Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

1. Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
……………. is the father of positive psychology.
(a) Carver
(b) Masten
(c) Seligman
Answer:
(c) Seligman

Question 2.
Barbara Fredrickson introduced the Broaden and ………………. theory.
(a) Build
(b) Emotion
(c) Learning
Answer:
(a) Build

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Question 3.
The belief that good things will happen is called as ………………..
(a) pessimism
(b) resilience
(c) optimism
Answer:
(c) optimism

Question 4.
The capacity to understand what the other person is experiencing is………………
(a) sympathy
(b) empathy
(c) emotion
Answer:
(b) empathy

2. Answer the following questions in 35 – 40 words each.

Question 1.
Explain the theories of happiness
Answer:
Happiness is a positive emotional state that is subjective to each person, for e.g., people feel happy when they are successful or surprised or loved, etc.
The main theories of happiness are-

  1. Need/ goal satisfaction theories – Happiness is experienced when some need or goal is satisfied, e.g., Rohit feels happiness when he clears IIT-JEE exams.
  2. Process/ activity theories – Happiness is experienced when one engages in a particular activity, e.g., Sumit enjoys trekking.
  3. Genetic/ personality theories – Genetic and personality characteristics are involved in the experience of happiness.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Question 2.
What is mindfulness?
Answer:
Mindfulness is the basic human ability to be fully aware of where we are and what we are doing. It means that we should not be overly reactive or overwhelmed by what’s going on around us. Mindfulness refers to mental awareness that helps to focus on the ‘Here and Now’. It helps to increase self-regulation, which results in growth and happiness. Mindfulness is maintaining moment by moment awareness of our bodily sensations, environment, thoughts and feelings.

Question 3.
What is resilience?
Answer:
According to the American Psychological Association, resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress such as family and relationships, health, work and finances, etc. It is the act of ‘bouncing back’ inspite of barriers or set backs.

Resilience helps the person to recover form setbacks with the least negative consequences. Individuals high on resilience exhibit the following characteristics-

  1. they regain their confidence after a period of emotional disturbance
  2. they are able to maintain their psychological well-being.

The types of resilience are physical, psychological, emotional and community resilience.

3. Write short notes on the following in 50 – 60 words each.

Question 1.
Life above zero
Answer:
Traditional psychology focused on life at and below zero. Zero is the line that divides illness form
health. Hence, life below zero indicates a life that is full of problems stress, diseases, etc. Positive psychology emphasizes the study of life above zero.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology 1
-1 to +1 indicates neutral charactristics while below 0 indicates disorders, dysfunction or illness. Life above zero covers a large area of positive aspects of behaviour such as mindfulness, resilience, happiness, hope, trust and empathy. It acknowledges elements of living that enrich and meaningfully sustain what is referred to as “the good life” in positive psychology.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Question 2.
Determinants of happiness
Answer:
Happiness is a positive emotional state. Factors like health, prestige, income, success, etc., contribute to only a small portion of our total happiness.
Some factors are predictors of long lasting happiness-

  1. Strong, intimate social relationships, positive contacts and good support system.
  2. Optimism leads to less of negative emotions like stress.
  3. Self-esteem enhances our confidence level and ability to approach challenges in a constructive manner.
  4. Achieving challenging goals- If the goals are too easy, it leads to boredom and if they are too difficult, it leads to frustration. Moderately challenging goals, increase the chance of success, leading to happiness.
  5. Perceiving meaning and purpose in life, without which we will experience frustration, boredom, etc.
  6. Looking at life’s challenges as an opportunity rather than a threat helps to develop our potential.

Question 3.
Characteristics of an optimist
Answer:
Optimism is a mental attitude that includes feelings of hopefulness and a belief that the future will be positive and favourable. It is the belief that negative events are merely setbacks that are temporary and can be overcome.
The characteristics of optimists are:

  1. they try to choose the best options available
  2. they tend to be high on self confidence
  3. they face difficulties positively as they view them as a challenge for a person to become strong
  4. they are hopeful about the future and do not generalize present failure to future events.

Question 4.
Methods to promote empathy
Answer:
Empathy is the capacity to understand and feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference i.e. capacity to place oneself in another’s position.

According to Simon Baron-Cohen there are three components of empathy viz. cognitive empathy emotional reactivity and social skills. Empathy builds a sense of security and trust. It is closely related to emotional intelligence and is a key to successful relationships.
Empathy can be promoted by using the following methods-

  1. Increase social interactions – Especially with people who need help in order to understand their perspectives and motives.
  2. Connecting through similarities – With others, e.g., those having same hobbies/ work/ goals, etc.
  3. Understanding what you are feeling – Those who are able to accurately judge their own motives, can empathize better.
  4. Challenge yourself – Tasks that are challenging lead to the person struggling to achieve a goal. This lead to humility which enables empathy.
  5. Cultivate a sense of curiosity – This leads to open-mindedness and a better understanding of those around us.
  6. Widen our social circle – Contact with people of different races, cultures, viewpoints helps to increase empathy towards them at a neurological level.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

4. Explain the Following concepts.

Question 1.
Positive Psychology
Answer:
Positive Psychology is a newly emerging branch of psychology. Martin Seligman officially introduced Positive Psychology as a subfield of psychology. It is the science of happiness, human strength and growth. Positive Psychology focuses on building of character strengths like courage, happiness, perseverance, etc., rather than on anxiety, conflict, avoidance, etc. According to Seligman, positive psychology is “the scientific study of positive human functioning and flourishing on multiple levels that include the biological, personal, relational, institutional, cultural and global dimensions of life.”

Question 2.
Half glass full and half glass empty.
Answer:
Optimism is a mental attitude that includes feelings of hopefulness. It is a belief that the future will be positive and favourable and that negative events are merely setbacks that are temporary and can be overcome. Seligman explained about optimism in the book ‘Learned Optimism’. Our perspective determines whether or not we will show optimism.

A glass which has water upto its mid level may be perceived as half full (optimism) or as half empty (pessimism). This is described as ‘Half glass full and half glass empty’.

Question 3.
Empathy
Answer:
Empathy is the capacity to understand and feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., capacity to place oneself in another’s position. According to Simon Baron-Cohen, there are three components of empathy viz. cognitive empathy i.e., perspective taking, emotional reactivity (connecting in an intimate bond with another person) and social skills (moved to help the other). Empathy builds a sense of security and trust. It is closely related to emotional intelligence and is a key to successful relationships.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Question 4.
Mindfulness
Answer:
Mindfulness is the basic human ability to be fully aware of where we are and what we are doing. It means that we should not be overly reactive or overwhelmed by what’s going on around us. Mindfulness refers to mental awareness that helps to focus on the ‘Here and Now’. It helps to increase self-regulation, which results in growth and happiness. Mindfulness is maintaining moment by moment awareness of our bodily sensations, environment, thoughts and feelings.

Question 5.
Social resilience
Answer:
According to the American Psychological Association, resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress such as family, health, etc. It is the act of ‘bouncing back’ inspite of barriers or set backs.

Social resilience is also called community resilience. It is the ability of groups of people to respond to and recover from adverse situations such as natural disasters, epidemics, war and socio-economic challenges to their community. This is mainly due to strong connections or bonds that the community members have with each other.

5. Answer the following question in 150 – 200 words each.

Question 1.
What are the essential building blocks of resilience?
Answer:
According to the American Psychological Association, resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress such as family, health, etc. It is the act of ‘bouncing back’ inspite of barriers or set backs. Resilience helps the person to recover form setbacks with the least negative consequences. Individuals who are resilience tend to-

  1. regain their confidence after a period of emotional disturbance
  2. they are able to maintain their psychological well-being.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

6. The types of resilience are physical, psychological, emotional and community resilience.

According to Ann Masten, building blocks is ‘ordinary magic’, which involves behaviour that can be easily learnt. The 7 C’s of reilience are-

  1. Competence – Competence is the ability or know-how to handle situations effectively. Competence is acquired through actual experience.
  2. Confidence – True confidence is a strong belief in one’s own abilities. Confidence is gained by demonstrating competence in real life situations.
  3. Connection – Family is the central force in an individual’s life. Connections with other people, schools and communities gives the individual a sense of security that allows him/her to be independent and develop creative solutions.
  4. Character – It refers to a clear sense of right and wrong and a commitment to integrity. An individual with character has a strong sense of self-worth and confidence.
  5. Contribution – An individual who understands the importance of personal contribution develops a sense of purpose that can motivate him/her, further leading to him/her psychological well-being.
  6. Coping – A person who learns to cope effectively with stress is better prepared to overcome life’s challenges.
  7. Control – When an individual realizes that he can control the outcomes of his decisions and actions, he is more likely to know that he has the ability to bounce back.

Question 2.
Recollect the most challenging situation you faced in your life till now and the way you dealt with it. With reference to the 7 C’s of Resilience, which qualities helped you to overcome the challenge? For each of the C’s write the process you adopted to deal with the situation.
Answer:
[Students are expected to answer this question by themselves.]

7. Find out the positive aspects of behaviour from the example given below and answer in one word.

Question 1.
Mahesh studies so attentively that he never gets distracted.
Answer:
Mindfulness

Question 2.
Sujata lost her hands in an accident. Now she has learned to write with her leg.
Answer:
Resilience

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Question 3.
Vasanta’s daughter died by cancer. He has opened a rehabilitation center for cancer patients.
Answer:
Empathy

8. Case Study

Anurag was a software engineer working in one of the leading company’s in the USA for almost 5 years. He was in a stable relationship and he had plans to start a family and to settle there. Unfortunately due to the poor economy in USA he lost his job and had to return back to India. He felt distressed as he realized that he had lost everything he had worked so hard to build. This made him feel like a failure.

  1. How do you think Anurag can apply the 7 C’s of resilience to overcome the difficult situation he is in?
  2. As Anurag’s friend how will you empathise with him and help him deal with this challenge?
  3. Anurag has developed a very pessimistic approach after these setbacks, how will you guide him to stay happy and optimistic?

Answer:
According to the American Psychological Association, resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress such as family, health, etc. It is the act of ‘bouncing back’ inspite of barriers or set backs. Resilience helps the person to recover form setbacks. Individuals who are resilient tend to-
(i) regain their confidence after a period of emotional disturbance
(ii) maintain their psychological well-being.

Anurag can apply the 7 C’s of resilience as follows-
1. He has already worked in a reputed firm successfully. Hence he has the Competence and Confidence in his own abilities. Although he is feeling a sense of hopelessness and failure, he must live in the ‘Here and Now’ by taking stock of the situation. Character will provide Anurag self worth and provide a sense of purpose and motivation, i.e., Contribution. When he realizes that he can still succeed in life by applying for a similar job here and accepting the situation, i.e., Control he can use effective Coping mechanisms. Besides, he should not forget social support of family and friends, i.e., Connection.

2. As Anurag’s friend, I can understand and feel what he is going through, from his frame of reference. Since, he is feeling distressed and like a failure due to loss of job, I will empathize with him by being encouraging and supportive. I will try to make him understand that with his own competence and experience, he can easily find a well paying job in India. I will also encourage him to improve his professional skills and seek social support from family and friends.

3. It seems natural for a person who was in a good job, stable relationship and successful position to feel pessimistic and like a failure when all of these no longer exist in his life. I will help Anurag to have a positive approach towards the challenges and difficulties in his life, i.e., view all setbacks i.e. loss of job, being sent back from the USA, etc., as opportunities not as obstacles. This will help him to gain a better perspective.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 8 Positive Psychology Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITY (Textbook Page. No. 99)

Activity 4

(a) Meera scored poor marks in the examination.
(b) Suresh’s scholarship application got rejected.
(c) Mahesh lost his job.
Imagine yourself in their position and answer the following questions-
(i) How does being in their situation make you feel?
(ii) What do you think about yourself and your future being in their position?
Answer:
(i) You may feel

  • Hopeless and so you might think that your future is dark.
  • Helpless and so you might think that you cannot do anything to get out of the situation.
  • Worthless and so you might think that you are a failure.

(ii) In contrast you may also feel

  • Hopeful and think that the current adverse situation can change in the future.
  • Challenged and think that you have the ability to overcome the adversity.
  • Confident and think that one failure does not define you

Activity 5 (Textbook Page. No. 100)

What would your feeling be in the following situations?
(i) After a long struggle your friend got a job.
(ii) You see a person who just met with an accident and is bleeding profusely.
(iii) Your cousin is awarded a PhD. degree.
Answer:
In all the above examples I would feel empathy i.e., feel what these persons are experiencing.
(i) I will also feel happy and hopeful.
(ii) I will also feel concerned and helpless,
(iii) I will feel elated and proud.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Activity 8 (Textbook Page. No. 104)

Think of someone you know who has faced a challenging situation in their life and were successfully able to deal with it. This situation may have been emotionally difficult to deal with like death of a loved one, loss of a job, dealing with chronic illness, failure etc. Answer the following questions and discuss the answers in class.

  1. How did they handle the adverse situation?
  2. Which obstacles did they have to overcome?
  3. In your opinion which specific attitudes and skills helped them cope with the situation?
  4. Do you think they received help and support from others?

Answer:
Sundari, a professor in a reputed college was diagnosed with cancer at age 35 years.

