Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 12 India, Nations in the Northwest of the Indian Subcontinent and China Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 12 India, Nations in the Northwest of the Indian Subcontinent and China
1A. Choose the correct alternative and write the complete sentences.
The coin hoards found in ____________ had Roman gold coins in it.
(a) Tamil Nadu
(a) Tamil Nadu
The famous king Hammurabi had ruled the kingdom of ____________
The route that links Asia and ____________ is referred as the ‘Silk Route’.
‘White Horse Temple is the first Buddhist temple built in ____________
1B. Find the incorrect pair from set B and write the correct ones.
|Set ‘A’||Set ‘B’|
|(2) Pliny the Elder||Naturalis Historia|
(3) Hippalus – Periplus of the Erythrean Sea
1C. Write the names.
A place in the Gandhara region enlisted as a World Cultural heritage.
Buddhist monks in the 4th century B.C.E. translated many Buddhist texts into the Chinese language.
2. Complete the concept maps.
3. Explain the following statements with reasons.
Buddhism reached China during the Kushana period.
- The Ancient Kapisha (Begram)was an additional capital of the Kushanas which was located on the silk route at a vantage point.
- The trade route from Afghanistan to China was under the rule of the Kushanas.
- This route starting from Taxila crossing through Khyber Pass to Bamiyan in Afghanistan and from there to China through the plateau of Pamir.
- In the Kushana period, Buddhism reached China by this trade route.
The merchants rarely used the shorter line of the Silk Route.
- One of the major lines of the Silk Route linked China and India and then extended further to Central Asia linking one oasis to the other in the desert.
- It was easier for the merchants and travellers to find accommodation and food in the oasis cities. They also found a ready market for their merchandise.
- Another line crossed through the stepped to the north of the mainline. The journey on this line is relatively shorter.
- It was rarely used by merchants as it was infested by troublesome pastoral tribes and hardly have any accommodation and food facilities on route.
4. State your opinion.
There was a close cultural association between the Gandhara region and India before the advent of Islam.
- Gandhara was favourably situated on the trade route that linked India and Central Asia.
- It had close cultural connections with India from the ancient period of Janapadas till the introduction of Islam.
- Whether it was the invaders from Central Asia, or the Buddhist monks sent out by Emperor Ashoka, or the Chinese monks traveling to India, all had to pass through Afghanistan.
- Thus, there were close cultural associations between the Gandhara region and India before the advent of Islam.
5. Write short notes.
- The Chinese monks like Fa-Hien, Yuan Chwang, who travelled through India have described the Buddhist viharas and stupas in India.
- There are numerous remains of viharas and stupas in Afghanistan. Among them, a place called ‘Shahji-ki-Dheri’ near Peshawar in Pakistan was excavated.
- This stupa was built during Kanishka’s period.
- It is also known as ‘Kanishaka’s Stupa’. According to prevailing tradition, the sacred remains in the box (karandaka) found there are of Gautama Buddha.
- The box has an inscription. It also mentions the name ‘Agnishala’, the main supervisor of the building work of ‘Kanishka Vihara’.
- This box is in the Peshawar museum at present.
The Bamiyan Buddhas.
- The Bamiyan Buddhas are in Bamiyan, 250 km away from Kabul.
- About 750 caves have been hewn out in one of the cliffs of the mountain ranges known as ‘Kuh- e-Baba’.
- Beautiful murals have been painted inside these caves.
- The same cliff has niches of two standing Buddha statues in stucco. One of them was 53 meters tall the other was 38 meters.
- The core was plastered with several layers of mud mixed with straw. The folds of Gautama Buddha’s robes were modeled in this clay plaster.
- Buddha’s forearms were supported with the help of wooden armatures and fixed with wooden pegs.
- According to Yuan Chwang, the statues were surrounded by colourful murals and even the statues were painted with gold coating and precious stones.
- The ‘Bamiyan Statues of Buddha’ are declared as the World Cultural Heritage.
6. Answers the following questions with the help of given points.
Write about the ties between ancient India and China.
(a) Trade relations
(b) The spread of Buddhism in China
(c) Serendian art style
(a) Trade relations:
- The Silk Route links Asia and Europe. It runs more than 6000 km.
- It was easier for Merchants and travellers to find facilities of accommodation and food in the oasis cities.
- They also found a ready market for their merchandise.
- Another line crossed through the steppes to the north of this mainline. The journey on this line was relatively shorter.
- However, it was rarely used by merchants as it was infested by troublesome pastoral tribes and it hardly had any accommodation and food facilities en route.
(b) The spread of Buddhism in China:
- Buddhism spread in the 1st century C.E. This also introduced a new trend in Chinese art.
- Many of the Mahayana Buddhist monks who arrived in China hailed from Central Asia.
- Their presence in China inspired the making of images of Gautama Buddha and Bodhisattva.
(c) Serendian art style:
- Serendian art style that originated in the Xinjiang province is known as ‘Serendian Art Style’ (Seres meaning China + India).
- This art was influenced by Gandhara art. It presents a combination of Greek, Persian, and Chinese art forms.
- Many styles were brought to light during excavations by Sir Aurel Stein.
Collect more information about the ‘Silk Route’ with the help of the internet.
- The Silk Road was a network of trade routes that went along the northern borders of China, India, and Persia and ended up in Eastern Europe near today’s Turkey and the Mediterranean Sea.
- The Silk Road was important because it helped to generate trade and commerce between a number of different kingdoms and empires.
- The route included a group of trading posts and markets that were used to help in the storage, transport, and exchange of goods.