By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Notes Chapter 9 Post Mauryan India students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Notes Chapter 9 Post Mauryan India
The Shunga empire was spread from Magadha in the east to Siyalkot (Punjab) in the west, as well as Himalayas in the North to Vidarbha in the south. Although Pataliputra was the main capital, Pushyamitra established a second capital at Vidisha. Pushyamitra Shunga was valiant and ambitious. He strengthened his rule in the provinces of Kosala, Vatsa, Avanti etc.
Later he conquered the lost provinces of Magadhan empire up to Siyalkot. He courageously repelled the attack of the Greek King Demetrius. His victory over Demetrius is mentioned in ‘Malavikagnimitram’ a play written by Kalidasa.
Rise of Satavahana Empire:
After the Mauryas, the Shunga dynasty established itself in the north whereas in the south the Satavahana dynasty rose to power. The Mauryan empire created a favourable atmosphere for the rise of new powers. Satavahanas are mentioned as the earliest ruling dynasty in Maharashtra.
Initially, the Satavahana rule came to a rise in Nashik, Pune, Aurangabad and later spread in the vast region of Maharashtra, Andhra and Karnataka. Paithan, in Maharashtra, was the capital of the Satavahanas. The Puranas mention the ‘Andhras’ or Andhrabhrutyas’. According to some scholars, these terms refer to Satavahanas.
Administrative system, literature, art and social life:
Administrative System: The state under the Satavahanas was divided into small provinces and on every province civil and military officials were appointed to administer individual provinces over it. These included civil officials, such as ‘Amatya’, ‘Mahabhoj’ and military officials, such as ‘Mahasenapati’ and ‘Maharathi’. Grama (village) was the smallest unit of administration.
Grama was a source of revenue and also for the recruitment of soldiers during war-like situations. Thus, Grama was an integral part of the central machinery.
Agriculture was the main source of means of subsistence. Along with it many industries and trade flourished under the Satavahanas. Various shrenis (Guilds) also emerged during this period. The trade and industries were controlled with the help of these shrenis. The shrenis also provided loans. Indo-Roman trade also flourished during the Satavahana period. Trade centres like Pratishthan (Paithan), Tagar (Ter), Nasik (Nashik), Karhatak (Karhad) developed during the Satavahana rule.
Literature: During the Satavahana period, learning and art received royal patronage. Prakrit language and literature flourished during Satavahana period. Hala, the seventeenth king of the Satavahana dynasty, compiled ‘Gathasaptashati’. Gunadhya, a minister in his court, wrote an incomparable text named ‘Brihatkatha’ in a Prakrit language called Paishachi. Sarvavarma wrote a treatise on Sanskrit Grammer, named ‘Katantra’.
Art and Architecture: The influence of Persian and Greek sculptural styles during the Mauryan period seems to have decreased during the Shunga and Satavahana period. A new native Indian style emerged in this period. The four gateways (Toranas) of the Sanchi Stupa No. 1 built during this period are excellent examples of this style.
Society: The society of Satavahana period was organised into four varnas. Similarly, during this period, system also became deeply rooted. The intermixture of varnas and castes (Varnasankara), closed nature of different guilds, need of including foreigners in the social structure were some of the reasons behind it. Apart from that, there were four classes in the society.
The first class consisted of officials such as ‘Maharathi’, ‘Mahabhoja’ and ‘Mahasenapati’. They were appointed on the various ‘Rashtrakas’ (Subhas). ‘Mahabhoja’ was appointed on the Konkan province and Maharathi on the plateau area.
The second class consisted of ‘Amatya’, ‘Mahamatra’ and ‘Bhandagarika’, ‘Naigam’ (traders), ‘Sarthavaha’ (chief of caravan merchant). The third social class consisted of ‘Shreshthi’ (Head of trade guilds), ‘Lekhanika’ (scribes), ‘Vaidya’ (physicians), ‘Halakiya’ (cultivators), ‘Suvarnakar’ (goldsmith), ‘Gandhika’ (traders of perfumes).
→ Repelled – To send something back or to push somebody back.
→ Disintegration – The process of losing strength.
→ Hoard – A large quantity.
→ Inscriptions – Words that are written or cut on something.
→ Contemporary – Of the present time.