  1. Initially, she was overcome by feelings of intense fear and hopelessness. However, she decided that she would not give up the fight against cancer.
  2. She had to overcome obstacles such as intense pain, fear of chemotherapy, pity shown by some ‘well wishers’, financial constraints, etc.
  3. Specific attitudes that helped her to cope with this trauma were Resilience, fighting spirit interacting with other cancer survivors and good coping skills.
  4. Yes, she received immense support from family, colleagues, friends and support groups like CPAA and Cancer Aid Foundation.

Activity 9 (Textbook Page. No. 105)

Read about the life of Indian boxer Mary Kom. Discuss in class the struggles she faced and how she overcame them to win multiple medals for the country.
Answer:
Mary Kom was born in Kangathei in the north-east state of Manipur. She grew up in a humble surroundings in an agricultural family. She is the eldest of three siblings. Her father had been a keen wrestler. Since a young age, Mary exhibited an inclination towards sports, like athletics and football. She was inspired by Dingko Singh, (a fellow Manipur who won a gold medal in 1998 Asian games ) to take up boxing. She was unable to pass her matriculation exam but still cleared X Std., from NIOS, Imphal. When she was 15, she left home to study at the Sports Academy in Imphal.

Her first coach K. K. Meitei recalls her as being hard working, dedicated, a quick learner with a strong will power. She has won many accolades such as 6 World Championships, Bronze medal at London Olympics (2012), 1 gold medal each at Asian Games (2014) and at Commonwealth Games (2018). She has been awarded the Padma Shri, Padma Bhushan and Padam Vibushan.

Her life story exhibits how Mary overcome obstacles of poverty, family opposition, gender bias to become the undisputed Queen of Boxing. Even at age 37, she still has the hunger to compete and win medals for India. Mary showed resilience as she has returned to the very demanding sport of boxing, after the birth of each child and has exceeded all expectations.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Activities 1, 2, 3, and 6
Answer:
[These are personal response questions.]

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

1. Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
One of the major obstacles to getting help from a mental health professional is the ………………… attached to mental illness.
(a) policy
(b) stigma
(c) society
Answer:
(b) stigma

Question 2.
Friends and family are not a substitute for …………………..
(a) solving problems
(b) giving solutions
(c) professional help
Answer:
(c) professional help

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Question 3.
In our culture the ………………….. of an individual is considered to be the reflection of one’s family.
(a) intelligence
(b) behaviour
(c) status
Answer:
(b) behaviour

Question 4.
Individuals who experience ………………… commonly have a negative thinking style.
(a) depression
(b) phobia
(c) acute stress
Answer:
(a) depression

2. Answer the following questions in 35 – 40 words each.

Question 1.
Describe the term Mental Health First Aid?
Answer:
Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is an internationally recognized training programme designed to teach people how to identify the signs and symptoms of mental health problems and to provide assistance on a first aid basis. MHFA was originally developed by Betty Kitchener and Anthony Jorm.

First Aid in Mental Health is a concept based on the idea of ‘prevention is better than cure’. If the early signs of mental illness are recognized, it can help in the following ways.

  1. Diagnosis – timely diagnosis at the onset of mental illness helps to prevent it from developing into a more severe form.
  2. Intervention – early intervention helps to get professional help.
  3. Relapse prevention – it prevent reoccurrence of symptom of the mental illness.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Question 2.
What are the stigmas attached to mental illness?
Answer:
One of the major obstacles to getting help from a mental health professional is the stigma that is attached to mental illness. We fear things that we do not understand. In the same way, our lack of understanding of mental illness makes us fear it.
This lack of knowledge and awareness makes us-

  1. Blame the individual, i.e., think that mental illness is a personal failing or weakness.
  2. Think that mental illness is caused as punishment for our sins.
  3. Think that the person is intentionally behaving in an inappropriate way.

Question 3.
Anxiety disrupts day to day functioning of an individual : State two predispositional factors contributing to anxiety.
Answer:
Anxiety that is excessive or persists after the anxiety creating situation has subsided leads to anxiety disorders such as phobias, acute stress disorder, etc.
Predispositional factors in anxiety are-

  1. Genetic factors – if anyone in the family has anxiety issues, then the person will be at a higher risk of exhibiting high levels of anxiety as compared to other persons.
  2. Childhood trauma such as physical or mental neglect or abuse, death of a loved one, parental divorce, etc.

Question 4.
Your friend confided in you that he is suffering from anxiety.
Suggest two self- help strategies to help him deal with this issue.
Answer:
The self help strategies that can be suggested to help him deal with excessive anxiety are-

  1. Engage in some activity that he always wanted to pursue for e.g., pottery, writing, sketching or voluntary social service.
  2. Indulge in physical activity like exercise, outdoor games or trekking.
  3. Relaxation techniques like laughter therapy, meditation and breathing techniques.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

3. Answer the following in 80 – 100 words based on the given points.

Question 1.
Explain the reasons why First Aid in Mental Health is required.
(a) Stigma associated with mental health
(b) Shame
(c) People do not always know how to respond
(d) People may not always seek professional help
Answer:
MHFA is an internationally recognized training programme whose objective is to teach people how to identify the signs and symptoms of mental health problems and to provide assistance on a first aid basis.
(a) Stigma associated with mental health:
Lack of understanding about mental illness makes us fear it. This lack of awareness leads us to blame the person for behaving inappropriately or showing personal failing.

(b) Shame:
Often, a person who has been diagnosed with a mental illness is ridiculed or blamed. He/she experiences shame, withdraws from social interaction and does not reach out to others or seek help. Hence, it is beneficial to show understanding and provide support.

(c) People do not always know how to respond:
Most people may not respond in an adequate way to a mentally ill person who reaches out to them. Sometimes, their advice/help may do more harm than good. However, MHFA programme can help friends/family to identify early signs of mental illness and help the person to get professional help.

(d) People may not always seek professional help:
The main reasons for this is-

  1. Culture – Stigma attached to mental illness prevents people from seeking professional help as it may hurt the reputation of the family.
  2. Advice from elders – A mentally ill person may incorrectly believe that advice of elders alone is sufficient to cure his illness.
  3. Superstitions – If the person is convinced that his//her mental illness is caused due to sins/curses etc., they will not want to visit a mental health professional. Hence, they will be deprived of the benefits of early intervention.

Question 2.
Explain the ALGEE Model in your own words.
(a) Approach, Assess and Assist in any crisis
(b) Listen non-judgmentally
(c) Give support and information
(d) Encourage the person to get professional help
(e) Encourage self-help and other support strategies
Answer:
ALGEE is an action plan to carry out First Aid in Mental Health.
(a) Approach, Assess and Assist in any crisis – An attempt is made to understand the situation and observe if there are behavioural changes in the person whom we are concerned about.

(b) Listen non-judgmentally – We should listen to the other person without letting our opinions influence us. We should not judge/ criticise but listen with acceptance and empathy. It does not imply that we agree with what the other person is saying but it ensures that the person feels supported.

(c) Give support and information – This helps the person to feel more in control of the situation since they have emotional and informational support.

(d) Encourage the person to get professional help – Persons suffering from mental illness may hesitate to seek help due to lack of knowledge or due to stigma attached. Others may not know how to respond to someone showing ‘red flags’ of mental illness and may do more harm than good. Mental health professionals are trained to help the person to identify the problem and cope with the situation.

(e) Encourage self-help and other support strategies – Self-help strategies are tasks that help to increase our resources to deal with stress and to maintain mental health such as exercise, adequate sleep, having hobbies, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Question 3.
Enumerate the various symptoms that are exhibited by an individual with anxiety disorders.
(a) Physical Symptoms
(b) Psychological Symptoms
(c) Behavioural Symptoms
Answer:
Anxiety is an emotion characterised by feelings of tension, hopelessness, etc. Excessive level of anxiety which persists even after the anxiety producing situation has gone away, can lead to anxiety disorders.
(a) Physical Symptoms

  1. Heart palpitations and rapid heart rate
  2. Shortness of breath
  3. Dizziness or headaches
  4. Restlessness, tremors and shaking

(b) Psychological Symptoms

  1. Mind racing or going blank
  2. Difficulty in concentration
  3. Forgetfulness
  4. Problems in decision making
  5. Irritability, impatience and anger

(c) Behavioural Symptoms

  1. Avoiding people and situations
  2. Repetitive checking
  3. Strong urge to escape the situation

Question 4.
Explain excessive dependence on the internet.
(a) Meaning
(b) Four C’s to identify excessive internet usage
(c) Red flags that indicate internet addiction.
Answer:
(a) Meaning
The amount of time as well as reason for using the internet may become a matter of concern for e.g., online gambling, gaming, etc. The person may socialise more online with friends than real life socialising. Spending excess time online may cause the person to neglect family, relationships, work etc. Virtual world enables games/gambling almost continuously. This leads to the person neglecting personal hygiene, real life relationships and become withdrawn and irresponsible. The person may feel guilty or defensive about internet use. He/ she may panic in the absence of internet service. A growing dependence on internet refers to an inability to stop and down down.

(b) Four C’s to identify excessive internet usage
Excessive internet usage is characterised by extensive, problematic addiction to the use of computer and internet. It signifies poorly controlled preoccupations or behaviour regarding such usage. Excessive internet usage leads to personal distress and social impairment.
The four C’s to identify excessive internet usage are as follows-

  1. Craving – Do you have an intense desire to use the internet?
  2. Control – Do you have an inability to control your self using the internet?
  3. Compulsion – Do you find it difficult to stop using the internet? Even though you know you should not spend so much time on it?
  4. Consequence – Have you ever experienced any physical or psychological ill effects as a result of excessive use of the internet? If you answer a ‘yes’ for at least three of the C’s, it can be a matter of concern.

(c) Red flags that indicate internet addiction
The Red Flags that indicate over dependence on internet are-

  1. Feelings of euphoria while using the internet.
  2. Physical symptoms like headache, dry eyes, etc.
  3. Inability to keep to schedules and boredom with routine tasks.
  4. Poor personal hygiene and nutrition to remain online.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

4. Analysis the following case study.

Sujata is now a sad and lonely girl. She has cut off herself from all her relatives and family friends. She doesn’t participate in any college programmes nor family functions. She is mostly found in the library all by herself. She has lost her self-confidence. At home she prefers eating in the bedroom and mostly indulges in television or mobile activities. Apply the ALGEE model and help Sujata to evolve in her mental health.
Answer:
Sujata is showing symptoms of depression and anxiety such as sadness, withdrawing from family/ friends and social activities. The ALGEE model can be used.

  1. Approach, assess and assist in any crisis – Behavioural changes are very noticeable in Sujata. I can voice my concern to the teachers/ counsellor of the school or to her family members.
  2. Listen in a non-judgemental manner -1 will try to meet Sujata in the library or any place where she feels comfortable. I will explain my concerns to her about not interacting with others and overuse of mobile phones. I will listen patiently and compassionately.
  3. Give support and information – Let Sujata know that she has emotional support of her friends. There is nothing to feel guilty or ashamed of. She should hence be forthcoming about her problems.
  4. Encourage her to get professional help – I will encourage her to meet the college counsellor who will be able to help her professionally.
  5. Encourage self-help strategies – This will help Sujata to regain control over her life. Some positive measures include breathing exercises, yoga, laughter therapy, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

1. (A) Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
………………… is the present system for the classification of mental disorders.
(a) DSM-5
(b) WHO
(c) APA
Answer:
(a) DSM-5

Question 2.
Term Schizophrenia was first used by ………………
(a) Albert Ellis
(b) Eugene Bleuler
(c) John Travis
Answer:
(b) Eugene Bleuler

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 3.
World Health Organization has developed …………….. for classification of all types of disorders.
(a) ICD
(b) DSM
(c) MCA
Answer:
(a) ICD

Question 4.
We find alternate phases of depression and mania in …………………. disorders.
(a) depressive
(b) bipolar
(c) anxiety
Answer:
(b) bipolar

(B). Match the pairs.

Question 1.

Group A Group B
(1) Phobia (a) 2013
(2) DSM-5 (b) Wellness
(3) ICD – 11 (c) Schizophrenia
(4) Eugen Bleuler (d) 2019
(5) John Travis (e) Illogical fear
(6) Depressive disorders (f) Sad feelings for a long period of time

Answer:

Group A Group B
(1) Phobia (e) Illogical fear
(2) DSM-5 (a) 2013
(3) ICD – 11 (d) 2019
(4) Eugen Bleuler (c) Schizophrenia
(5) John Travis (b) Wellness
(6) Depressive disorders (f) Sad feelings for a long period of time

(C) State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Socially or culturally deviant behaviours are signs of psychological disorders.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 2.
Schizophrenia is a serious psychological disorder.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Feeling of hopelessness is one of the symptoms seen in depressive disorders.
Answer:
True

(D) Answer the following in one sentence each.

Question 1.
From which Latin word is the term anxiety derived?
Answer:
The word ‘anxiety’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Anxietas’ which means ‘uneasy or troubled mind’.

Question 2.
In which disorder does the person experience sadness and guilt for a long period of time?
Answer:
In a depressive disorder the person experiences sadness and guilt for a long period of time.

Question 3.
What do you call the fear that you experience unnecessarily in a non threatening situation?
Answer:
The fear that is experienced unnecessarily in a non threatening situation is called a phobia.

