By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 1 Introduction To Indian Society students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 1 Introduction To Indian Society
The study of our past has been broadly divided into three periods :
- Ancient and Medieval India
- Colonial period
- Post-Independence period.
Religious beliefs and practices:
→ The impact of three ancient indigenous religions: Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism are significant especially up to the end of the Later Vedic period.
→ The Vedic period is usually divided into: Early Vedic Period (c. 100 BCE to 10000 BCE) and Later Vedic Period (c.1000 BCE to c.500 BCE).
→ For Hindus, the Puranas and Dharmashastras laid out a Code of Conduct based on the Law of Karma (Action) rebirth, until it can attain moksha (salvation).
→ Jainism is said to have been revealed by 24 Tirthankaras of which Vardhaman Mahavir was the last. Ahimsa (non-harming) and Tapas (penance) are important and integral components of the Jain way of life.
→ Buddha, with his teachings, advocated the middle path based on the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path.
→ The Medieval Period (c. 650 CE – c. 1500 CE), saw several religions come to India from outside. These include Judaism, Christianity, Islam and much later Zoroastrianism.
→ The Sangham Period (6th century BCE to 3rd century CE) is the period of history of ancient peninsular India.
→ The roots of Zoroastrianism are found in the Middle East region.
→ People of Jewish faith are believed to be one of the early foreign religions to come to India.
→ It is in the 1st century CE that Saint Thomas, an Apostle of Jesus Christ, brought Christianity to the shores of Malabar in South India.
→ Islam first came to India in the 8th century CE, the impact and influence of the religion is seen only much later.
→ Like Judaism and Christianity, Islam also preaches Monotheism and the faith centres on the Holy Quran. Muslims believe in the Five Pillars of Faith.
→ Sikhism emerged in the late 15th century CE and was founded by Guru Nanak (1469 CE – 1539 CE). Like Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism, Sikhism too preached the Karma theory.
→ The Bhakti movement emerged with the need to bring religious reform in Hinduism during the medieval period.
Status of Women in Education:
- Indian women enjoyed a comparatively high status during the early Vedic period.
- The Later Vedic period witnessed a decline in the status of women in society.
- The status of women deteriorated even further in Medieval India.
Nature of education:
→ During the Early Vedic period the content of education was based on sacred literature which was written in Sanskrit.
→ Vardhaman Mahavir was a religious teacher for three decades.
→ The Buddhist system of education was conducted through Buddhist monasteries.
→ Education in the Sangham period was a widespread social activity.
→ The decline of Buddhist Viharas is significant as it marked the decline of an organised system of education.
→ Education during the medieval period is centred on the Quran.
→ Harappan civilisation was known for its well-planned towns.
→ Sangham. literature makes reference to tribes and traditional castes. This is indicative of their coexistence.
→ The Varna System during Vedic period referred to the social order or class of people. Ashramvyavastha was prescribed for the so-called twice-born castes.
→ This referred to the four stages in the life of a Hindu. The Classical Period (i.e., the period of the Gupta Dynasty) believed to be the ‘Golden Age. During the Delhi Sultanate, society experienced a synthesis of Indian and Islamic culture.
→ The Harappan civilisation suggest that Harappa was indeed a well-planned town with a ‘way of life’ that can be referred to as ‘first urbanisation’.
→ The period c.500 BCE to c.200 BCE is considered the period of ‘second urbanisation’ which brought a large-scale beginning of town life in the middle Gangetic basin.
Consequences of Colonialism in India:
→ Education: The British set up a system of education which was secular in nature, had far-reaching impact on Indian society and which led to the rise of a new class of intelligentsia,
→ Culture: Many of the educated elite took to the lifestyle of the British, this process of imitation was referred by M.N. Srinivasan as westernisation.
→ Administration: The British set in new systems of administration. A new judiciary system was created, which took into consideration the earlier legal traditions of the Indian communities. However, its implementation was carried out on a secular basis.
→ Economy: The economic system got transformed by industrial growth and urbanisation.
→ Transport and Communication: Development of transportation and communication led to an increase in market outlets for Indian raw materials.
→ The Nationalist Movement: The 19th century saw the emergence of the Indian National Congress and Mahatma Gandhi as the key figure in the call for independence.
→ Social Reform Movements: The 19th century is witness to the emergence of many social and religious reform movements.
→ Social Legislation: The increase in the number of reformative groups enabled Indians to exert pressure upon the British government, For passing laws against prevalent social evils.
→ Constitution of India: The Constitution of India was framed by the Constituent Assembly, founded on 6th December 1946 which recognises various diversity of Indian society.
→ Legislation: Several laws related to civil and criminal matters have been enacted, which may be amended or repealed from time to time.
→ Economy: The economic growth of India until recently was guided by Planned Development, through twelve Five-Year Plan.
→ Education: There has been significant expansion of number of educational institutions.
→ Polity: In Post-Independent India, a system of governance based on the principle of democracy has been adopted by us.