By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 12 India Transformed Part 2 students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 12 India Transformed Part 2
→ In the last lesson, we saw India’s advancement in the field of trade and commerce, science and technology, and all other related fields. We also studied different issues faced by India and the reorganization of the state.
→ In this chapter, we are going to study the development of India in the social domain including health, environment, education, and sports. India has a rich cultural heritage, several people from all over the world visit India to see its cultural heritage which gives impetus to tourism in India.
→ The transformation of India is also visible in the social domain.
→ Human Rights Protection Act -1993 was passed in order to reduce social disparity.
→ National Human Rights Commission was established under this act. The objective of this act includes the protection of fundamental rights and to see that nobody is deprived of this Act.
→ In 2005, ‘The Domestic Violence Act was passed to provide protection to women from domestic violence.
→ The State Government of Maharashtra launched a programme ‘Lek Ladaki’ to save girl child. Government also banned sex/gender determination.
In 1995, the health department of Government of India launched programme called ‘Pulse Polio’ for the eradication of polio.
This department was established by ‘Ministry of Health and Family Welfare’ for developing alternate medicine like Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Homoeopathy etc.
→ Many states in India are facing the problem of air pollution due to increased number of automobiles and vehicles with poor maintenance.
→ The Centre for Science and Environment studied the problem of pollution in Delhi and recommended the use of CNG as a fuel for vehicle to overcome the problem of pollution.
→ The vehicles without PUC (Pollution Under Control) will not qualify for insurance and renewal of insurance.
→ Sundarlal Bahuguna (Chipko Movement), Medha Patkar (Narmada Bachao Andolan) and Dr. Rajendra Singh (Water Conservation) are some of the prominent names who contributed a lot for the protection and conservation of environment.
→ Rahibai Popere: She is popularly known as ‘Beejmata’ for her work to preserve seeds of native cultivars for the future generation. She also got ‘Nari Shakti’ award by the President of India on 8th March 2018.
→ Bhau Katdare: Bhau Katdare and his associates work for the conservation of nature. For this purpose, they established an institute called ‘Sahyadri Nisarg Mitra’. He worked to save and conserve ‘White-Breasted Sea Eagle’. He is also working to protect Olive Ridley turtles and ‘Pangolin’.
→ Prem Sagar Mestry and his associates are working for increasing the number of ‘Long-billed Vultures’ and ‘White back Vultures’ and to make available safe food for them through ‘Society for Eco Endangered Species Conservation and Protection – SEESCAP’.
→ Kerala became the first state in India with 100% literacy in 1990, which was declared as the ‘International Literacy Year.
→ Ernakulam was the first district in Kerala to become completely literate.
Education with special reference to Maharashtra:
→ Primary Education: In 1994, District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was started with an aim of achieving 100% registration and attendance of children in primary schools and bringing down the number of drop-out.
→ Mid-Day Meal (Shaley Poshan Ahar): Started on 15th August 1995 to provide mid-day meal to children in primary school.
→ Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan – SSA
→ “Let’s all learn, Let’s all progress” was the motto of this programme which was launched in 2001.
→ The programme gave special attention to the education of girl child with special needs (Divyang).
→ ‘EDUSAT’ (GSAT-3), a satellite was launched to achieve universalisation of education in India.
→ The Indian sports history was full of various achievements in different sports like the Indian hockey team used to return home victorious from international matches, Indian wrestler Kashaba Jadhav earned fame in international wrestling.
→ Due to globalisation some new sport and sportspersons became popular. It is essential for sportspersons in all fields to prove themselves every time they play. There is a lot of change in the format and the rules of games.
→ Many new sports became popular nowadays. Media and Sports channels have special slots for this. Some television channels are devoted to sports. Number of sports journals are published in India.
→ Various clubs/associations of each sport are established in India. The player has to sign professional contract with club. The IPL matches of cricket, World Cup matches, one day matches and 20-20, the matches of Pro Kabaddi are the examples of professionalisation of the sports world.
→ The government of India is taking a note of extraordinary sportspersons and honoured them with various awards.
→ Sachin Tendulkar was awarded with the highest award of ‘Bharat Ratna’. He was also nominated as a member of Rajya Sabha.
→ Sports is included in the school and college curriculum.
National Sports policy:
→ Government of India announced its sports policy in 2011 with the objective to take sports to all parts of India, to help the players to develop special skills, to build supportive and fundamental sport facilities, to help National Sport Federation of India, to initiate cooperation from industries, corporate private institution for the cause of sports, to create awareness of the importance of sports among people.
→ A scheme called ‘Come and Play’ was launched by Government in 2011.
→ Five sports complexes were made available to locals under ‘Sports Authority of India’.
→ The National Sports Academy was founded at Manipur in 2018. Bachelor, Master’s, M. Phil, Ph.D. and research in sports is also encouraged in this academy.
→ This is a scheme launched by Indian Government with the objective of creating a larger popular platform and to establish excellence in sports.
→ To create interest about sports among the students from early days in school and to increase girl’s participation in sports are the two major aspect of this scheme.
→ For the development of sports ‘National Sports Development Fund’ was established.
→ In order to encourage the player ‘Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna’, Arjun Award, Dhyanchand Lifetime Achievement Award, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Trophy and National Sports Encouragement Award are given every year.
→ ₹ 75,00,000 are awarded to the sportsperson who wins a gold medal in Olympic games. Similarly visually impaired are given good amount of rewards and jobs.
→ There is a provision of pension for the retired sportsperson.
→ In this way, Government of India encouraged sports by opening many avenues for youths and students.
Cultural Heritage and Tourism:
→ Tourism industry is one of the continuously growing industry not only in India but in entire world also.
→ It gives foreign exchange and increased revenue to the country.
→ The three ministries of Home Affairs, Tourism and Foreign Affairs together created the facility of e-visa, which included e-business visa, e-medical visa and e-visa.
→ A 24-hour telephonic service giving information in 10 foreign languages is available. This facility is available at 1363 number.
→ Institutes offering training course in ‘Hospitality and Hotel Management’ have been established in many cities in the country.
→ ‘Atulya Bharat’ an advertisement campaign was launched by the Indian government.
→ ‘GONORTHEAST’ a travel show was released on Discovery channel.
→ ‘Swadesh Darshan’ or ‘Prasad’ schemes were started by Indian Government for pilgrimage. Swadesh Darshan is a programme introduced for 13 types of pilgrimage tour.
→ Channels like BBC, Discovery, History are showing programmes on India’s cultural and historical heritage.
→ The Ministry of Tourism, Government of India and Federation of Associations in Indian Tourism and Hospitality (FAITH) organised Indian Tourism Mart-2018.
→ Universalization of education – The process of making education available to everybody
→ UNICEF – Acronym of United Nations Children’s Fund, Formerly (1946-53) United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, Special program of the United Nations (UN) devoted to aiding national efforts to improve the health, nutrition, education, and general welfare of children.
→ Landrace – A landrace is a domesticated and locally adopted traditional variety of species of plants or animals which has developed over a period of time.
→ Suo moto cognizance – It is a Latin term meaning “on its own motion”. It is used where a government agency especially courts acts on its own cognizance, as in the commission took sou moto control over the matter without anybody formally seeking intervention.
→ Corne and play scheme – It is primarily focused on encouraging local sports persons in areas where SAI sports facilities I centers are
→ Khelo India – This program has been introduced to revive the sports culture in India at the grassroots level.
→ Cultural heritage – It is an expression of the ways of living developed by a community and passed on from one generation to another. e.g., customs, traditions, places, objects, artistic expression, values, religious practices, and soon.