By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 1 Renaissance in Europe and Development of Science students can recall all the concepts quickly.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 1 Renaissance in Europe and Development of Science

As the ‘Medieval Period’ in Europe came to an end, there were advancements in various fields. Unknown lands were discovered and movements of religious reformation began. The ancient Greek and Roman traditions of art, architecture, philosophy etc, were revived. This age also saw overall development in many areas, especially science. This period is called ‘Renaissance’ which means ‘Rebirth’. In other words, this was the beginning of a new era.

European Crusades: Wars known as ‘Crusades’ were fought by the Christians in Europe in the 11th century to regain the holy lands of Jerusalem and Bethlehem which came under the Islamic rule.

The first Crusade started in 1096 C.E. However, the Christian crusaders failed to liberate Jerusalem and the region around it even after nine crusades. The failure of the crusades was attributed to the attitude of the Pope and the European rulers. Other factors like common people losing faith, rift between the Pope and the European kings etc. also contributed to the failure of the crusades.

The consequences of the crusades was that it led to the end of feudalism in Europe, the faith in the Pope began to decline, the contact with Central Asia opened new avenues for Italy and Germany and also saw the rise of a new class of traders.

Renaissance in Europe: Renaissance in Europe began in the 14th century C.E. and reached its zenith in the 15th and 16th century C.E. This period gave a new direction to human intellect and thinking. This period brought about a change in all walks of human life.

New inventions brought about fundamental changes in the techniques of warfare and dissemination of knowledge. Changes were noticed in the fields of Science, Arts, Textile industry, Metallurgy and others. For e.g., the first printing press was started in Germany by Johannes Gutenberg in Germany. The invention of the telescope by Galileo, in Zoology ‘Taxonomy’, was developed to classify animals etc.

Geographical Discoveries: This period also saw new Geographical discoveries and new sea- routes being discovered.
Marco Polo, Ibn Batuta, Bartholomew Dias, Vasco-da-Gama were some of the explorers who discovered not just sea – routes but new lands.

For eg., Marco Polo – Introduced China and other Asian countries to Europe.
Ibn Batuta – A scholar and traveller who visited India, Maldives, Sumatra for various reasons.
Bartholomew Dias – Reached the ‘Cape of Good Hope’ on the orders of the Portugal king John II.
Vasco da Gama-Reached the eastern coast of Africa and eventually landed at Calicut (Kozhikode) in 1498.

Industrial Revolution:

What is ‘Industrial Revolution?’
‘Industrial Revolution’ indicates the transition from manual production to mechanised production.

Factors of industrial production:

  • A new class of capitalists came into existence
  • Private ownership of industrial establishments
  • Availability of raw material for the textile industry in colonies led to the textile industry flourishing in England
  • Availability of cheap labour
  • Adversely affected Indian economy

Effects of Industrial Revolution:

  • Economic Nationalism was the outcome of the industrial revolution.
  • Putting economic restrictions on the rival country such as
  • Prohibiting the import-export transactions of other countries
  • levying heavy tolls on their goods
  • establishing colonies in Asia and Africa
  • fighting battles with the natives of the colonies
  • Surplus production was another effect of industrial revolution
  • Limitless exploitation of the colonies
  • Concepts of racial superiority
  • Aggressive colonial policies
  • Immense expanse of growth of European nations like England, France, Belgium, Germany etc.


→ Renaissance – Means ‘Rebirth’ or revival of ancient traditions of art and architecture in 15th centuries

→ Crusades – One of the wars fought in Palestine by the European Christians against the Muslims in the Middle Ages

→ Humanism – A rationalist outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters

→ Empirical – Based on, concerned with, verifiable by observation or experience rather theory or pure logic

→ Alchemist – A person who studies Alchemy

→ Cartographer – Mapmaker, mapper

→ Expedition – Voyage, trip, mission

→ Nationalism – Patriotism