2. Answer the following questions Briefly.

Question 1.
Explain the nature of psychological disorder.
Answer:
The major criteria of abnormality or psychological disorders are deviance, personal distress and impaired functioning. Illness and absence of illness are not distinct categories but are on opposite poles of the continuum sequence as explained below.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders 1
Stage 1 – The person is physically and psychologically healthy. They are motivated and emotionally stable.
Stage 2 – The person may get affected by life stressors, feel anxious, lack energy, etc. For e.g., before an examination. It is possible to push oneself back towards positive health by adopting a healthy lifestyle.
Stage 3 – The person shows signs of psychological damage and experience negative feelings like sadness, lack of motivation, fear and may even indulge in addictive behaviour. However, even this stage is not irreversible.
Stage 4 – The person exhibits extreme distress, impairment in mental, emotional and social functioning. He/She needs professional treatment.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 2.
What is meant by Anxiety disorders?
Answer:
The word ‘anxiety’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Anxietas’ which means ‘uneasy or troubled mind’. Anxiety refers to a condition in which the person feels worried and uneasy for a long time for no obvious reasons. Anxiety disorders include disorders in which anxiety is the main symptom or is experienced when an attempt is made to modify some maladjustment. The main anxiety disorder are Generalised Anxiety disorder, Phobic disorder. Panic disorder, O. C. D, etc.

Question 3.
Narrate indicators of psychological disorders.
Answer:
According to DSM-5, there are five criteria (indicators) for psychological disorders.

  1. Clinically significant syndrome – In psychological disorders, there should be a cluster of symptoms together i.e., a syndrome.
  2. Distress and Impairment – There should be distress, i.e., psychological pain due to negative feelings and stress, as well as impairment, i.e., inability to perform appropriate roles in personal and social situations.
  3. Dysfunction – If the symptoms lead to developmental or psychological dysfunctions, it signifies mental disorders.
  4. Responses to stressors that are normally accepted responses e.g., sadness experienced at the loss of a loved one or culturally sanctioned responses are not considered as signs of mental disorders.
  5. Behaviour which is only deviant but does not produce any disability/ distress/ dysfunction
    does not become a sign of mental disorder.

Question 4.
What is meant by bipolar disorder?
Answer:
Bipolar Disorder is also known as Manic Depressive disorder. The person experiences alternate phases of two states viz. mania and depression. Mania includes symptoms such as high energy, excitement, reduced need for sleep and loss of touch with reality, impulsivity, delusion, etc. Depressive state symptoms include low energy and motivation, loss of interest in daily activities, extreme sadness, apathy, feeling of hopelessness, fatigue, guilt, etc. Main causative factors are genetic factors, imbalance in neurotransmitters such as dopamine and epinephrine; environmental factors such as traumatic event.

Question 5.
Describe Post Traumatic Stress Disorders?
Answer:
If the symptoms of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) continue for more than one month with the same intensity, the person is diagnosed with PTSD. A person who has suffered trauma goes through three stages viz-

  1. Shock stage – the individual is in shock, i.e., extremely disturbed.
  2. Suggestible stage – he/she may seek guidance from others and may either accept these suggestions unquestioningly or may get extra sensitive.
  3. Recovery stage – the person shows signs of recovery.

However, some persons still show signs of mental illness i.e., PTSD.
The symptoms of PTSD include

  1. nightmares, flashbacks, severe anxiety
  2. hyper vigilance and avoidance of situations that bring back the trauma
  3. irritability, social isolation
  4. survivour’s guilt

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

3. Explain the Following concepts.

Question 1.
DSM-5
Answer:
Presently, the two major systems of classifying psychological disorders are DSM and ICD. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) was published in its first version by the APA in 1952, i.e., DSM-I. In 2013, the DSM-5 was introduced which contains 22 broad categories of mental disorders with subcategories. It is the classification of officially recognized psychiatric disorders, for e.g., categories in DSM-5 include anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and personality disorders.

Question 2.
ICD 11
Answer:
Presently, the two major systems of classifying psychological disorders are DSM and ICD. The International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) was created by the WHO for documenting all types of diagnoses, diseases, signs and symptoms and social circumstances. It contains a section on psychological disorders. The latest, 11th version of ICD was presented in 2019. According to the ICD-11, there are 19 broad categories of mental disorders, most of which overlap with DSM-5.

Question 3.
Phobia
Answer:
The main anxiety disorders include phobic disorders and generalized anxiety disorders. The word ‘phobia’ is derived from the Greek word ‘phobos’ which was used to refer to the God of Fear. A phobia is an intense, persistent but irrational and disproportionate fear of a specific object or situation. DSM classifies phobias as simple phobias, e.g., Acrophobia, Claustrophobia etc., and social phobias, e.g., fear of speaking or eating in public. The phobic object e.g., animals or situations e.g., elevators, almost always provide immediate anxiety.

Question 4.
Syndrome
Answer:
A syndrome refers to a cluster or collection of symptoms and signs that are characteristic of a diseases or disorder, e.g., Down’s syndrome. It is a group of symptoms which consistently occur together and indicate a particular condition. A syndrome refers to a set of symptoms that tend to occur together and can be associated with a particular physical or mental disorder. In psychological disorders, one of the criteria as suggested by DSM-5 is clinically significant syndrome.

Question 5.
Hallucination
Answer:
Hallucinations are false perceptions in the absence of appropriate stimuli. Hallucinations are a symptom of schizophrenia and other mental disorders. Commonly occurring hallucinations are visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory and olfactory in nature. For e.g., the person may hear voices telling him to do something. Hallucinations are also noticed due to substance abuse, medications, epilepsy, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

4. Write short notes on the following.

Question 1.
Nature of mental wellness
Answer:
According to the WHO, mental wellness refers to “a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope up with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.”
The important aspects of mental wellness are –

  1. Emotional aspect – There is a sense of well-being and contentment
  2. Psychological aspect – There is high self esteem and tendency of self actualization.
  3. Life philosophy – There are clear goals and objectives in life.

The Illness Wellness Continuum Model by John Travis
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders 2
Quadrant 1 – The person is in an ideal state of functioning.
Quadrant 2 – Thepersonhasnomentalillnessbutexperiencessubjectivefeelingofunhappiness.
Quadrant 3 – The person suffers from mental illness yet he/she experiences a high sense of subjective well-being.
Quadrant 4 – This is the lowest level of functioning. The person has mental illness and also experiences distress.

Question 2.
Drug addiction
Answer:
Addictive disorders refer to the physical and psychological inability to stop consuming some substance or indulging in some activity although it is harmful. This includes dependence on drugs, nicotine, alcohol, etc., or activities like gambling, eating, gaming etc. Drug addiction refers to an inability to control the use of alcohol, nicotine, narcotics, marijuana, medications, etc.
Symptoms of addiction are-

  1. Excessive consumption of drugs or alcohol and inability to reduce the dosage.
  2. In case the person tries to stop the drug use, then withdrawal symptoms occur which include sweating, tremors, muscle pain, goosebumps, etc.
  3. Physical and psychological dependence may lead to drug abuse or overdose of the addictive substance and even death of the person.
  4. The person’s physical, emotional, social and financial well-being break down.

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), Narcotics Anonymous (NA) are organizations that help addicts to overcome dependence.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 3.
Depressive disorders
Answer:
Depression is an emotional state typically marked by sadness and guilt, feelings of anxiety and hopelessness. Other symptoms include loss of appetite, interest and sleep, fatigue, sexual dysfunction and suicidal thoughts. Depression is associated with distractability, memory loss, neglect of personal hygiene, panic attacks and even substance abuse. Children may experience symptoms such as irritability, feelings of incompetence, difficulty in concentration, difficulty in sleeping, digestive problems etc.

Question 4.
Anxiety disorders
Answer:
The word ‘anxiety’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Anxietas’ which means ‘uneasy or troubled mind’. Anxiety refers to a condition in which the person feels worried and uneasy for a long time for no obvious reasons. The main anxiety disorders are.
(i) Generalized Anxiety Disorder – The person frequently experiences anxiety more intensely so that it starts interfering with the ability to perform daily tasks. Symptoms include irritability, headaches, insomnia, dizziness, breathlessness, etc.

(ii) Phobic disorders – The word ‘phobia’ is derived form the Greek word ‘phobos’ which was used to refer to the God of Fear. A phobia is an intense, persistent but irrational and disproportionate fear of a specific object or situation. DSM classifies phobias as simple phobias, e.g., Acrophobia, Claustrophobia etc., and social phobias, e.g., fear of speaking or eating in public.

5. Answer the following questions in 150 – 200 words.

Question 1.
Describe the criteria of psychological disorders.
Answer:
The major criteria of abnormality are deviance, personal distress and impaired functioning. Illness and absence of illness are not distinct categories but are on opposite poles of the continuum sequence as explained below.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders 3
Stage – 1: The person is physically and psychologically healthy. He/She are motivated and emotionally stable.
Stage – 2: The person may get affected by life stressors, feel anxious, lack energy, etc., for e.g., most students are tense before the exams. It is possible to push oneself back towards positive health by adopting a healthy lifestyle.
Stage – 3: The person shows signs of psychological damage and may experience negative feelings like sadness, lack of motivation, fear and may even indulge in addictive behaviour. However, even this stage is not irreversible.
Stage – 4: The person exhibits extreme distress, impairment in mental, emotional and social functioning. He/She needs professional treatment.

Psychological disorders are also called mental disorders. These are patterns of behavioural or psychological symptoms that impact multiple areas of life and create distress for the person.

According to DSM-5, there are five criteria for psychological disorders.

  1. Clinically significant syndrome – In psychological disorders, there should be a cluster of symptoms together i.e., a syndrome.
  2. Distress and Impairment – There should be distress, i.e., psychological pain due to negative feelings and stress, as well as impairment, i.e., inability to perform appropriate roles in personal and social situations.
  3. Dysfunction – If the symptoms lead to developmental or psychological dysfunctions, it signifies mental disorders.
  4. Responses to stressors that are normally accepted responses e.g., sadness experienced at the loss of a loved one or culturally sanctioned responses are not considered as signs of mental disorders.
  5. Behaviour which is only deviant but does not produce any disability/ distress/ dysfunction does not become a sign of mental disorder.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 2.
Narrate any two psychological disorders in detail.
Answer:
Psychological disorders are also called mental disorders. These are patterns of behavioural or psychological symptoms that impact multiple areas of life and create distress for the person.
According to DSM-5, there are five criteria for psychological disorders are:

  1. Clinically significant syndrome – In psychological disorders, there should be a cluster of symptoms together i.e., a syndrome.
  2. Distress and Impairment – There should be distress, i.e., psychological pain due to negative feelings and stress, as well as impairment, i.e., inability to perform appropriate roles in personal and social situations.
  3. Dysfunction – If the symptoms lead to developmental or psychological dysfunctions, it signifies mental disorders.
  4. Responses to stressors that are normally accepted responses e.g., sadness experienced at the loss of a loved one or culturally sanctioned responses are not considered as signs of mental disorders.
  5. Behaviour which is only deviant but does not produce any disability/ distress/ dysfunction does not become a sign of mental disorder.

(A) Anxiety Disorders – The word ‘anxiety’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Anxietas’ which means ‘uneasy or troubled mind’. Anxiety refers to a condition in which the person feels worried and uneasy for a long time for no obvious reasons.
The main anxiety disorders are-
(i) Generalized Anxiety Disorder – The person frequently experiences anxiety more intensely so that it starts interfering with the ability to perform daily tasks. Symptoms include irritability, headaches, insomnia, dizziness, breathlessness, etc.

(ii) Phobic disorders – The word ‘photjia’ is derived form the Greek word ‘phobos’ which was used to refer to the God of Fear. A phobia is an intense, persistent but irrational and disproportionate fear of a specific object or situation. DSM classifies phobias as simple phobias, e.g., Acrophobia, Claustrophobia etc., and social phobias, e.g., fear of speaking or eating in public.

(B) Trauma Trauma and Stress-Related Disorders
Stress is inevitable in life. Daily hassles, relationship issue, frustration, chronic illness, etc., lead to stress. If stress is in moderate intensity, it acts as a motivation. However, intense prolonged stress impairs normal functioning of the individual and may lead to stress disorders.
The two types of stress disorders are-
1. Acute Stress Disorder (ASD)
If a person (aged 6 years and above) has experienced extremely stressful situations like death of a loved one, serious disease or injury, sexual abuse, natural disasters, etc., then he/she may experience ASD. The symptoms of ASD include-

  • emotional numbness and instability
  • nightmares and sleep disturbances
  • insomnia, lack of concentration, irritability and guilt feelings
  • depression

2. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
If symptoms of ASD continue for more than one month with the same intensity, the person is diagnosed with PTSD. A person who has suffered trauma goes through three stages viz.

  • Shock stage – the individual is in shock, i.e., extremely disturbed.
  • Suggestible stage – he/she may seek guidance from others and may either accept these suggestions unquestioningly or may get extra sensitive.
  • Recovery stage – the person shows signs of recovery.

However, some persons still show signs of mental illness i.e., PTSD.

Question 3.
What is Schizophrenia? Describe the major symptoms of it.
Answer:
The term ‘Schizophrenia’ is derived from Greek words Schizein (to split) and phren (mind). Thus, the literal meaning of the word ‘schizophrenia’ is split mind. The term ‘schizophrenia’ was coined in 1911 by a Swiss psychologist, Paul Eugene Bleuler. Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder.
According to DSM-5 the two types of symptoms for schizophrenia are-
(a) Positive symptoms are an excess addition to normal thoughts or behaviour of the period. Such symptoms are-

  1. hallucinations – mainly auditory and visual hallucination
  2. delusions – mainly of grandeur, reference and persecution
  3. disorganized thought and speech
  4. bizarre body movements and disorganized behaviour
  5. incongruent affect.

