member of the Parliament, he/she has to get elected to the Parliament within ………………. months.
(a) three
(b) six
(c) nine
(d) two
(b) six

Question 5.
As per the amendment, the number of minister’s in the council should not be more than ………………. % of the total number of members in Lok Sabha.
(a) 10
(b) 20
(c) 15
(d) 25
(c) 15

Question 6.
The Council of Ministers stays in power till it enjoys the support of majority in ………………. .
(a) Legislative Assembly
(b) Legislative Council
(c) Rajya Sabha
(d) Lok Sabha
(d) Lok Sabha

Question 7.
In the absence of the President, ………………. carries out his functions.
(a) Vice-President
(b) Prime Minister
(c) Speaker of Lok Sabha
(d) Chief Election Commissioner
(a) Vice-President

Find and write:

Question 1.
The group of Parliamentarians and members of the state legislatures who elect the President ……………… .
Electoral college

Question 2.
One who has the right to declare emergency in case of crisis …………… .
President

Complete the concept map:

Question 1.

Write short notes on:

Question 1.
Vice-President:

1. The Vice-President is elected by members of both the Houses.
2. The person contesting the election for the post of Vice-President should be a citizen of India and should have completed 35 years of age.
3. He is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha and exercises control over the functioning of Rajya Sabha.
4. In the absence of the President, his functions are carried out by the Vice President.

Question 2.
President:

1. The President is the Constitutional Head of India.
2. He is elected by the directly elected representatives of the Central and State legislatures.
3. The person elected to the post of the President has to take an oath while accepting the post.
4. According to the oath, the President bears the responsibility of protecting the Constitution and ensuring that the government runs as per the Constitution.
5. The President governs in accordance with the advice given by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers.
6. He has Legislative, Executive, Judicial, Defence and Emergency powers.

Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
The President is the nominal and constitutional Head of India.

1. The Constitution has vested all executive powers in the President.
2. The government carries out its functions in the name of the President.
3. However, in reality, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers run the government.

Hence, the President is the nominal and Constitutional Head of India.

Question 2.
The Council of Ministers has to take the Parliament into confidence while framing policies.

1. The Council of Ministers has to decide specific policies on subject like education, agriculture, industry, health, foreign affairs, etc.
2. The Ministers of respective departments have to lay their policy plans in the House and discuss them thoroughly.
3. The policies cannot be implemented without the approval of the Parliament.
4. Also, the Council of Ministers can stay in power till it enjoys the support of the Parliament.
5. Hence, it has to take the Parliament into confidence while framing policies.

Question 1.
How is the President elected?

1. The President is not directly elected by the people of India.
2. The common people do not vote in the election of the President.
3. He is elected by the Electoral College.
4. The Electoral College includes all members/elected representatives of Parliament and the members of the State Legislatures.

Question 2.
How is the Council of Ministers formed?

1. The party which attains majority in the Lok Sabha election, nominates its leader as the Prime Minister.
2. The Prime Minister is given an oath by the President.
3. The Prime Minister then, chooses his trustworthy and efficient colleagues from within the party to form the Council of Ministers.
4. He gives priority to his colleagues considering their administrative experience, governance skills, efficiency and technical expertise.
5. The President administers oath to all the Council of Ministers. In this way, the Council of Ministers is formed.

Question 3.
State the qualifications necessary for contesting the Presidential election.

1. The person contesting the Presidential election should be a citizen of India.
2. He should be 35 years of age.
3. He should also fulfill other conditions mentioned by the Constitution.

Question 4.
Mention the functions of the Prime Minister.
The functions of the Prime Minister are as follows:

1. To form the Council of Ministers, selecting trustworthy, experienced and efficient people.
2. To allocate portfolios and chair all the meetings of the Council of Ministers.
3. To lead the Council of Ministers, maintain coordination among various departments, facilitate cooperation among departments and supervise to bring about efficiency and efficacy.
4. To raise the image of the country at international level.
5. To support the people during disasters.

Question 5.
What should the MPs do to enable them to participate effectively in Lok Sabha discussions?