By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 7 Decolonisation to Political Integration of India students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 7 Decolonisation to Political Integration of India
→ In the last lesson, we have studied various revolts that took place in India against British or East India companies.
→ In this lesson, we are going to study ‘Decolonisation’ which means the process of ending British power and all power transferred to the people of India.
→ As we know India was ruled by many kings and kingdoms, India got its independence on August 15, 1947.
→ But, after independence, the princely states had the right to be free or remain independent.
→ Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel played a very important role to unite India. Let’s study the story of various events.
Decolonization to Political Integration of India.
After Independence India had more than 600 princely states. Meanwhile, many movements were started like Non-co-operation movement. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel handled the situation with great skill and tact and won the confidence of the rulers of these states and they have merged in India, except Junagadh, Hyderabad and Kashmir.
→ Junagadh: Junagadh’s Nawab of Saurashtra wanted to join Pakistan and people from Junagadh wanted to be a part of India. In February 1948, he escaped from India and joined Pakistan. Junagadh became a part of Independent India.
→ Hyderabad: Hyderabad was under the Nizam and had three languages Telugu, Kannada and Marathi. He imposed many restrictions. To fight with Nizam people established Andhra Parishad in Telangana, Maharashtra Parishad in Marathwada and Karnataka Parishad in Karnataka.
→ Swami Ramanand Tirth formed workers organisation called Hyderabad State Congress against Nizam. Later on, Nizam and Kasim Razvi (Razakar Organisation head) had to surrender against Independent nation, campaign started by India called ‘Operation Polo’. In September 1947, Hyderabad merged with India.
→ Kashmir: Story of Kashmir was different, ruler Hari Singh wanted to be independent, neither wanted to join Pakistan nor India. But Pakistan wanted it in Pakistan. Later on, Pakistan attacked Kashmir, Hari Singh asked Pandit Nehru to help him by signing the act.
→ Soon, Indian army were sent, but some part of Kashmir was captured by Pakistan Army. This matter arose in UNO and soon it was declared ‘International Issue’. The constitution of Jammu and Kashmir was drafted, it became part of India. Jammu and Kashmir got special status by ‘Article 370.’
→ Dadra and Nagar-Haveli:
Dadra and Nagar Haveli was under the dominance of Portuguese and a part of Gujarat, near the river Damanganga. It was assumed that after India got independence, Portuguese also would hand over these regions to India. But it was not like that, they did not do so.
→ Many organisations like United Front of Goans, Azad Gomantak Dal started campaign, Portuguese governor tried to suppress it but they failed and Nagar Haveli was captured by people. Soon the branch of Azad Gomantak Dal also captured Dadra. Azad Mukti Sena and Azad Gomantak Dal captured some more parts of it. Many police and administrative offices were attacked. To come back in normal situation, Governor of India was appointed. In August 1954, Dadra and Nagar Haveli became a part of Nation and in 1961 declared status of Union Territory.
→ Goa: Goa was also under the rule of Portuguese. It was necessary to get freedom from Portuguese. For this already committee was formed in Mumbai. Soon this committee started campaign against Portuguese. Dr. Kunha played an important role, started struggle of weapons against Portuguese. He was arrested when he got shot and injured during attack on police station.
→ ‘Maratha’ newspaper was continuously publishing article to gain support for the movement started by Dr. Kunha. This alarmed Pandit Nehru and soon the army was sent for mission in Goa. Army operation was called ‘Operation Vijay’. In this operation the civilians of Goa helped the army to show the places where landmines were planted. Within 48 hours Portuguese surrendered to Indian Army. In 1961, Goa was free from Portuguese after 461 years.
→ Puducherry: Same as Goa, Puducherry was also in hands of the French. It was a clear message to the French Colony that British and Portuguese had left from here, now it is French’s turn. But it was not easy. Puducherry, Chandranagar, West Bengal and many small states were under the French power. French government was not willing to surrender. People of Puducherry came together.
→ Seeing this serious matter Government of India demanded to return the Indian regions captured by French. In 1948 agreement of negotiations were signed and issues of Puducherry were solved. In 1949-50, positive response came from Chandranagar, here also an act was signed. In 1954, all colonies of French were merged in India. In 1963 Puducherry declared to be a ‘Union Territory.’
→ It was not easy to merge all princely states into independent nation. Under the leadership of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel all princely states merged with India and became an integral part of the Indian republic. Thus, the process of political integration of India was completed.
→ Decolonisation – Leaving it independent
→ Suzerainty – A sìtuation in which a powerful region
→ Integration – Process of integrating
→ Conciliatory – The action or process of ending a disagreement
→ Razakar – A private militia
→ Martyrs – A person who is killed because of their religious or other beliefs Dominion Control
→ Fierce – Severe or extremely strong
→ Unfurled – A sailor a flag; unfold
→ Deported – To force someone to leave a country
→ Eminent – Respected, or important
→ Prevail – To get control
→ Bilateral Government – Involving two groups or countries.