By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Geography Notes Chapter 8 Biomes students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Geography Notes Chapter 8 Biomes
→ Natural vegetation and wildlife change according to latitudes. Hence, a variety of natural vegetation is found in different regions from the equator to the poles.
→ Biome : An area where different types of flora and fauna live together in the same region in the same type of climatic conditions is called a biome.
→ It is the total assemblage of plant and animal species interacting within specific conditions.
Elements of climate that affect the boundaries of biomes:
- Amount of insolation received
- Soil conditions
The combined co-existence of flora and fauna which is a result of the region’s climate.
The interaction between biotic and abiotic factors.
They consist of plants, various types of animals, bacteria, etc.
They consist of soil, water, sunlight and nutrients.
→ Through the abiotic factors, the biotic components receive supply of nutrients and energy.
Tropical Rainforest Biome :
- Latitudinal Extent : 0° to 10° N and S.
- Vegetation : Biodiversity is very high.
Categorized into three layers – lowermost layer – bushes; middle layer low trees: third layer – tall, huge trees.
- Animal Life : Three-tier system of trees allows every bird and animal to have its own niche in the areas from the ground to the tree top.
- Human Life : Indigenous tribes live primitive lives.
Practice primary occupations – like food-gathering and hunting.
- Use of Biome by Man : Hardwood is used in construction and making furniture.
For this, some regions are being over exploited.
- Current Scenario: Degradation is increasing because of increasing agriculture and industrialisation. Rare species of animals and birds are threatened.
Tropical Deciduous Biome :
Latitudinal Extent: 5° to 30° N and S.
Vegetation: Deciduous Forests – trees drop leaves in dry season; they are dense and lush in rainy season.
Animal Life: A large diversity in fauna. Biodiversity found in these biomes ranks second in the world.
Human Life : Easier than that in the rainforest.
People practicing primary and secondary occupations based on forest are found here.
Various tribal communities inhabit these regions.
There are rural and urban areas, too.
These forests are being encroached upon.
Use of Biome :
- Wood from teak has many uses.
- Plants are used for medicines and secondary products.
- Bamboos are used for construction of houses and agriculture.
- Various fruits and spices are also obtained.
Current Status :
- Forests are in danger due to deforestation and wildfire.
- Wild species are endangered by humans through extensive use of fertilizers and spray of insecticides.
- This biome is influenced by human population.
Savannah Grassland Biome:
- Latitudinal Extent : 10° to 20° N and S.
- Vegetation : Grasslands with perennial cover of grass that grows 3 m to 6 m in height. Elephant Grass – thick, coarse, broad-leaved.
Very few shrubs and trees found.
- Animal Life : The abundance of grass cover and its perennial nature makes savannah biomes rich in herbivore animals.
- Human Life Grass provides shelter to animals. Biome also supports carnivore animals. Comparatively difficult human life.
- Use of Biome In the past this biome was used to hunt for trophies and hence was known as a heaven for hunting.
- Current Status Victim of frequent forest fires; loss of biodiversity.
Due to overgrazing, industrialisation and agriculture the area under grassland is decreasing, leading to extension of the Sahara Desert in Africa.
Tropical Desert Biome :
- Latitudinal Extent : 20° to 30° N and S
- Vegetation: Dispersed due to dry climatic conditions.
Typical desert vegetation.
- Animal Life: Limited biodiversity. Few large animals in desert.
Small animals – burrowing type.
Birds and insects are also found.
- Human Life Human life is very difficult.
Depending on the availability of water, animal husbandry or agriculture is followed.
Human settlements found only near oasis, in a dispersed manner.
- UseofBiome : Dates are produced as food item.
Agriculture with the help of irrigation. Mining is also an activity.
- Current Status : Desertification is increasing. ,
Mediterranean Biome :
- Latitudinal Extent: 30° to 40° N and S.
- Vegetation: Shorter trees.
Mixed vegetation: evergreen and deciduous.
Trees of citrus family, shrubs of coloured flowers.
- Animal Life: Herbivores, birds of prey, reptiles and various types of insects and honeybees.
- Human Life: Pleasant climate.
Human life has flourished very well. Industries based on fruits and flowers. Tourism and development of cinema industry.
- Current Status: Tertiary occupations and urbanisation has increased.
Biodiversity found in plants and animals is decreasing due to human interference.
Temperate Deciduous Biome :
- Latitudinal Extent: 40° to 50° N and S.
- Vegetation: Broad-leaved trees.
3 levels of trees : tall trees, short trees, and shrubs.
Hardwood and deciduous trees.
- Animal Life: Animals have thick and soft fur.
Birds and insects are found.
- Human Life: Forests provide food, wood and ample amount of oxygen.
Forests being encroached upon for agriculture.
- Current Status: Biome reducing due to agriculture and encroachment by settlements. Biodiversity has reduced.
Habitat of animals is being encroached upon.
Temperate Grasslands Biome:
- Latitudinal Extent: 40° to 55° N and S.
- Vegetation: Soft grass is dominant.
Not many types of trees.
- Animal Life: Rich and varied animal life.
Herbivore animals are found.
- Human Life: Human settlements are sparse.
Earlier, hunting was the main occupation. Presently, agriculture and animal rearing.
- Current Status : Commercial agriculture is increasing.
Industries are increasing.
Meadows and pastures are reducing because of over grazing.
Biome is getting degraded.
Taiga Biome :
Latitudinal Extent : 50° to 55° N.
Vegetation :One type of tree species.
Evergreen coniferous forests.
Tall trees, tapering to the apex.
Waxy leaves and branches tapering to the ground do not let snow stay on the trees.
Animal Life: Animals have thick hides to survive the snow-covered ground.
Human Life: Climate is very cold, so human settlement is sparse.
Occupation is lumbering.
Saw mills, paper pulp, wooden furniture industries.
Current Status: Deforestation is easy because the wood is soft.
Latitudinal Extent: 65° to 90° N.
Vegetation: It is the coldest biome.
Ground is frozen for 8 months of the year.
There is a layer of permanently frozen ground below the surface, called permafrost.
Vegetation has adapted to the cold and short growing season.
Animal Life: Very scarce animal life.
Animals have thick fur, layers of fats in their bodies to face the cold climate.
Human Life: Very sparse human settlements.
Recently life has changed and fishing methods have improved. Exploitation of fish is faster.
Current Status: Biome is experiencing more development due to increased transportation and means of communication.
Standard of life has improved.
Global warming is badly affecting the snow cover and the dependent species.
Mountain or High Biome :
Latitudinal Extent: Not specific.
It depends on altitude, slopes of high mountain ranges like the Himalayas, the Andes, and the Rockies.
Vegetation: Ranges from deciduous to tundra according to altitude.
Plants are small and perennial.
Animal Life: Animals with special adaptation to snow.
Human Life: In some areas, people grow crops.
Grazing and sheep rearing are primary occupations.
Tourism has developed in such biomes.
Transhumance is practiced.
Current Status: Over tourism has caused overcrowding.
Mountain biomes are threatened by deforestation, wildfires, hunting, poaching and urban sprawl.
Aquatic Biomes :
Besides the terrestrial biomes of the world, we find biomes in the water too. For example, oceans, rivers, lakes, etc.
Aquatic Biomes :
- Freshwater Biomes
- Marine Biomes
- Wetland Biomes
- Coral Reef Biomes