By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 1 Population Part 1 students can recall all the concepts quickly.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Geography Notes Chapter 1 Population Part 1

→ Population Geography is a branch of Human Geography.

→ In this branch, we study quantitative and qualitative composition of population, how population influences the economy and development and much more.

→ The distribution of population in the world is uneven.

→ Asia has 30% landmass and supports 60% of the world’s population.

→ Number of people living in a unit area is called density of population.

→ Density of population = \(\frac{\text { Total population }}{\text { Total area (sq. km) }}\)

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 1 Population Part 1 1

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 1 Population Part 1

Components of population change:

→ People from one region differ from another region. They can be distinguished from one another on the basis of age, sex, place of residence, occupation and life expectancy.
Population growth :

→ Population growth is the change in number of inhabitants of a territory during specific period of time.

→ Growth of population can be expressed either in terms of absolute number or in percentage.

→ Change of population is an economic indicator of development and social upliftment.

→ Birth rate (BR), Death rate (DR) and Migration are three components of change of population.

Crude birth rate:

Number of live births in a year per thousand population is known as crude birth rate (CBR).
CBR = \(\frac{\text { Total number of live births in a year }}{\text { Total population in that year }}\) × 1000

Crude death rate

→ Number of deaths in particular year per 1000 population is known as crude death rate.
CDR =\(\frac{\text { Total number of deaths in a year }}{\text { Total population in that year }}\) × 1000

→ Population growth in any region occurs not only by increasing birth rate but also because of decreasing death rate

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 1 Population Part 1

The Theory of Demographic Transition:

→ No country experiences the same rate of growth or decline of population.

→ Population growth or decline changes with the economic development, tendencies of birth rate and death rate.

→ The theory of demographic transition is based on the population trends of a country with time.

→ Any country passes through different stages of population growth.

Stages of Population Growth :

Stage 1 High stationary stage :

  • High birth and death rates
  • Stable population
  • Poor financial position
  • People engage in primary activities like agriculture
  • Limited educational opportunities
  • Big families
  • Poor science and technological development
  • Poor sanitation facilities, malnutrition and high death rate.

Stage 2 Early expanding stage

  • Development of medical and health care services
  • Control and combat diseases
  • Reduction in mortality rate
  • Constant birth rates
  • Rapidly growing population
  • Efforts to control population
  • Increase in agricultural and industrial production.

Stage 3 Late expanding stage

  • Decreasing death rates
  • Decreasing birth rates
  • Reduction in population
  • Income of the people is slightly above subsistence level
  • Slight increase in the standard of living hence, decreasing poverty
  • Rise in technological growth
  • Expansion of secondary and tertiary activities
  • Increased education facilities, awareness of family planning

Stage 4 Low stationary stage

  • Decrease in birth rate
  • High standard of living
  • Improved economic condition of the country
  • Improved economic status of the people
  • Increased engagement in secondary and tertiary activities
  • Better medical facilitates, hence, low death rates
  • Epidemics under control
  • Health-conscious

Stage 5 Declining stage

  • Equal birth rate and death rate
  • Minimum population growth and negative in some countries
  • Reduced population due to higher mortality
  • Percentage of children is lower than elders
  • Most of the country’s income comes from tertiary activities
  • Best quality education and health facilities
  • Healthy environment and pleasant life