By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 2 Segments of Indian Society students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 2 Segments of Indian Society
→ The tribal segment constitutes 8.6% of the different identity and are referred to by various names.
→ The Constitution of India calls them Scheduled Tribes.
→ Each tribe has its distinct identity (e.g., Warli, Mizo, Toda, Bhil, Jarawa. Gond, Santhal, Munda, Andamanese)
→ Tribes are found in various parts of India. They have their unique characteristics and their culture has set them apart from others.
→ However, due to contact with rural and urban people, tribal people have undergone many changes and this has impacted their way of life. There is cultural disintegration taking place in tribal areas.
→ After Independence, the Government of India has taken various efforts for Tribal Development.
|Tribal Religion||Term introduced by|
→ Most of India lives in its villages. Villages constitute the rural segment their predominant economic activity is agriculture. Institutions such as joint family, caste and panchayat are considered the pillars of rural society.
→ There are a large number of villages which suffer from major problems.
Problems of Indian rural community:
→ Several programmes have been started for rural development and reconstruction.
→ Urban areas are distinct when compared to tribal and rural segments of Indian society. This is due to tertiary occupations like business, trade commerce, professions etc. urban areas are more heterogeneous, impersonal and individualistic
→ Urban areas have their own set of problems from inadequate infrastructure to meeting growing demands, crime, poverty, class extremes, alienation, environmental pollution, diseases etc.
Major Urban Problems:
→ The government has taken up various programmes for urban development. Several steps have been initiated to meet the challenges posed by the urban crisis.