(b) Negative symptoms are deficits of normal emotional responses or of thought processes. They lead to low level of functioning and may not improve much even with treatment. This includes-

  1. emotional blunting – diminished emotional expression
  2. anhedonia – inability to experience deep positive emotions
  3. alogia – diminished speed
  4. asociality – lack of desire to form relationships
  5. avolition – lack of motivation
  6. apathy.

Sometimes, a schizophrenic exhibits positive as well as negative symptoms.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITIES (Textbook Page. No. 62)

Activity 1

On the basis of your understanding of various criteria for abnormality, which of these would you consider as normal or abnormal behavior?

  1. Hemant wears the same lucky blue shirt for all his major competitive exams.
  2. Seema is not able to fall asleep easily.
  3. Rakesh throws pillows and pounding fists on the wall during arguments if he finds himself losing ground.
  4. Reena always experiences fear but is not able to specify what is so scary.

Answer:
All the stated examples show at least one of the five criteria for abnormality.

  1. Hemant seems superstitious and lacks confidence. He appears moderately healthy.
  2. Seema exhibits personal distress and signs of sleep disorders.
  3. Rakesh exhibits clear symptoms of abnormal behaviour and seems extremely unhealthy mentally.
  4. Reena seems to have anxiety disorder and may need professional help.

Activity 3 (Textbook Page. No. 67)

In which Quadrants of wellness illness continuum will you place Karan, Lalita, Pramila and Santosh?
Answer:
Karan – Quadrant 2, Pramila – Quadrant 3, Lalita – Quadrant 4, Santosh – Quadrant 3.

Activity 5 (Textbook Page. No. 68)

Collect information about Anxiety disorders and discuss this with your friends or parents.
Answer:
Anxiety disorders are characterised by feelings of worry and restlessness that tend to interfere with daily activities. Besides generalized anxiety disorder and phobia which are explained in the chapter, anxiety disorders includes Panic disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) and Social Anxiety disorders include disorders in which anxiety is the main symptom or is experienced. When an attempt is made to modify maladjustment.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Activity 6 (Textbook Page. No. 69)

Collect information about other types of phobia.
Answer:
A phobia is a persistent, irrational fear of a situation or object. Phobias are of three types viz. Social phobia (fear of social situations); specific phobias (fear of particular situations) and agoraphobia (fear of being alone in public places from which there is no easy escape). Some phobias are:

  1. Claustrophobia (fear of enclose spaces)
  2. Acrophobia (fear of heights)
  3. Homophobia (fear of blood)
  4. Zoophobia (fear of animals)
  5. Arachnophobia (fear of spiders)
  6. Pyrophobia (fear of fire)
  7. Trypanophobia (fear of needles and injections)
  8. Xenophobia (fear of foreigners or strangers)

Activity 7 (Textbook Page. No. 71)

We make use of various strategies to reduce our stress. Speak to five of your friends and make a list of atleast ten different strategies used by them to reduce stress. Share it with your group and discuss which are healthy and which are unhealthy.
Answer:
Some strategies to reduce stress are-

  1. Negative coping such as use of alcohol/drugs, over eating, agression, etc.
  2. Exercise
  3. Developing a hobby
  4. Indulging in some constructive activity
  5. Following relaxation/meditation techniques
  6. Seeking social support, i.e., of friends/ family, etc.
  7. Having proper time management
  8. Developing rational thinking and positive attitude
  9. Indulging in self care, e.g., proper diet, rest, etc.
  10. Seeking professional help if needed

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Activity 9 (Textbook Page. No. 74)

Identify from the internet the red flags (signaling symptoms) for various disorders that you have already studied.
Answer:
Red flags for the following disorders.
(1) Phobias

  • Displaying extreme nervousness or distress when in the presence of the source of the phobia
  • Avoidance behaviour
  • Refusal to face certain situations

(2) Depression

  • Irritability, moodiness and agitation.
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Unexplained aches and pains
  • Disruptions in sleep habits
  • Changes in appetite and eating habits
  • Suicidal thoughts.

(3) Bipolar disorder

  • Change in thought processes, and concentration
  • Change in sleep patterns
  • Change is social interaction
  • Uncharacteristic moodiness

(4) PTSD

  • Persistent negative thoughts
  • Trouble in concentration
  • Irritability and aggression
  • Engaging in reckless behaviour
  • Changes in sleep and appetite
  • Loss of interest in friends/family/favourite activities.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

1. Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
…………… is a combination of bodily arousal, expressive behaviour, thoughts, and feelings.
(a) Response
(b) Reaction
(c) Emotions
Answer:
(c) Emotions

Question 2.
According to James Lange we first experience ……………….. then emotions.
(a) physical arousal
(b) feelings
(c) thoughts
Answer:
(a) physical arousal

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 3.
Emotion is used as a …………….. to control others.
(a) weapon
(b) measure
(c) opportunity
Answer:
(a) weapon

Question 4.
When you allow another person to exploit you, you are a victim of ………….. abuse.
(a) physical
(b) emotional
(c) social
Answer:
(b) emotional

Question 5.
Exercising releases ………………… which makes you feel good as a stress buster.
(a) endorphins
(b) thyroxin
(c) insulin
Answer:
(a) endorphins

2. Identify the odd items from the following and write a suitable reason for your choice

Question 1.
admiration, disgust, acceptance, trust

Question 2.
kicking, ignoring, shoving, screaming

Question 3.
Reassess, React, Respond, Relax

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 4.
meditation, social work, compassion, engage in hobbies

3. Match the pair.

Question 1.

Group A Group B
(1) Happiness (a) basic emotion
(2) Paul Ekman (b) fight and flight
(3) Anger (c) surprise
(4) Fear (d) sadness
(5) Grief (e) triggers
(6) Anger management technique (f) powerful emotion

Answer:

Group A Group B
(1) Happiness (c) surprise
(2) Paul Ekman (a) basic emotion
(3) Anger (f) powerful emotion
(4) Fear (b) fight and flight
(5) Grief (d) sadness
(6) Anger management technique (e) triggers

4. State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Emotional well-being is not easily observable.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Positive emotions energise you.
Answer:
True

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 3.
You should feel guilty for standing up for yourself.
Answer:
false

Question 4.
Anger is a basic negative emotion.
Answer:
True

5. Answer the following questions in 35 – 40 words each.

Question 1.
Explain the term facial feedback hypothesis.
Answer:
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, our facial expressions provide feedback to our brain about our emotions. Facial expressions are not only the result of our emotions, e.g., smiling in happiness, but they are also capable of influencing emotions, e.g. laughter can actually make us feel happier. The same might hold true for other emotions as well. In the 1840’s, William James presented the idea that awareness of our bodily experiences is the basis of emotion.

Question 2.
When does an individual face social rejection?
Answer:
Social rejection occurs when an individual is deliberately excluded from a social relationship or interaction. This can be done by a person or a group. It includes rejection of the person by family/ peers/ colleagues or even in intimate relationships. Rejection may be active, i.e., by ridiculing, bullying, etc., or passive, i.e., ‘silent treatment’. Social rejection may be faced due to individual differences e.g., attractiveness, shyness or due to intergroup exclusion on the basis of prejudice, e.g., in case of Dalits or ethnic minorities.

Question 3.
With the help of an example write the non-verbal triggers of anger.
Answer:
Anger is a common emotion that everybody experiences in life from time to time. Anger is a normal response to some real or perceived threat. It is a protective emotion that help us to defend ourselves against physical or psychological harm.

Triggers of Anger refer to any event that signals the brain to activate the body’s anger system. The triggers of anger may be (i) verbal, for e.g., being blamed, disrespected or abused (ii) non¬verbal, for e.g., being ignored unappreciated or rejected, (iii) physical such as physical threats, sexual/ physical assault, etc.

Non-verbal triggers of anger are feelings of being neglected, disregarded, disappointed, unloved or frequently spurned. It is expressed through gestures such as pointing a finger, shrugging the shoulders; by facial expressions such as sneering, frowning and also by behaviours such as groaning/sighing/whining or speaking in a mocking tone.

There are three factors involved in the experience of anger : A trigger (causes of anger) → individual’s personality → particular interpretation of that situation.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 4.
What are the aspects of emotional well-being?
Answer:
Emotional well-being means managing our emotions, both positive and negative ones, so that we can lead a healthy and productive life. It is the absence of negative affect as well as general satisfaction with life. A person who experiences emotional well-being is positively engaged with the world.
The aspects of emotional well-being are at three levels viz. physical, emotional and social.

  1. Physical level, i.e., well balanced diet, exercise.
  2. Emotional level, i.e., practise mindfulness, raising levels of motivation and optimism.
  3. Social level, i.e., engaging in prosocial behaviour, meaningful relationships.

6. Compare and Contrast

Question 1.
Happiness and Sadness

Question 2.
James Lange theory and Cannon Bard’s Theory

7. Write short notes on the following in 50 – 60 words each.

Question 1.
Measures of dealing with Emotional Abuse
Answer:
Emotional abuse is any kind of abuse that is emotional rather than physical in nature. It occurs when one person subjects or exposes another person to intentionally harmful behaviour that may result in anxiety, depression and psychological trauma to the victim.
The types of emotional abuse may be-

  1. verbal abuse such as blaming, insulting, labeling, threatening, swearing, etc.
  2. non verbal abuse such as ignoring, rejection, bullying, spying, etc.

The most important technique is to break the silence and stand up for yourself.

  1. Accept that emotional abuse is not because of you, i.e., don’t justify the actions of the abuser.
  2. Respond assertively to the abuser but seek distance from him.
  3. Give yourself time to heal.
  4. Prioritize your self-care, e.g., eating right, exercise, etc.
  5. Mobilise support from family and friends. If needed, seek professional help.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 2.
Plutchiks’s Model of Emotions
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 1
Robert Plutchik presented the wheel of emotions,

  1. there are 8 basic emotions viz. joy, trust, fear, surprise, sadness, anticipation, anger and disgust.
  2. each primary emotion has its polar opposite such as fear is opposite of anger.
  3. primary emotions combine to produce complex emotions, for e.g., love (complex) is a combination of joy and trust.
  4. intensity of emotions increases as we move toward the centre and decreases as we move outward. For e.g., apprehension (weak) → fear (basic) → terror (strongest).

This model is important from the perspective of emotional literacy, i.e., understanding emotional levels, complexity and change as well as appropriate emotional labelling

Question 3.
Anger -A powerful emotion
Answer:
Anger is a common emotion that everybody experiences in life from time to time. Anger is a normal response to some threat. It is a protective emotion that helps us to defend ourselves against physical/ psychological harm. However, anger may also be unwanted, irrational and destructive. When we experience anger, our amygdala goes into action and overrides the cerebral cortex which is in control of thinking and evaluation. Triggers of anger refer to any event that signals the brain to activate the body’s anger system. The triggers may be (i) verbal, for e.g., being blamed, disrespected or abused (ii) non-verbal, for e.g., being ignored unappreciated or rejected, (iii) physical such as physical threats, sexual/ physical assault, etc.

There are three factors involved in the experience of anger: A trigger (causes of anger) → individual’s personality → particular interpretation of that situation. As the experience of anger is subjective, it can be controlled too. If we understand the triggers of anger, we can anticipate potential anger episodes and provide an intentional/ acceptable response such as it may energize us towards solving problems. As anger is a powerful emotion, it must be kept in check to avoid it’s destructive out comes.

Question 4.
Managing Emotions
Answer:
The word emotion is derived from the latin word ‘emovere’, which means to stir up or to move. An emotion refers to an involuntary, aroused state of an organism involving physical, cognitive and behavioural components. It is described as a combination of bodily arousal, e.g., increased heartrate, thoughts and feelings, i.e. emotional tone and expressive behaviour, i.e., facial expression.

Managing of emotions is an important life skill. Managing emotions can be defined as, ‘the ability to be open to feelings and modulate them in oneself and in others, so as to promote personal understanding and growth. It is the ability to be aware and constructively handle both positive and challenging emotions.

Sometimes, our emotions hijack our thinking due to which we act impulsively. This is because the limbic system (emotional section) developed before the prefrontal cortex (thinking part) and is hence, an extremely strong part of the brain. Emotional management is an art as it is a form of expression as well as a science as it is a skill that needs to be learnt and practiced If a person ignores of suppresses his/her emotions it leads to anxiety. The best way of manage emotions is to acknowledge the emotions, find out what is the cause of that emotion in you, chose how to respond in that situation.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 5.
Benefits of Emotional Well-being
Answer:
Emotional well-being means managing our emotions, both positive and negative ones, so that we can lead a healthy and productive life.
Persons who have high emotional well-being experience benefits such as- (i) better able to deal with stress (ii) better self-regulation (iii) increased productivity in tasks undertaken (iv) increased creativity (v) life satisfaction due to meaningful activities and relationship.

  1. Coping with stress – It helps to deal with stress using healthy methods such as exercise, social support, etc.
  2. Better self-regulation – It enables the person to label how they feel and accept negative emotions life fear, anger, etc.
  3. Increases productivity in tasks undertaken – The ability to focus is enhanced, the person feels positive and energized.
  4. Increases creativity – The person indulges in divergent thinking, shows curiosity is open to new experiences.
  5. Life satisfaction – The individual is able to have meaningful interactions and relationships, show empathy, altruism and engage in activities like volunteer work.

