By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Geography Notes Chapter 5 Global Climate Change students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Geography Notes Chapter 5 Global Climate Change
→ The average temperature on the surface of the Earth depends on a number of factors like the time of day, the time of year, and where the temperatures measurements are being taken.
→ The average temperature of the Earth is around 14°C. This average temperature has increased by 0.8°C.
→ The average surface temperature of the earth is increasing and it has been found that the impact of gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, etc., has been enormous.
→ This has led to an increase in the heat holding capacity of the atmosphere which in turn increases the temperature. This phenomenon is called global warming.
→ Effects of Global Warming:
- Heat Waves
- Heat Islands
- Increase in Sea Level
- Melting of glaciers at high altitudes and snow in polar areas
→ Global sea level has been rising at a rate of about 3 mm/per year. This global sea level rise is caused because of increased melting of ice such as glaciers and ice sheets.
→ Higher sea levels may lead to deadlier cyclones and frequent flooding of coastal areas. Many islands are also at risk of getting submerged. It means loss of habitat for fishes, birds and plants.
→ Climate Change :
Climatic change is felt in the intensity, duration and spell of the seasons. The frequent change in the patterns of climate at the global level is considered as climate change.
Changes Observed at the Global Level:
- Arrival of Monsoons
- Quantity and Frequency of Rainfall
- Change in Seasons
- Change in Flowering
- Increase in Occurrence of Floods or Drought
The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) has been mentioning about climate pattern indicators in their reports regularly.
Drastic Change in the Climate Patterns:
- Increase in the number and intensity of floods
- Increase in the intensity of droughts and cyclones
- Carbon dioxide and crop yields
- Rainforests and climate change
Causes of Climate Change :
Human activities are a major cause behind climate change. However, there are some natural causes for climate change as well.
Naturals Causes of Climate Changes:
- Energy output by the sun
- Milankovitch Oscillations
- Goldiocks Zone
Tools for Studying Climate Change :
- Scientists and meteorologists have been using instruments to measure climate and weather.
- They use historical evidence called proxy data to measure climate and weather of millions of years ago.
- Coral Reefs
- Tree Rings
- Ice Cores
Climate Change and India:
- Developing countries, the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and small island nations are at the highest risk of damage due to the climate change.
- Countries such as India and China contribute significantly to global emissions and have an important role to play.
- India has high vulnerabilities to climate change impacts due to its peculiar economy and geography.
- Besides, promoting clean energy and taking steps to protect environment, the government of India has taken the important steps for combating climate change.
Steps for Combating Climate Change:
- National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), 2008
- National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC)
- National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF)
Lifestyle Changes and Climate Change:
This could include only buying things that are necessary, walking smaller distances, using energy-efficient devices, reducing our dependence on wood, and not using plastic.