By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Notes Chapter 11 Kingdoms in South India students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Notes Chapter 11 Kingdoms in South India
Important Kingdoms in South India Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties:
Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras were the ancient ruling powers in South India. The kingdoms in the South are mentioned in Megasthenes’ ‘Indica’, Panini’s grammar and inscriptions of Ashoka. Ancient Tamil literature, known as ‘Sangham’ literature, is believed to be one of the main sources of history of South Indian rulers.
Chola Dynasty: The Chola Kingdom was established in first-century C.E. Chola dynasty originated in Thanjavur and Tiruchirappalli (Tamil Nadu) This province was known as ‘Cholamandala’ (Coromandel is an anglicised form of ‘Cholamandala’). To the south of Cholas, the Pandyas had established their rule from Pudukkottai to Kanyakumari.
Vakataka Dynasty: The power of Satavahanas started growing weaker from the 3rd century C.E. Vakatakas took. advantage of this situation and established independent rule. Vindhyashakti was the founder of Vakataka kingdom. After Vindhyashakti, King Pravarasena I ascended the throne. He expanded the Vakataka Empire to Malwa in the North and from Gujarat to South upto Kolhapur, Kurnool (Andhra Pradesh). Kolhapur was known as ‘Kuntala’ at that time. Pravarasena I performed four Ashwamedha sacrifices and took up the title ‘Samrat’.
Chalukyas: During the rule of Harshavardhan in North India, the Chalukya dynasty ruled in the south for. approximately 200 years. Jaising was the founder of this dynasty. In the beginning of 6th century C.E. he established his capital at Vatapi (Badami). His grandson Pulakeshi I was the first important king of the Chalukyas.
He built the fort of Badami. He performed the Ashwamedha sacrifice and took up the title of ‘Maharaja’. He also took titles like ‘Prithvivallabha’ and ‘Satyashraya’.
Pallavas: Around 6th century C.E. to 9th century C.E., the Pallavas were known as the most powerful rulers in South India. Historians vary in their views regarding the origin of the Pallavas. Some copperplates of the Pallavas are found. There is a mention of Sinhavarman and Shivaskandavarman Pallava who ruled over the regions of eastern coast. Kanchi was the capital of the Pallavas.
We get a detailed information of the Pallava dynasty beginning from the reign of Simhavishnu. He conquered the province of Cholas and extended his rule from Krishna to Kaveri. After Simhavishnu, his son Mahendravarman ascended the throne. He was a great scholar. He wrote the Sanskrit play ‘Mattavilasa’. He wrote books on subjects like music, dance, sculpture, painting etc.
Rashtrakutas: Dantidurga was the first powerful king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. The rule of Rashtrakutas was spread from Vindhyan ranges to Kanyakumari in the south. After Dantidurga, his uncle Krishna I became the king. He uprooted Chalukyas rule. The famous Kailas temple at Ellora is ascribed to Krishna I. The succeeding Rashtrakuta rulers became influential in North India as well.
Shilaharas: There were three branches of this dynasty – Shilaharas of south Konkan, north Konkan and Kolhapur. They called themselves as ‘Tagarapuradhishwar’ (Tagar-Ter, Osmanabad district). Jimutvahan is considered as the founder of all the three branches. They ruled for almost three hundred years as the feudatories of Rashtrakutas and later the Chalukyas.
Shilaharas of South Konkan:
‘Sanafulla’ established the south Kokan branch of Shilaharas. His son, Dhammiyar set up the village of Vallipattana and built a fort there. Later King Adityavarma expanded his kingdom from Thane to Goa. Rattaraj was the last ruler of this dynasty. The history of this dynasty is known with the help of one of the copper plates found at Kharepatan.
Shilaharas of North Konkan:
Kapardi established the north Kokan branch of Shilaharas. Rulers of this branch were initially the feudatories of the Rashtrakutas. Their capital was at Sthanak (Thane).
Aparajita was another important king of this branch. He ruled for around thirty-five years. Chittaranjan followed Aparajita asking. His brothers fought for their claim to the throne.
Shilaharas of Kolhapur:
The modern districts of Satara, Sangli, Ratnagiri, and Belgaum were included in this kingdom. Jatiga established the Kolhapur branch of Shilaharas. Bhoj II was the important king of this dynasty. The cities of Kolhapur, Valivade and Panhala were the capitals of this kingdom. The Shilaharas of Kolhapur are credited with the creation of the magnificent ‘Koppeshwar Mahadev’ temple at Khidrapur.
Gonds: The Gond dynasty was established at Chanda (Chandrapur) during the Yadava period. Kol Bheel was the founder of this dynasty. He brought the people of Gond tribe together and encouraged them to rebel against the Naga dynasty. He established the capital at Sirpur.
In the later period, Khandkya Ballal Singh built a fort at Ballarpur and shifted the capital from Sirpur to Ballarpur. The temple at Achaleshwar was constructed during his period.
Yadavas: Yadava dynasty is one of the important dynasties of medieval Maharashtra. Bhillam V (1185-93 C.E.) is the important king of the Yadava dynasty. He expanded the kingdom by defeating the v Kalachuris. He established his capital at Devgiri and got himself coronated.
In the later period, Singhan was an important ruler of this dynasty. He defeated the Hoysalas, Shilaharas and expanded the rule of Yadavas.
Administrative system, trade, social life:
In the administrative systems of South Indian dynasties, there were officials such as ‘Mahadandanayaka’, ‘Rashtrika’, ‘Deshadhikruta’, ‘Amatya’, ‘Ayukta’, etc. The council of officers in the Chola kingdom was called ‘Udankuttam’. The kingdom was divided into many provinces.
These provinces were known as ‘Mandalam’. A member of the royal family was the chief of the Mandalam. There were many officers under him such as ‘Vishayapati’, ‘Deshadhipati’, ‘Deshadhikrut’, ‘Rashtrika’, etc. The administration of the Southern kingdoms was very efficient.
Literature, art, architecture:
The ‘Sangham literature’ is supposed to be most ancient in the Tamil tradition. This literature is one of the main sources of political history of South India. It is believed that three ‘Sanghams’ (Council) were held. This period was important from the point of view of Sanskrit literature.
Kalidasa composed the ‘Meghdoot’ at Ramtek in Vidarbha. During the Vakataka rule, compositions in Prakrit language were created. Pravarsena II, the Vakataka king, wrote the well-known composition named ‘Setubandha’. ‘Harivijaya’ was composed by Sarvasena, the founder of Vatsagulm branch of Vakatakas.
Two styles of architecture are seen in South India, one is the ‘Dravida’ style and other is the ‘Vesara’ style of architecture. The Dravida style of architecture emerged and developed in the regions from Krishna river to Kanyakumari. The important feature of Dravida architecture identified by construction of Shikhara. In this type the storeys reduce in size as the Shikhara rises. Kailasnath and Vaikuntha Perumal temples at Kanchi, Brihadeshwara temple at Tanjore are some of the excellent examples of Dravida style of architecture.
→ Reign – To rule a country.
→ Expedition – A journey undertaken for a specific purpose.
→ Province – An administrative division or unit of a country.
→ Feudatories – Persons who hold lands by feudal tenure.
→ Prevalent – Common.