8. Answer the following 50 – 60 words.

Question 1.
Using the 3 R model of Anger Management present a case study of your own experience.
Answer:
Anger management is an intervention programme to prevent anger from turning into a habit or obstacle. It enables the person to create an awareness of and responsibility for his/her emotions. This involves two aspects (i) managing one’s own anger (ii) learning to respond effectively to anger in others.

The 3 R’s in anger management a Relax, Reassess and Respond.
1. Relaxation – Relaxation and connection with the inner self helps to enhance thinking and concentration so that we ‘respond’ rather than ‘react’ impulsively.
2. Reassess – This helps the person to revisit the situation objectively. It involves

  • taking complete responsibility for your emotion
  • developing empathy for the person you perceive has wronged you
  • conduct a reality check e.g., is your anger justified given the facts of what happened.

The feeling’s thermometer helps to focus on the extent of anger we are experiencing and helps in the process of reassessment.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 2

3. Respond – It entails re-engaging with the other person/situation. Responding involves

  • consulting a trustworthy person to get another perspective
  • engage in talks with the other party in a calm respectful manner with a willingness to sort out the situation.
  • active listening and assertive speaking – Allow the person to express their viewpoint. However, we should stand up for our feeling while exhibiting the same for the other person. The right approach is a practical, positive communication style.
  • cage your rage i.e. establish boundaries and moderate your anger – We must guard against escalation of our own anger which may lead us to provoke the other person. Moderation of anger and establishing clear boundaries of interaction with each other is essential.

CASE STUDY – 1 was in the passenger seat and my brother was driving the car. Suddenly, a cyclist swerved right in front after he had failed to observe the red light. This led me to get enraged at this uncalled-for action. Using the 3R technique. I tried to breathe for a few seconds to give me recovery time, i.e. Relaxation. I revisited the situation – Is my anger justified? Was it a genuine error? Is the cyclist hurt? Did the incident cause injury to us or damage to the car.? Is the anger worth my time/effort? Reassess. I allowed my elder brother to handle the situation but also assertively cautioned the teenage cyclist about the dangers of riding in a rash manner, i.e. Respond.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 2.
How does the brain work when angry?
Answer:
Anger is a common emotion that everybody experiences in life from time to time. Anger is a normal response to some threat. It is a protective emotion that help us to defend ourselves against physical/ psychological harm. However, anger may also be unwanted, irrational and destructive. When we experience anger, our amygdala goes into action and overrides the cerebral cortex which is in control of thinking and evaluation.

Triggers of anger refer to any event that signals the brain to activate the body’s anger system. The triggers may be (i) verbal, for e.g., being blamed, disrespected or abused (ii) non-verbal, for e.g., being ignored unappreciated or rejected, (iii) physical such as physical threats, sexual/ physical assault, etc.

There are three factors involved in the experience of anger: A trigger (causes of anger) → individual’s personality → particular interpretation of that situation. As the experience of anger is subjective, it can be controlled too. If we understand the triggers of anger, we can anticipate potential anger episodes and provide an intentional / acceptable response.

The emotional center of the brain is the Limbic system and is more primitive than the cerebral cortex. It is located in the lower section of the brain. Hence when a person is experiencing and expressing anger, he or she is not using the cortex (thinking section) but primarily functioning from the limbic system. In the limbic system, a small structure called Amygdala which is a storehouse of emotional memories plays an important role in the emotional outbursts. The data coming in from the world around us passes through the amygdala where the decision is made whether to send the data to the limbic or cortex area of the brain.

If the incoming data triggers enough of an emotional charge, the amygdala can override the cortex, which means the data will be sent to the limbic system causing the person to react using the lower part of the brain. During an overriding event, the amygdala goes into action without much regard for the consequences (since this area of the brain is not involved in judging, thinking, or evaluating).

Eg. You are waiting patiently in the queue at the bank, a person comes and cuts the line and moves ahead of you, you scream at them and ask them to go back. On an average, it can take 20 minutes for a person who has experienced an angry state of arousal to calm, to move from functioning from the emotional area to the thinking area of the brain.

Question 3.
After having realised you are emotionally abused by your best friend, write the steps you will take to deal with it.
Answer:
Emotional abuse is any kind of abuse that is emotional rather than physical in nature. It occurs when one person subjects or exposes another person to intentionally harmful behaviour that may result in anxiety, depression and psychological trauma.
The types of emotional abuse may be (i) verbal abuse such as blaming, insulting, labeling, threatening, swearing, etc. (ii) non verbal abuse such as ignoring, rejection, bullying, spying, etc. Some of the techniques to deal with emotional abuse are-

  1. Accept that emotional abuse is not because of you i.e. don’t justify the actions of the abuser.
  2. Respond assertively to the abuser but seek distance from him/her.
  3. Give yourself time to heal.
  4. Prioritize your self-care, e.g., eating right, exercise, etc.
  5. Mobilise support from family and friends. If needed, seek professional help.

If I realize that I have been emotionally abused by my good friend I will adopt the following steps-

  1. Disengage from the friendship and set personal boundaries
  2. Understand that I am not the cause of abuse and so respond assertively to the abuser
  3. Practice self care and give myself time to heal
  4. If necessary seek guidance from other friends or my family / teachers.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

9. Analyse the situations presented below and
a. Write the Emotion/s you experience.
b. What will be your response to this situation?

Question 1.
Anish was scolded by his boss. He came home and in a fit of rage hit his son. You are Anish’s friend who witnessed this outburst.
Answer:
I will feel anger as well as disgusted on witnessing this outbust. I will try to calm Anish and make him realise the harm that his anger can cause.

Question 2.
You helped your friend with study notes during his illness. But when your friend got better he did not respond nor show any sense of appreciation.
Answer:
I will feel disappointment as well as sadness. I will meet the friend and tell him that his lack of courtesy has hurt me.

Question 3.
Though you are a good friend of Anushka, she has not invited you to her new year’s party.
Answer:
I will feel disappointed and hurt. I will (if possible) try to find out if the action was deliberate or an oversight.

Question 4.
It’s your Birthday and you wake up that morning to find yourself surrounded with beautiful gifts.
Answer:
I will obviously feel immense happiness.

Question 5.
You have had a hectic day at college when you come home you find the door locked. You forgot your keys at home that day and your parents have not informed you of their plans.
Answer:
I will be angry at my at myself and my parents also. But since I forgot the keys, I will take full responsibility and wait it out some family member returns.

Question 6.
You have planned a surprise day out for your best friend and she tells you she is not interested and has other plans
Answer:
I will be a little sad and disappointed but will accept my friend’s decision sportingly.

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Emotions Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITIES (Textbook Page. No. 44)

Activity 1

THINK AND ANALYSE
Think of the following situations and note down what will be the experience of each person in that situation.

  1. It’s Mira’s Std. 12th result today. She comes to know that she has topped in the college.
  2. Rahul’s mother passed away just few days before his 18th birthday.
  3. Suchita was ridiculed by her classmate for wearing old fashioned clothes.
  4. Yash had a fight at home because his parents were not allowing him to go for a late night party.

Answer:

  1. Mira will experience happiness due to her success.
  2. Rahul will experience grief and loneliness.
  3. Suchita will experience a sense of helplessness and shame.
  4. Yash will be angry with his parents and feel they are doing him an injustice.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Activity 2 (Textbook Page. No. 46)

Observe each figure carefully and write the emotion that corresponds to each in the blank spaces provided below. Can you identify which among these is a positive and negative emotion?
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 3
Answer:
(A) = Surprise (positive), (B) = Anger (negative), (C) = Disgust (negative), (D) = Sadness (negative),
(E) = Joy (positive), (F) = Fear (negative).

Activity 3 (Textbook Page. No. 46, 47)

Check whether you can name the emotions accurately from the following examples-

  1. It’s Riya’s 18th birthday today and her friends have given her a surprise party.
  2. Rohan recently had a break up with his long time girlfriend with whom he was in love deeply.
  3. Sameer had a disagreement with his best friend over where to go for a picnic and the situation got heated up.
  4. Sumi has come to know that she has failed in her exam and she is figuring out how she will convey this to her parents.
  5. Ashmeet suddenly saw his school best friend across the street after many years.
  6. Amy opened today’s newspaper and read the news of a 5 year old getting gang raped.

Answer:

  1. Happiness
  2. Surprise
  3. Anger
  4. Fear
  5. Surprise
  6. Disgust

Activity 4 (Textbook Page. No. 48)

THINK, REFLECT, ANALYSE AND DISCUSS
State what will you feel and how will /did you behave in the given following situations:-

  1. You are crossing the road and suddenly find a car breaking the signal and speeding up towards you.
  2. You reach home and find the table laid with your favourite dish cooked by your mother.
  3. You receive a phone call telling you that your best friend is undergoing an operation and needs blood.
  4. Recall an incident in your childhood when you were insulted by an adult.

Answer:

  1. I will feel angry but also afraid. I will jump out of the way
  2. I will feel happy and surprised.
  3. I will fear but feel concerned and be motivated to arrange for the blood.
  4. Students are expected to answer this question by themselves.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Activity 5 (Textbook Page. No. 49)

THINK, ANALYSE AND ACT
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 4
You see a snake ….. with reference to the above given components fill the process with your interpretations, feelings and actions.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 5

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

1. Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
When we select few stimuli from the environment and bring them into the center of our awareness, it is called ……………
(a) attention
(b) perception
(c) thinking
Answer:
(a) attention

Question 2.
Ivan Pavlov is known for explaining learning by …………..
(a) classical conditioning
(b) operant conditioning
(c) observation
Answer:
(a) classical conditioning

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Question 3.
When we organise the information from the environment, group them and give some meaning, that process is called ……………..
(a) attention
(b) perception
(c) thinking
Answer:
(b) perception

Question 4.
In operant conditioning the experiment was conducted on ……………
(a) dog
(b) rat
(c) monkey
Answer:
(b) rat

Question 5.
The change in behaviour due to practice or experience is known as ……………
(a) perception
(b) thinking
(c) learning
Answer:
(c) learning

2. Answer the following questions in 35 – 40 words each.

Question 1.
What is fluctuation of attention?
Answer:
Attention is the mental process of bringing few stimuli into the centre of awareness out of the many stimuli present. It is difficult to attend to a single stimulus for a long period of time. Our attention shifts from the original stimulus to another stimulus for a fraction of time and then comes back to the original stimulus. This may be due to factors like fatigue, decreased interest, etc. In most cases, attention fluctuates due to the limitations of human attention and hence cannot be totally eliminated.

Question 2.
Give three examples of top-down processing in perception.
Answer:
Perception is defined as the process of assigning meaning to information received about the environment based on the past experiences. We make use of both top-down processing and bottom- up processing while perceiving a stimulus. When we utilize top-down processing, our ability to understand information is influenced by the context in which it appears.

Some examples of top-down processes in perception are-
(a) Mr. Kumar lives in Flat A not in Flat Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes 1
The circled item will be perceived as the letter B as the brain has used the context of the sentence.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes 2
(b) If you are asked to identify (a) the rat (b) the man, your perception will be likewise.
(c) the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef but the wrod as a whole.

Most of you would be able to correctly read the above sentence as “The human mind does not read every letter by itself but the word as a whole”.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Question 3.
What is meant by thinking?
Answer:
Thinking is the mental activity that uses various cognitive elements and processes that involves the manipulation of information.
The core elements of thinking are-

  1. Mental representation – It is a coded internal sensation acquired by direct experiences through the sense organs or by indirect experiences such as narrations, pictures, etc.
  2. Concepts – They form the basis for all cognitive processes, acting as building blocks by connecting with each other to form more complex concepts.
  3. Schema – It is an internal representation that organizes knowledge about related concepts and relationships among them.
  4. Language – Mental representations, concept and schema are represented by language, for e.g., the word ‘cat’ is a symbol for a ‘cat’.

Question 4.
Describe any two processes of learning.
Answer:
Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs due to experience or practice. The characteristics of learning are : (i) It involves some relatively permanent change in behaviour, (ii) The change in behaviour is due to experience or practice, (iii) Change in behaviour may be in knowledge or in skill or in muscular movements, (iv) Learning is an inferred process. The main processes of learning are:
(i) Learning by classical conditioning – It was first explained by Ivan Pavlov. It is learning by forming associations and stimulus substitution. In daily life, we learn many things by classical conditioning for e.g. a child is given an injection by the doctor and begins to cry in pain. He soon makes the connection between ‘doctor’, ‘injection’ and ‘pain’ and begins crying as soon as he is taken to a doctor.

(ii) Learning by operant conditioning – Learning by operant conditioning was first explained by B. F. Skinner. He said that learning takes place to gain positive consequences or to avoid negative consequences.

3. Classify the following into Mental Representation, Concepts and Schemata.

(1) Image of your mother in your mind
(2) Building
(3) Tree
(4) School
(5) Theater
(6) Table
(7) Neil Armstrong
Answer:

Mental Representation Concepts Schemata
Image of your mother in your mind Building School
Neil Armstrong Tree Theatre
Table

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

4. Find the odd one out.

Question 1.
Schema, Perception, Attention, Thinking
Answer:
Schema

Question 2.
Searching solution, Defining problem, Incubation, Implementation of the solution
Answer:
Incubation

Question 3.
Reasoning, Judgement, Decision making, Relaxing
Answer:
Relaxing

Question 4.
Concept, Schema, Solution, Mental Representation
Answer:
Solution

5. Identify if the following behaviours are due to learning or not. Give reasons for your answers.

Question 1.
After much hard work you are able to perform a dance step properly.
Answer:
It is due to learning as it involves a relatively permanent behavioural change due to practice.

