By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 10 Cold War students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 10 Cold War
→ The term was first used by Walter Lippmann, an American political columnist.
→ The struggle between two superpower nations was known as Cold War. In such a war, nations do not use weapons but have a competition to show their power by researching new weapons, technology, the space race, etc.
→ It started after World War – II Whole world was divided into two superpower nations i.e. America and Russia.
→ Russia ruled over Eastern Europe and America, England and France got Western Europe. We can say that Europe was divided into Communist ideology (Russia) and Capitalist and democratic ideology (America).
Progression of Cold War:
→ Europe was divided into two Superpowers namely America and Russia.
→ The Soviets were supporting Communists based on Government ownership and America was supporting Capitalists based on private ownership. Many important events took place like the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship’ and ‘Korean Conflict’.
→ Russian Prime Minister Stalin and American President Eisenhower tried to maintain peaceful co-existence but tension arose at the Cuba incident.
→ Mikhail Gorbachev was the new leader of Russia in 1985. His period was known as the end of the Cold War. His ideology for Russia was restructuring and openness.
→ There was chaos in world politics during the cold war such as the world was divided into two Superpower groups, misunderstanding between nations, the invention of weapons, etc.
→ Few agreements were signed by America and Russia like NATO, SEATO, ANZUS, CENTO, and Warsaw Pact.
was signed by 29 European countries, members were Norway, America, Italy, Denmark, Netherland, Portugal, Turkey, Belgium, Canada, Iceland, Germany, Luxemburg, and Spain.
→ According to this treaty attack on any member, country would be treated as an attack on all member countries.
→ All will maintain peace and security.
→ Any problem among members can be solved through discussion.
→ Headquarters of NATO will be in Paris and America had a significant role in decision making in NATO.
→ Against Nato, Russia signed the Warsaw Pact with communist nations in Europe.
ANZUS: Treaty was signed by
NZ: New Zealand
This is known as three-way defence pact. Main moto to form this treaty was to protect the ‘ countries in Pacific Ocean from communist China and did not want England and France to have any upper hand in the matter of their national security.
→ In September 1954, the United States, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia, Philippines, Thailand and Pakistan formed the Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation or SEATO.
→ SEATO’s main goal was to stop the spread of communism and the organisation did this in various ways.
The Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organisation (METO), was a military alliance of the cold war. It was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom and dissolved in 1979.
Sino – Soviet Security Pact:
This treaty was between Russia and China. Russia was ready to provide economic, industrial, and technological aid to China.
Soviet Russia and seven communist countries from Europe namely Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania signed this treaty to strengthen communist nations and oppose American policies.
Non-Alignment Policy of India:
- India remained neutral and shaped its own peace strategies. This is known as ‘NAM’.
- Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru and few others were the architects of NAM.
- NAM is about adopting foreign policy with peace, supporting other nations’ struggle for independence, not involving in any treaty with superpower nations.
- An organisation which would work for economic and social development in Asia.
- Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Nepal are members of SAARC.
→ Countries which were under the British empire and now sovereign formed ‘Commonwealth of Nations.
→ Motive behind this was to achieve political and administrative machinery by exchange of experience and ideas.
→ The British king or queen is the head of the Commonwealth.
→ Atrocious -Extremely bad or unpleasant.
→ Colonialism – The policy or practice of acquiring ful] or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.
→ Diplomatic relations – The arrangement between two countries in which each has representatives in the other country.
→ Disarmament – The reduction or withdrawal of military forces and weapons.
→ Dissemination – The action or fact of spreading something widely.
→ Imperialism – A policy of extending a country’s power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means.
→ PerenniaLly – Permanently/Recurrent.
→ Protectorates – A state that is controlled and protected by another.
→ ‘Warsaw Pact’ – A treaty signed by Soviet Russia bringing together the communist countries in Europe.