By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1 students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1
→ After independence, India has made advancements in various fields, especially after 1990. India emerges as a strong country at international forum. In this chapter, we are going to study the advancement made by India in different fields.
→ India adopted the policy of liberalisation in 1990, since then many changes took place in trade and commerce.
→ Many countries with a view to protect their home market imposed various duties on imported goods so to discuss this problem a meeting was called in Cuba which was attended by 56 nations.
→ The first multinational trade agreement was signed by 23 nations at Geneva known as GATT.
World Trade Organisation (WTO):
- Nearly 123 nations came together and found an organisation on 1st January 1995 with an objective of opening the world for free trade known as WTO.
- The Director-General of WTO, Arthur Dunkel prepared a draft known as ‘Dunkel Draft’ which emphasises on trade, free from governmental custom duty and other restrictions. This policy is known as liberalisation.
- WTO published a report on 2006 which mentioned India’s increasing economic growth.
Transformation in various field:
Transformation of a nation can be discerned through certain indicators. Transformation has taken place in various fields.
Rural Development Plans:
→ Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Yojana: This plan was started on 2nd October 1993 for creating opportunities for job and private enterprise.
→ Rojgar Hami Yojana: Started on 2nd October 1993 to assure daily wages to the unemployed agricultural labourers.
→ In 2001, this plan was merged in Gramin Rojgar Yojana.
→ To provide support to farmers in difficult times ‘Kisan Credit Card’ plan was started.
→ Suvarnajayanti Gramin Swayam Rojgar Yojana: This plan was launched in 1999 by merging various plans together.
→ Jawahar Gram-Samruddhi Yojana: This plan was implemented in 1999 to provide employment to the unemployed men and women.
→ Later it was merged into ‘Sampoorna Gramin Rojgar Yojana’.
→ Sampoorna Gramin Rojgar Yojana: Started by merging together Rojgar Aashwasan Yojana and Jawahar Gram-Samruddhi Yojana for creating employment opportunities in rural areas.
→ This plan was merged in Rashtriya Gramin Rojgar Hami Yojana.
→ Rashtriya Gramin Rojgar Hami Yojana: Under this scheme each family in rural areas was given 100 day’s work.
→ Agriculture and Livestock: Agriculture and agro related sector were given importance.
→ Soil Health Card Scheme aims at increasing soil fertility.
→ Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchan Yojana given importance to irrigation.
→ Krishi Vikas Yojana and Pradhan Mantri Vima Yojana implemented for economic welfare of farmers.
→ In 2007, national policy for farmers was adopted.
→ Pradhan Mantri Peek Vima Yojana was introduced if crop failure was there.
→ Agricultural exhibitions are organised through Indian Council for Agricultural Research.
→ Goat keeping or sheli plan is encouraged.
→ ‘National Livestock Mission’ was established in 2014.
→ Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana: Started in 2000 with a purpose of building roads and linking the villages.
Urban Development Plans:
→ Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (Jnnurm): Started in 2005 with aim of massive modernisation of cities through road building, public transport, wastewater disposal and other management schemes.
→ Golden Quadrilateral (Suvarna Chatushkon Yojana): Started in 1998 with an aim of creating national highway network to join the four megacities – Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkatta.
→ Metro Railway: Flagged off in 2002 in Delhi.
Means of Communication:
→ Indian Postal Department was established in 1766 by British.
→ The postal department has introduced various schemes such as Postal Saving Account, Term Deposit, Public Provident Fund, Kisan Vikas Patra, Sukanya Samruddhi Yojana.
→ Post Offices were brought under core banking solutions, ATMs were installed and also provided services to non-resident Indians.
→ Speed post: changed the very nature of Indian postal service.
→ Ministry of Disinvestment: It was established by Government of India to take care of its disinvestment policy. Focuses on reducing disinvestment in sectors like mining, petroleum, refineries etc.
→ The policy of privatisation, Liberalisation and Globalisation are popularly known as KHAUJA boosted the confidence of Indian companies.
→ It was renamed as Department of Investment in 2016.
→ BRICS: Established in 2006 with an aim of enhancing the trade among the participant countries like Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa.
Science and Technology.
- A super-computer named Param-8000 was created.
- In 1998, an advanced version of Param-8000 was created and named as Param-10000.
- In 2003, Parampadma Super Computer was dedicated to nation.
- In 2004, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) was the biggest firm in Asia providing software services.
- In 2000, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. was established to provide services like cellular phones, internet and broadband.
- In 2007, India launched Italian satellite and entered in a new field of space research.
- In 2008, India launched Chandrayaan-1, the first lunar probe.
- After that India launched Chandrayaan-2 and Mangalyaan.
→ In 1999, Kargil war was fought between India and Pakistan when Pakistan intruded Kashmir. It is also referred to as ‘Operation Vijay’.
→ In 2009, India launched Strategic Strike Nuclear Submarine of Arihant class.
→ The Government of India emphasised on indigenous production by using indigenous technology (Make in India).
Youth related policies.
- In 1972, a number of centres of‘Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan’ were established.
- National Youth Empowerment Programme put a thrust on topics like literacy, education health and hygiene, family welfare etc.
- 12th January the birth anniversary of Swami Vivekanand is observed as ‘National Youth Day.
- Youth Hostels Association of India has established youth hostels in various parts of country.
Right to Information Act 2005.
- This kind of act was first applied in Sweden in 1776.
- In 1982, L.K. Kulwant first initiated the process by applying to know the Jaipur Municipal Corporation’s work for cleaning the city.
- Aruna Rao started the movement ‘Majdoor Kisan Shakti Sanghatan’ in 1990.
- The act was implemented in Maharashtra after a long struggle of Anna Hazare.
Reorganisation of States:
New states were formed in India
→ Chhattisgarh: Fazal Ali Commission rejected the demand. Later by the initiative of, Government of India the state of Chhattisgarh was created on 1st November 2000.
→ Uttarakhand: The demand of separate state of the people of Garhwal and Kumaon was supported by Indian National Congress. Uttarakhand Parvatiya Rajya Parishad was established for this purpose. Finally, in 2000 the state of Uttaranchal was created, which renamed as Uttarakhand.
→ Jharkhand: In 1947, All India Jharkhand Party was established for a demand of separate Jharkhand. The Bihar legislative assembly passed the bill in 2000 and the state of Jharkhand came into existence on 15th November 2000.
→ Telangana: Telangana Rashtriya Samiti started the movement for the creation of a separate Telangana. In 2014 this proposal was approved in the Parliament and the state of Telangana came into existence on 2nd June 2014.
→ Jammu-Kashmir and Ladakh: Article 370 gave a special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
→ Recently in August 2019, Government of India revoked Article 370 and from 31st October the state of Jammu and Kashmir was reconstructed as two separate Union territories of Jammu-Kashmir and Ladakh.
→ Liberalisation – The removal or loosening of restriction on something, typically an economic or political system
→ Globalisation – Is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies and government worldwide
→ Modernisation – The process of adapting something to modern needs or habits
→ Reorganisation – The action or process of changing the way in which something is organised.
→ Pisciculture — The controlled breeding and rearing of fish
→ Census – An official count or survey, especially of a population
→ Bureaucrats – Is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration of any organization of any size, although the term usually connotes someone within an institution of government
→ Oceanography – The branch of science which deals with the physical and biological properties and phenomena of the sea
→ Terrorism – The unlawful use of violence and intimidation especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims
→ Entrepreneur – A person who sets up a business, taking on financial risks in the hope of profit.
→ Co-operative – Involving mutual assistance in working towards a common goal Transformation A marked change in form, nature, or appearance.