Question 2.
In spite of getting hurt, Shayana, a five year old child, continues to play with knife.
Answer:
It is not learning as in spite of an unpleasant experience, there is no change in behaviour.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Question 3.
Once Hanif had to pay fine for breaking the signal while driving a car. Now he makes sure to stop the car at red signal.
Answer:
It is due to learning as Hanif has made an association between breaking the signal and paying a fine, i.e., negative consequences.

6. Answer the following questions with the help of given points.

Question 1.
Explain the stages of problem solving.
Points:
(i) Defining problem
(ii) Generating alternative solutions
(iii) Selecting a solution
(iv) Implementing and taking follow up of the solution.
Answer:
Problem solving is a type of thinking. It refers to the process of finding appropriate solutions to problems encountered in life. The main steps in problem solving are:
(i) Defining the problem – We need to identify and define the problem correctly. Otherwise, it will be difficult to reach a solution, for e.g., when a baby cries due to colic/stomach ache and if the mother interprets it as due to hungry, the problem will remain unresolved.

(ii) Generation alternative solutions – The person searches for possible solutions to the problem. Some solutions may be effective while other solutions have to be discarded, for e.g., Sunil finds maths difficult. He may think of solving more sums or of taking tuitions or of dropping the subject, etc.

(iii) Selecting a solution – The person selects what he considers the most effective solution, based on reasoning. This helps to resolve the problem in a realistic manner.

(iv) Implementing the solution and follow up on the solution – The person tries out the selected solution and evaluates the outcome i.e. whether it has helped to solve the problems. If the problem remains unresolved, the person may need to carry out the problem – solving procedure all over again.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Question 2.
Explain the stages of creative thinking.
Points:
(i) Preparation
(ii) Incubation
(iii) Illumination
(iv) Verification
Answer:
Creative thinking is characterised by the ability to perceive the world in new ways, to find hidden patterns, etc. It is a way of looking at problems or situations from a fresh/novel perspective. In involves divergent thinking that focuses on exploration of ideas and generating many possibilities. It is referred to as “thinking outside of the box.” Researchers, poets, designers, film makers always think in a creative way.

The four stages in creative thinking are-
(i) Preparation – This involves formulating the problem and gathering information about it. Many tentative solutions are tried out and discarded. No progress seems to be made by the person.

(ii) Incubation – If the person does not get the required results, he/she may focus on things unrelated to that problem. The period helps to work out the problem without consciously thinking about it. Incubation period appears to be non-fruitful.

(iii) Illumination – After incubation, suddenly the correct solution appears to the person, due to which he/she experiences excitement. It seems that a solution has fallen into place.

(iv) Verification – The new solution may need to be evaluated a number of times. In most cases, minor changes will be required but sometimes it may demand a major overhaul of the entire process.

For e.g., A teacher asks the students to think of unusual uses for a bottle.

  • The students will begin brainstorming.
  • The students will come up with many uses for e.g., to store liquids, to hold plants, etc. But these are not unusual uses. They will give up and focus on something else.
  • The students will suddenly find novel uses for the bottle e.g., in juggling etc.
  • The students will verify these solutions with their teacher.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

7. Answer the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Explain the laws of perceptual organization.
Answer:
Perception is defined as the process of assigning meaning to information received about the environment based on the past experiences. Our brain has the tendency to organize our sensations as a meaningful whole. Max Wertheimer first explained this tendency in the form of laws of perceptual organization.

Some laws of perceptual organization are as follows:
(i) Law of proximity – Stimuli that are near to each other are perceived as together, rather than stimuli that are far away from each other.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes 3
In the above figure, we perceive pairs of dots in each line because the dots which are near to each other are perceived together. So instead of perceiving a line of 8 dots, generally a line of four pairs of dots is perceived.

(ii) Law of similarity – Stimuli that are similar to each other are perceived together than stimuli that are distinct from each other.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes 4
In the above figure, we perceive 4 alternate vertical lines each of circles and crosses as similar stimuli are perceived together. Generally, we do not perceive 4 horizontal lines each having circles and crosses in alternate sequence.

(iii) Law of continuity – There is a tendency to perceive a stimulus in continuation according to its established direction.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes 5
In the above figure, a straight vertical line and a straight horizontal line are perceived together as a letter ‘L’ and a cutting line is perceived separately as a line following the smoothest path. Generally, we do not perceive here four different lines going in different directions.

(iv) Law of closure – There is a tendency to fill in the gaps in an incomplete stimulus so as to perceive it as a meaningful figure.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes 6
In the above figure, we fill in the gaps and perceive it as a triangle and square. Generally, we do not perceive here the three or four separate lines going in different directions.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Question 2.
Explain the core elements of thinking.
Answer:
Thinking is the mental activity that makes use of ideas or symbols instead of overt activity. The types of thinking are (i) Perceptual (concrete) thinking, (ii) Conceptual (abstract) thinking (iii) Reflective thinking, (iv) Creative thinking.
The core elements in thinking are-
(i) Mental representation – It is a coded internal sensation acquired by direct experiences through the sense organs or by indirect experiences such as narrations, pictures, etc. Mental representation is the mental imagery with the help of which the brain codes and stores the information. It is like a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol used by the brain to represent external reality. Example: a child is asked to imagine a peacock. The visual image of a peacock with its colouful plumage immediately comes to mind. This refers to “mental imagery” of an object.

(ii) Concepts – They form the basis for all cognitive processes, acting as building blocks by connecting with each other to form more complex concepts. Concepts involve extraction of some ‘idea’ on the basis of similarities and differences among the sensations. A concept is an idea which represents a class of objects, situations, etc which differentiates it from other classes of objects, situations, etc., for e.g. a child forms a mental image of a ‘dog’. He derives an idea of something similar in all examples of ‘dog’ that he has seen i.e. tail, fur, barking, etc. Thus, he has formed concept of dog. If he mistakenly identifies as a cat as a dog. he is corrected by others. So he tries to compare the mental images of dogs and cats. He has now learned and refined two concepts viz. dog and cat.

(iii) Schema – It is an internal representation that organizes knowledge about related concepts and relationships among them. Schema involves arranging many concepts in a particular system or organisation. It describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organises categories of information and the relationships among them. A child tries to organise the concepts that he has learned in a systematic way to generate a higher order understanding of patterns about information collected, for e.g. when a child visits a ‘zoo’ for the first time, images and concepts such as of different animals, caves/cages, etc., are activated in the brain simultaneously. Thus, he is forming the schema of ‘zoo’.

Conclusion:- Mental representation is sensory experiences in the form of mental images in the brain. Many similar mental representations denote concepts while many concepts put in a particular relationship to each other is schema.

Question 3.
With the help of your own examples explain the difference between distraction of attention and fluctuation of attention.
Answer:
Attention is the selective process by which we focus on only a few stimuli from among the various stimuli that are present in our environment. According to Norman Munn, “Attention is the mental process of bringing few stimuli into the center of awareness out of the many stimuli present”. Attention is influenced by objective factors such as intensity, size, movement, etc., of stimuli as well as subjective factors like interest, mindset, etc.

The distraction of attention refers to the drifting of attention from a specific stimulus to another stimulus. This occurs due to external factors such as intensity, novelty, movement, etc., of stimuli or internal factors like physical state, lack of interest, mental set, etc.

It is difficult to attend to a single stimulus for a long period of time. Our attention shifts from the original stimulus to another stimulus for a fraction of time and then come back to the original stimulus. This is called fluctuation of attention. It may be due to factors like fatigue, decreased interest, etc.

In most cases, fluctuation of attention is due to the limitations of human attention whereas distraction of attention is due to an external powerful stimulus that has drawn our attention. When attention fluctuates, it is for a very short period of time and then it returns to the original stimulus, i.e., it is a temporary shift in attention, e.g., look at the below figure. Attention fluctuates on observing the figure as a closed book or open book.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes 7
The distraction of attention arises when you are studying and the doorbell suddenly rings, you get up to answer the door. You may or may not be able to return to the original stimulus. Fluctuation of attention cannot be controlled totally but the distraction of attention should be avoided.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITIES (Textbook Page. No. 33)

Activity 1
Read the following examples and try to name the cognitive process described in each of them:

  1. Reena immediately sensed the burning smell of pizza put in the oven.
  2. Mahesh always pays attention to what the psychology teacher teaches in class.
  3. Professor Mr. Patil met one of his former students all of a sudden. He tried to recall the name of his student.
  4. Saif was reading a storybook and so he forgot to complete his homework.
  5. After considering all pros and cons, Dinesh took the decision of changing his business.

Answer:

  1. Sensation
  2. Attention
  3. Perception, Memory
  4. Forgetting
  5. Reasoning, Decision making.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Personality

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Personality Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Personality

1. Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
A person who is shy and reserved is called an ……………..
(a) introvert
(b) extrovert
(c) ambivert
Answer:
(a) introvert

Question 2.
The Ink-Blot test was developed by psychologist ………………….
(a) Murray
(b) Rorschach
(c) Morgan
Answer:
(b) Rorschach

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Personality

Question 3.
……………….. traits are the dominant characteristics of a person.
(a) Cardinal
(b) Secondary
(c) Central
Answer:
(a) Cardinal

2. Match the Pair

Question 1.

Group A Group B
(1) Self-report technique (a) Interview
(2) Behavioural analysis (b) MMPI
(3) Projective methods (c) Permanent characteristics
(d) TAT

Answer:

Group A Group B
(1) Self-report technique (b) MMPI
(2) Behavioural analysis (a) Interview
(3) Projective methods (d) TAT

3. State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Personality is merely related to external appearance.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
People with high neuroticism are emotionally reactive.
Answer:
True

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Personality

Question 3.
Children from families having a warm emotional atmosphere are well adjusted.
Answer:
True

4. Explain the concepts in 25 – 30 words each.

Question 1.
Personality
Answer:
The word personality is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ which was used to refer to masks worn by actors during a stage performance, Thus, the meaning of personality was interpreted as ‘projected behaviour’ of an individual.

According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustments to the environment.” According to Norman Munn, “Personality is a unique combination of individual’s physical structure, needs, interests, abilities and aptitudes.”

Question 2.
Trait
Answer:
A trait is a relatively enduring and consistent way of thinking, feeling and acting. It is some distinctive characteristic of the person that leads him/her to behave in more or less consistent ways across situations and over a period of time. Allport categorised traits as: (i) Cardinal Traits (single, dominant trait) (ii) Central Traits (core or basic traits) (iii) Secondary Traits

Question 3.
Sentence Completion Test
Answer:
Sentence Completion Test (SCT) is a type of projective technique used to assess personality. The individual is given a series of incomplete sentences and is asked to complete them in his/her own words, for e.g., My mother, My greatest fear is It is assumed that the endings provided by the person will reflect their motivation, urges, internal conflicts etc.

Question 4.
Structured interview
Answer:
Interview is a process in which the interviewer collects information about the personality of an interviewee by asking him/her specific questions. The main types of interview depending on the purpose of assessment are – structured and unstructured interview.

In structured interview, the number, type and sequence of questions to be asked are pre-determined. The answers expected from the interviewee are also specific. This type of interview is used where exact quantification is required, for e.g., industrial psychologists use structured interviews to select employees for a job.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Personality

Question 5.
Unstructured interview
Answer:
Interview is a process in which the interviewer collects information about the personality of an interviewee by asking him/her specific questions. The main types of interview depending on the purpose of assessment are – structured and unstructured interview.

In unstructured interview, the type and sequence of questions to be asked by the interviewee are not pre-determined. Detailed answers can be given and scoring is often subjective. It is employed by clinical psychologists, counsellors, etc.

5. Write short notes on the following in 50 – 60 words each.

Question 1.
Gordon Allport’s trait theory of personality.
Answer:
The word personality is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’. According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustments to the environment.”

A trait is a relatively enduring and consistent way of thinking, feeling and acting. It is some distinctive characteristic of the person that leads him/her to behave in more or less consistent ways across situations and over a period of time. Allport categorised traits as Cardinal traits, Central traits and Secondary traits.
(i) Cardinal Traits – It is a single trait that dominates the individual’s personality. Every action of the person can be traced to the influence of this trait, for e.g., in case of Gandhiji honesty is the cardinal trait, in case of Napoleon, the cardinal trait was ambition.

(ii) Central Traits – These traits are ‘core’ traits or ‘basic’ characteristics that form the building blocks of personality. There are about 5-10 traits such as sensitivity, sociability, diligence, etc., that can best describe an individual’s personality.

(iii) Secondary Traits – These traits play a minor role in personality as they appear only in specific situations or under specific circumstances. They are sometimes related to preferences or attitudes.

Question 2.
Effect of mass media on personality development.
Answer:
The word personality is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ which was used to refer to masks worn by actors during a stage performance, Thus, the meaning of personality was interpreted as ‘projected behaviour’ of an individual.

According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustments to the environment.”

The psycho-social factors that have an effect on personality include heredity, family, peer group, culture and mass media. Mass media includes print media e.g., newspapers; audio-visual media e.g., T.V. and new media e.g., internet. Media is a source of information, education, entertainment and even socialization. It has a considerable effect on our value system, behaviour patterns and personality. However, excessive dependence on media may lead to egocentrism, poor academic performance, difficult in concentration, sleep disturbance, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Personality

6. Answer the following questions with given points in 100 – 150 words each.

Question 1.
Explain the Big Five Factors model of Personality.
Points:
(i) Openness to experience
(ii) Conscientiousness
(iii) Extroversion
(iv) Agreeableness
(v) Neuroticism
Answer:
The word personality is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ which was used to refer to masks worn by actors during a stage performance, Thus, the meaning of personality was interpreted as ‘projected behaviour’ of an individual.

