By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 8 World Wars and India students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 8 World Wars and India
→ The most important events of the first half of the 20th Century which changed the world scenario were the two World Wars.
First World War (1914-1918)
Causes of the First World War:
→ Industrial revolution led to increase in industrial production.
→ International competitions among European powers for colonies and economic markets.
→ Rivalry between the European nations and competition to produce more and more destructive weapons.
→ Immediate cause: Assassination of the Austrian Prince Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife by a Serbian maniac.
The Course of the War:
There were two groups in the war.
Group 1: Allies: Serbia, Britain, Russia, France, Belgium, U.S.A.
Group 2: The Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Germany, Turkey, Bulgaria
Germany was defeated in the First World War and the Treaty of Versailles came into force.
An International Organisation called League of Nations was founded after World War First for maintaining peace in the world.
First World War and India:
→ The Britishers compelled India to participate in the world wars. India became the source of procuring help in the form of money, food, clothing and other war supplies including skilled human power, arms and ammunitions, textiles, etc.
→ Production of war supplies increased.
→ There was a sharp increase in demand for the Indian goods.
→ Demand for food supplies increased, grains were exported to England caused shortage of food grains for Indians.
→ India was backward in the matter of air crafts, mechanized war instruments, infantry, military training and others.
→ Montagu-Chelmsford reforms were introduced in India.
Establishment of military academy in India.
→ Lokmanya Tilak and other Indian leaders believed that cooperation offered by the Indian people to Britain will be beneficial to them in future.
→ 11 lakh Hindi soldiers fought in a war. India also contributed 150 crores of rupees to the war expenses.
→ The Kamagata Maru incident: Nearly 30 Indian passengers on a steamship, Kamagata Maru, were short dead by British officers which created public outrage all over India.
→ There was a rise of nationalism in India.
Second World War (1939-1945)
Causes of the Second World War:
→ The Treaty of Versailles and German desire for revenge.
→ Rise of Hitler and Nazi ideology.
→ Hitler began to build up Germany’s arms and weapons.
→ Britain and France thought a stronger Germany would stop the spread of communism from Russia.
→ Hitler attacked and won Sudeten province and Poland. Therefore, England declared war against Germany.
→ Germany conquered Holland, Belgium, France and marched towards England.
→ Successful retreat of Britain’s forces.
→ Winston Churchill became the Prime Minister of England.
→ Hitler violated Non-aggression pact made with Stalin and attacked Soviet Russia.
→ Soviet Russia defeated Germans and the allied nations took over Berlin. Hitler committed suicide.
→ The Pearl Harbour incident- In 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbour resulted in America declaring war against Japan. America detonated two atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. At last, Japan surrendered on 15th August 1945 and war came to an end.
Second World War and India:
→ India contributed to the rehabilitation of Malaya, Indonesia and China after the war was over.
→ Exploitation of India by British in order to achieve victory in the war.
→ The British Government established several factories in India to meet the requirement of war supplies.
Impact of World Wars on India:
→ The British Government started forced recruitment of soldiers in India.
→ Extra taxes were levied on Indians for raising funds.
→ Crises of essential commodities increased which led to inflation.
→ Unemployment became rampant in India.
→ Indian become aware of the exploitative rule of British and they decided to join Indian National Movement.
→ The Indian National Congress protested against Viceroy Linlithgow’s announcement of India’s participation in war.
→ When Japanese army reached the eastern border of the India, several volunteers of Azad Hind Sena joined this army under the leadership of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose in order to attend its goal of independence of India.
Both the wars were destructive in nature. In order to avoid such wars in future and to maintain peace League of Nations was established after First World War and United Nations after Second World War India is a member of this organization.
→ Nationalism – A feeling of love or pride for your own country, a feeling that your country is better than any other country.
→ Indian National Movement – It was a series of activities or movements with the ultimate aim of ending the British rule in India.
→ Militarism – belief that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.
→ Non-aggression pact – A non-aggression pact is a treaty between two or more states countries that includes a promise by the signatories not to engage in military action against each other.