According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustments to the environment.” According to Norman Munn, “Personality is a unique combination of individual’s physical structure, needs, interests, abilities and aptitudes

The Five Factor Model of or Big Five Personality theory, based on the trait perspective proposed by Robert McCrae and Paul Costa. The five broad trait factors are-

  1. Openness to Experience
  2. Conscientiousness
  3. Extroversion
  4. Agreeableness
  5. Neuroticism.

1. Openness to Experience – People who are open to experience are intellectually curious imaginative, appreciative of art, sensitive to beauty. They sometimes tend to think and act in nonconforming, adventurous ways. Individuals who score low on openness to experience tend to be conventional, resistant to change and prefer familiarity and routine. They may lack creativity and aesthetic sense.

2. Conscientiousness – It concerns the way in which people control, regulate and direct their impulses. People high in conscientiousness are hardworking, disciplined, responsible, dependable, etc, while those low on conscientiousness tend to be careless, unorganised, spontaneous, undisciplined, etc.

3. Extroversion – Extroversion is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. People high on this trait are assertive, talkative, sociable, enthusiastic, etc. Individuals showing low extroversion tend to be shy, reserved, lack the activity levels of extroverts. They are low-key and disengaged from the social world.

4. Agreeableness – It refers to the ability of a person to get along with others and show a concern for social harmony. People high on this trait tend to be friendly, cooperative, generous and believe that people are basically decent and trustworthy. Persons low on agreeableness tend to be uncooperative, suspicious, even hostile and jealous.

5. Neuroticism – It refers to a tendency to experience negative emotions such as anger, anxiety or depression more intensely and for longer periods than normally experienced by others. Those who score high on neuroticism tend to be irritable, fearful, emotionally unstable and interpret ordinary situations as threatening and hopeless. People who score low in neuroticism are less emotionally reactive and hence tend to be calmer, emotionally stable and experience more of positive feelings.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Personality

Question 2.
Explain the factors influencing personality.
Points:
(i) Family
(ii) School
(iii) Peer group
(iv) Culture
Answer:
The word personality is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ which was used to refer to masks worn by actors during a stage performance, Thus, the meaning of personality was interpreted as ‘projected behaviour’ of an individual.

According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustments to the environment.” According to Norman Munn, “Personality is a unique combination of individual’s physical structure, needs, interests, abilities and aptitudes

Personality is shaped by biological factors such as heredity and hormones secreted by endocrine glands as well as psychosocial factors such as family, school, peer group, culture, mass media, etc.

(i) Family – As the first agency of socialization, the family exerts a strong influence on personality. Aspects of family such as family structure, atmosphere, and relationships, family interactions and childrearing practices influence personality, for e.g., if parents show rejection or over protection, etc., towards the child it leads to low self-esteem and adverse effects on the personality. A family with a warm emotional atmosphere and where parents adopt democratic discipline and show love, respect and concern for the children will positively influence the child’s personality, i.e., boost self-esteem.

(ii) School – Various aspects of school such as teaching-learning process, academic and co- curricular facilities, role of the teachers, school location, management and discipline, etc., influence the child’s personality, for e.g., teachers who are well qualified, creative, build a rapport which the students, tend to motivate students and help them to develop a good personality.

(iii) Peer group – It refers to individuals of the same age group, e.g., classmates or sharing the same interests, e.g., members of a sports club. Influence of the peer group is most noticed in adolescence since it serves as a reference group. The influence of peer group on the person may be positive such as developing healthy gender attitudes, skills of communication, etc., or it may be negative e.g., developing aggressive tendencies, prejudices, etc.

(iv) Cultural factors – Culture refers to the customs, values and social behaviour of a particular society. Every culture has its own set of beliefs, norms, expectations, etc., which influence the thoughts, feelings and behaviour of its members.

Question 3.
Explain the various methods of personality measurement.
Points:
(i) Behavioural analysis
(ii) Self-report technique
(iii) Projective method
Answer:
The word personality is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ which was used to refer to masks worn by actors during a stage performance, Thus, the meaning of personality was interpreted as ‘projected behaviour’ of an individual.

According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustments to the environment.”

According to Norman Munn, “Personality is a unique combination of individual’s physical structure, needs, interests, abilities and aptitudes. Personality can be assessed using techniques such as Self Report measures (inventories), Behavioural Analysis Techniques and Projective techniques.

(i) Behavioural Analysis Techniques
Behavioural Analysis techniques such as Interview and Observation can provide information about an individual’s personality in a variety of situations.
(a) Interview – It is a process in which the interviewer collects information about the personality of an interviewee by asking him/her specific questions. The main types of interview depending on the purpose of assessment are- Structured and unstructured interview.

  • Structured interview – The number, type and sequence of questions to be asked in the interview are pre-determined. The answers expected are also specific. This type of interview is used where exact quantification is required, for e.g., industrial psychologists use structured interviews to select employees for a job.
  • Unstructured interview – The type and sequence of questions to be asked by the interviewer are not pre-determined. Detailed answers can be given and scoring is often subjective. It is employed by clinical psychologists, counsellors, etc.

(ii) Self-Report Technique (Inventories)
The individual provides information about his/her personality by responding to statements/ questions on the inventory, for e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PFQ), etc. Responses are scored in quantitative terms and interpreted on the basis of norms that are developed for the test.

(iii) Projective Techniques
Projective techniques emerged from the psychoanalytic perspective. The individual responds freely to relatively unstructured or ambiguous stimuli/material. It is assumed that individuals project their own personality onto these stimuli, often revealing personal conflicts, coping styles, etc. Projective techniques cannot be scored in an objective manner. They use various materials like ink-blots, ambiguous pictures, incomplete sentences, word associations, etc. Main projective techniques include Rorschach’s Ink-Blot Tests, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), Sentence Completion Test, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Personality

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 3 Personality Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITIES (Textbook Page. No. 23)

Activity 1

Read the following examples and express your opinion about the concept of personality:
(i) Rohan is a good looking boy. He is a genius, but extremely arrogant. He always shouts at his friends. He always talks very rudely to his parents.
(ii) Ruchi is a girl with ordinary looks. She is poor in her studies but always gets along nicely with her friends. She always talks in a polite manner to everyone.
Answer:
[Information based question – refer textbook page no. 23 (3.1)]

Activity 2 (Textbook Page. No. 24)

Look at the list given below and discuss which of these factors have a stronger influence in shaping personality :
(i) Nutritious diet (ii) Junk food (iii) Physique (iv) Exercise (v) Technology (vi) Peer group (vii) Parents (vii) Neighbours (ix) Relatives (x) Childhood experiences.
Answer:
All the given factors tend to shape our personality. However, parents, peer group, physique, childhood experiences tend to exert greater influence.

Activity 3 (Textbook Page. No. 25)

Think how the peer group may influence you with respect to factors given below:
(i)Hairstyle (ii) Dressing style (iii) Eating habits (iv) Study habits (v) Communication skills (vi) Attitudes (vii) Decision making (viii) Likes and dislikes, etc
Answer:
The peer group refers to individuals who are of the same age or who tend to share similar interests. Peer group influences personality tremendously in late childhood and in adolescence. This may be in regard to physical appearance like hairstyle and dressing style. Peer group also influences how we interact with others i.e., interpersonal aspects like communication skills, decision-making, attitudes as well as personal preferences eating habits, study habits, like/dislikes, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Personality

Activity 4 (Textbook Page. No. 27)

Make two separate lists of jobs requiring more need of talking and jobs requiring less need of talking. Try to find out which of your friends will be suitable for these two types of jobs.
Answer:
Jobs requiring more need of talking.

  1. Teacher
  2. Salesperson
  3. Human resource manager
  4. Lawyer
  5. Event planner

Jobs requiring less need of talking.

  1. Writer
  2. Computer programmer
  3. Librarian
  4. Accountant
  5. Researchers.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 3 Personality

Activity 5 (Textbook Page. No. 29)

Use observation method and try to get few ideas of the personalities of the following individuals:

  1. Traffic controller
  2. News reporter
  3. Private detective
  4. Interior designer
  5. Nurse
  6. Teacher

Answer:

  1. Traffic controller – He/she must have physical stamina, mental agility, negotiation skills, organizational skills.
  2. News reporter – He/she must have curiosity, alertness, courage, language skills, empathy.
  3. Private detective – He/she must be trustworthy, persistent, sociability, technological skills.
  4. Interior designer – He/she must have creativity, interpersonal skills, aesthetic skills, communication skills.
  5. Nurse – He/she must show empathy, stamina, communication skills, diligence, interpersonal skills.
  6. Teacher – He/she must have good interpersonal and communication skills, be patient, creative.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

1. Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
……………………. has given formula of I.Q.
(a) Binet
(b) Stern
(c) Wechsler
Answer:
(b) Stern

Question 2.
…………………. has given the concepts of fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.
(a) Cattell
(b) Thorndike
(c) Salovey
Answer:
(a) Cattell

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 3.
…………………. is an individual test of intelligence.
(a) Army Alpha Test
(b) Army Beta Test
(c) Block Building Test
Answer:
(c) Block Building Test

2. State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Verbal tests of intelligence can be given easily to illiterate people.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
It is possible to increase emotional intelligence.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
There are certain limitations to Artificial Intelligence.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Group tests of intelligence are less expensive.
Answer:
True

3. Answer the following in one sentence each.

Question 1.
What is meant by intelligence?
Answer:
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 2.
Who is considered as the father of intelligence test?
Answer:
Alfred Binet is considered as the father of intelligence tests.

Question 3.
What is meant by verbal tests of intelligence?
Answer:
Verbal tests of intelligence make use of words and numbers to measure intelligence and subjects respond verbally to the test items, for e.g., WAIS, Army Alpha Test, etc.

Question 4.
What is meant by individual test of intelligence?
Answer:
Individual tests of intelligence are tests which can be administered to a single person at a time, for e.g., Stanford Binet Scales, WAIS, Koh’s Block Design Test, etc.

4. Define / Explain the concepts in 25 – 30 words each.

Question 1.
Mental Age
Answer:
Alfred Binet introduced the concept of Mental Age. It is defined as the age at which the person successfully performs on all items of the test prepared for that age level. Mental Age need not correspond to Chronological Age. If Mental Age (MA) is the same as Chronological Age (CA), the person has average intelligence. For e.g., Sumit aged 10 years has successfully performed all items on the test for age 12. Hence, his Mental Age will be 12 years, i.e., he has above average intelligence.

Question 2.
Social Intelligence
Answer:
E.L. Thorndike proposed the term Social Intelligence. Howard Gardner included ‘interpersonal intelligence’in the Multiple Intelligences Theory. According to Karl Albrecht, ‘Social intelligence . is the ability to get along well with others and to get them to cooperate with oneself.’

A continued pattern of nourishing behaviour indicates a high level of social intelligence. Such persons are skilled at interacting with and understanding people around them. They respect and encourage others. They effectively comprehend social dynamics.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 3.
Emotional Intelligence
Answer:
The term Emotional Intelligence was used for the first time by John Mayer and Peter Salovey. The concept of emotional intelligence was popularized by Daniel Goleman. It is defined as “the ability to perceive and monitor one’s own and others emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions.” Emotional Intelligence refers to a set of cognitive abilities such as perceiving emotions, using emotions to facilitate thought, understanding emotions and managing (regulating) emotions. Persons with high emotional intelligence tend to be emotionally stable, patient, optimistic, enthusiastic and calm.

5. Write short notes on the following.

Question 1.
Intelligence Quotient
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”

David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”

Intelligence Quotient refers to a measurement of intelligence.. In 1912, William Stern introduced the concept of intelligence quotient (IQ). Terman, refined the formula for calculating IQ, which is as stated below-
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100
Example: Ankush who is 10 years old has a Mental Age of 11 years. Let us calculate his IQ.
MA = 11 years CA = 10 years IQ = ?
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100 = \(\frac {11}{10}\) × 100 = 110
Ankush has an IQ of 110.

Question 2.
Charles Spearman’s theory of intelligence
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”
In 1927, Charles Spearman with the help of a statistical method called factor analysis separated and identified two different factors of intelligence viz. General factor (g) and Specific factor (s).

  1. General factor is the minimum competence required to carry out daily work.
  2. Specific factor includes abilities which are required to solve problems in specific areas.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 3.
Verbal tests of intelligence
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”

On the basis of material used in the tests, intelligence tests can be classified as Verbal tests and Non-verbal tests of intelligence. Intelligence tests that use language (words or numbers) for measuring intelligence are called verbal tests of intelligence. In these tests subjects are required to respond verbally to test items. Army Alpha Test, Wechsler’s Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), etc., are some of the examples of verbal tests of intelligence. These tests are language and culture bound and hence cannot be used with children, illiterates etc. However, they are useful in measuring higher mental abilities.

Question 4.
Non-verbal tests of intelligence
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”
On the basis of material used in the tests, intelligence tests can be classified as Verbal tests and Non-verbal tests of intelligence.

Intelligence tests that use pictures, designs, material objects, etc., to measure intelligence are called non-verbal tests of intelligence. In these tests language is not used to measure intelligence. In these tests subjects are not required to respond verbally to test items. Non-verbal tests are of two types viz.

  1. Performance tests for e.g., Koh’s Block Design test, Dr. Bhatia’s Non Verbal test, Alexander’s Pass-along test, etc. and
  2. Paper-pencil tests for e.g., Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices.

Question 5.
Artificial Intelligence
Answer:
The term Artificial Intelligence was suggested by John McCarthy. Artificial intelligence is an innovation created by human intelligence. It is a field of study that combines computer science, algorithms, psychology, etc. It refers to enabling software programmes and computer systems to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, weather forecasting, language translation, etc.

Artificial intelligence can take decisions only on the basis of stored information and so cannot be an alternative to human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has immense applications in daily life as well as to solve critical problems. Artificial intelligence is used in devices like robots, computers, self-driving cars, automatic missiles, smart phones, medical diagnostic tools, etc.

6. Answer the following questions with the help of the given points.

Question 1.
Write in brief about individual tests of intelligence
(i) Meaning
(ii) Advantages
(iii) Disadvantages
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence 1
(i) Meaning – Intelligence tests that can be administered to a single person at a time are called individual tests of intelligence, for e.g., Stanford Binet Scales, Koh’s Block Design Test, etc.

(ii) Advantages-

  1. The test administrator can establish a rapport with the client.
  2. The test administrator can get additional information about the client’s feelings, moods and expressions during testing.
  3. Individual tests are more capable of measuring creative thinking, compared to group tests.

(iii) Disadvantages-

  1. Individual tests are time consuming and costly to administer.
  2. Individual tests require a trained and skillful examiner to administer, score and interpret them.
  3. These tests cannot be used for mass testing.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 2.
Write in brief about group tests of intelligence
(i) Meaning
(ii) Advantages
(iii) Disadvantages
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence 2
(i) Meaning – Group test of intelligence are tests that can be administered to more than one person at a time, i.e., for mass testing, for e.g., Army Alpha and Army Beta Test, OTIS self¬administrating tests, etc.

(ii) Advantages-

  1. Group tests are less time consuming and more economical to administer.
  2. In administrating of group tests, the role of the examiner is minimal. So, he/she need not go through any specialised training.
  3. These tests can be used in cases where mass testing is needed.

(iii) Disadvantages-

  1. The test administrator has much less opportunity to establish rapport, obtain cooperation and maintain interest of the clients.
  2. Compared to individual tests, group tests are less capable of measuring the creative aspect of intelligence.

7. Answer the following questions in Detail.

Question 1.
Write in detail about the history of intelligence testing.
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”

David Wechsler defines intelligence as, ‘the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment’. Many psychologists have contributed to the measurement of Intelligence.

Sir Francis Galton thought that he could determine intelligence by measuring the size of the human skull. He administered a battery of tests to measure variables such as head size, reaction time, visual acuity, etc. However, these tests did not prove useful to measure intelligence.

Raymond Cattell, used the term ‘mental test’ for the first time. Like his mentor, Sir Galton, Cattell also believed that intelligence is best measured by sensory tasks. However, be emphasized that test administration must be standardized.

In 1905, Alfied Binet in collaboration with Theodor Simon, published the First Scale of Intelligence. This scale was revised in 1908 and 1911. In 1916, Lewis Terman revised the scale, i.e., adapted few items, established new age norms etc. This came to be called ‘Stanford Binet Test’. Binet also introduced the concept of Mental Age. It is defined as the age at which the person successfully performs on all items of the test prepared for that age level.

In 1917, Robert Yerkes and his colleagues developed the Army Alpha (verbal test) and Army Beta (performance test) intelligence tests. These two tests were used to recruit soldiers. In 1939, during World War II also, to recruit army personnel, the Army General Classification Test was used.

In 1939, David Wechsler published the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test. In 1955, the test was revised and then called Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). It has a verbal scale and performance scale. Wechsler also developed a test to measure intelligence of children, i.e., Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC).

Mental Age – Alfred Binet introduced the concept of Mental Age. It is defined as the age at which the person successfully performs on all items of the test prepared for that age level. Mental Age need not correspond to Chronological Age. It Mental Age (MA) is the same as Chronological Age (CA), the person has average intelligence.

Intelligence Quotient – In 1912, William Stern introduced the concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Terman, refined the formula for calculating IQ which is as stated below-
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100 IQ made it possible to compare the intelligence of individuals of different age CA groups.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 2.
‘Intelligence testing has a wide usage in various areas’. Justify with examples.
Answer:
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, ‘the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.’
Types of Intelligence Tests-
(i) Individual tests of intelligence-
Individual tests of intelligence are tests which can be administered to a single person at a time, for e.g., Stanford Binet Scales, WAIS, Koh’s Block Design Test, etc.

(ii) Group tests of intelligence-
Group test of intelligence are tests that can be administered to more than one person at a time, i.e., for mass testing, for e.g., Army Alpha and Army Beta Test, OTIS self-administrating tests, etc.

(iii) Verbal tests of intelligence-
Verbal tests of intelligence make use of words and numbers to measure intelligence and subjects respond verbally to the test items, for e.g., WAIS, Army Alpha Test, etc.

(vi) Non-verbal tests of intelligence-
Non-verbal tests of intelligence do not use language to measure intelligence. They make use of pictures, designs, objects, etc. Such tests may be (i) Performance tests, e.g., Koh’s Block Design Test or (ii) Paper-pencil test e.g., Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices.

Application of Intelligence Testing

  1. Effective Schooling – On the basis of intelligence test scores, teachers can classify students into intellectual categories and devise special instructional programmes suited to their mental development.
  2. Aids Mental Health Personnel – Intelligence tests are helpful to Mental Health personnel such as psychologists, etc., for diagnosis purposes and therapy.
  3. Effective Parenting – Parents can provide appropriate educational facilities to their children based on their IQ scores.
  4. Career Counselling – Scores obtained on intelligence tests help the student to select the right educational options/ courses.
  5. Vocational Counselling – Individuals can choose a suitable career and achieve job satisfaction when they make a realistic choice of vocation based on IQ scores.

Question 3.
Explain the characteristics of people having high social intelligence.
Answer:
E.L. Thorndike proposed the term Social Intelligence. Howard Gardner included ‘interpersonal intelligence’ in the Multiple Intelligences Theory. According to Karl Albrecht, “Social intelligence is the ability to get along well with others and to get them to cooperate with oneself’.

According to Karl Albrecht our behaviour towards others falls somewhere on a spectrum between toxic behaviour and nourishing behaviour. Devaluing others, refusing cooperation to others, negative talking, discouraging others, etc., are some of the examples of toxic behaviours. A continued pattern of toxic behaviour indicates a low level of social intelligence. Respecting others, cooperating with others, positive talking, encouraging others, etc., are some of the examples of nourishing behaviour. A continued pattern of nourishing behaviour indicates a high level of social intelligence.

The following are some of the characteristics of people having high social intelligence:

  1. They are good at understanding and interacting with other people.
  2. They have ability to monitor their verbal and non-verbal expressions while communicating with others.
  3. They are good speakers and good listeners.
  4. They are skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations, desires, and intentions of those around them.
  5. They understand social dynamics in an effective way.
  6. They are flexible in their approach while dealing with others.
  7. They are goal orientated, persistent and self- confident.
  8. They can resolve conflicts in social contexts.
  9. They are successful negotiators.
  10. They enhance personal and professional relationships with others.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 2 Intelligence Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITY (Textbook Page. No. 12)

Activity 1
Read the following sentences and decide whether the given sentences are the facts or just beliefs about intelligence :
(i) Intelligence is something that is inborn.
(ii) Students who are intelligent can get good marks in examinations.
(iii) Students who do not get good marks in examinations are less intelligent.
(iv) People who are intelligent are very smart.
(v) Intelligent people can impress anyone by their talk.
Answer:
[All the statements are just beliefs, not facts.]

Activity 2 (Textbook Page. No. 15)
Read the following examples. Using the formula, calculate the I.Q. of the following students:
(i) Aabha is a genius girl. Her chronological age is 8 years and her mental age is 14 years. Find out her I.Q.
(ii) Mayur has learning disabilities. His chronological age is 8 years and his mental age is 6 years. Find out his I.Q.
Answer:
(i) In case of Aabha – Mental Age (MA) = 14 years
Chronological Age (CA) = 8 years, IQ = ?
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100 = \(\frac {14}{10}\) × 100 = 175
IQ = 175.

(ii) In case of Mayur – Mental Age (MA) = 6 years.
Chronological Age (CA) = 8 years, IQ = ?
MA 6
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100 = \(\frac {6}{10}\) × 100 = 75
IQ = 75.

Activity 3 (Textbook Page. No. 16)

Make a chart listing the advantages and disadvantages of individual tests of intelligence.
Answer:
(i) Advantages-

  1. The test administrator can establish a rapport with the client.
  2. The test administrator can get additional information about the client’s feelings, moods and expressions during testing.
  3. Individual tests are more capable of measuring creative thinking, compared to group tests.

(ii) Disadvantages-

  1. Individual tests are time consuming and costly to administer.
  2. Individual tests require a trained and skillful examiner to administer, score and interpret them.
  3. These tests cannot be used for mass testing.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Activity 4 (Textbook Page. No. 16)

Make a chart listing the advantages and disadvantages of group tests of intelligence.
Answer:
(i) Advantages-

  1. Group tests are less time consuming and economical to administer.
  2. In administrating group tests, the role of the examiner is minimal. So, he/she need not go through any specialized training.
  3. These tests can be used in cases where mass testing is needed.

(ii) Disadvantages-

  1. The test administrator has much less opportunity to establish rapport, obtain cooperation and maintain interest of the clients.
  2. Compared to individual tests, group tests are less capable of measuring creative aspect of intelligence.

Activity 5 (Textbook Page. No. 17)

Verbal test of intelligence Choose the correct option:
(i) Shoe – Foot : : Hat – ……………..
(a) Kitten
(b) Head
(c) Knife
Answer:
Shoe – Foot: : Hat – Head

(ii) Eye – Head : : Window – ………………
(a) Key
(b) Floor
(c) Room
Answer:
Eye – Head : : Window – Room

Activity 6 (Textbook Page. No. 19)

Read the examples given in Activity 6 on textbook page no. 18 and decide the positions of Chetan, Sagar and Anil on the following spectrum of behaviour:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence 3
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence 4

Activity 7 (Textbook Page. No. 20)

Study the differences between the characteristics of people having high emotional intelligence and low emotional intelligence and think about what you can do to develop your emotional intelligence?

Characteristics of people having high emotional intelligence Characteristics of people having low emotional intelligence
Emotionally stable, Patient Emotionally unstable, Impatient
Optimistic, Independent Pessimistic, Dependent
Happy, Enthusiastic Sad, Apathetic
Calm, Satisfied Restless, Dissatisfied

Answer:
I will try to develop emotional intelligence by adopting the following ways-

  1. active listening skills .and effective style of communication.
  2. practice self-evaluation and self-awareness.
  3. respond instead of reacting in conflict situations.
  4. stay motivated, rational and have a positive outlook.
  5. show empathy, be approachable.
  6. adopt effective stress management techniques.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Activity 8 (Textbook Page. No. 20)

Discuss how the following devices use Artificial Intelligence:
(i) Computers
(ii) Self-driving cars
(iii) Robots
(iv) Medical diagnostic tools
(v) Translation devices
(vi) Automatic Missiles
(vii) Chatbots, etc.
Answer:
(i) Computers – AI is the ability of a computer programme to think and learn. It makes computers smart, i.e., work without being encoded with commands.

(ii) Self-driving cars – Autonomous driving is a key application of AI. Self-driving cars are equipped with multiple sensors such as cameras, radars, etc., which generate massive amount of data and simulate human perceptual and decision making processes in driving.

(iii) Robots – AI gives robots the computer vision to navigate, sense and calculate their reaction accordingly. Robots learn to perform tasks from humans through machine learning which is a part of computer programming and AI.

(iv) Medical diagnostic tools – Abnormalities in body fluids and tissue can be automatically detected using AI in medical diagnosis solutions. AI can help to speed up process of diagnosis, i.e., biomarkers.

(v) Translation devices-AI uses Neural Machine Translation (NMT), i.e., an electronic, neural network trained to recognize patterns in the input data set and translate it into desired output data, for e.g., a sentence in Japanese into English. It is more accurate than simple machine translation.

(vi) Automatic Missiles – AI is leading the world towards a battlefield that has no boundaries, may not even have humans involved and will be impossible to control across the human ecosystem in Cyberspace, Geospace and Space (CGS). It refers to the weaponisation of AI, i.e., a weapon system that can select human/ non-human targets without further intervention by a human operator.

(vii) Chatbots – AI makes it possible for chatbots to ‘learn’ by discovering patterns in data. A chatbot is a computer programme that imitates spoken and written conversation, i.e., voice commands and texts, for e.g., Siri.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

1. Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
Till 1879, psychology was a branch of ……….
(a) physics
(b) philosophy
(c) physiology
Answer:
(b) philosophy

Question 2.
Psychology is a science.
(a) natural
(b) social
(c) biological
Answer:
(b) social

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

Question 3.
…………………. is considered as founder of Psychoanalysis.
(a) Wilhelm Wundt
(b) Carl Rogers
(c) Sigmund Freud
Answer:
(c) Sigmund Freud

2. Match the pair

Group A Group B
(1) Structuralism (a) John Watson
(2) Functionalism (b) Carl Rogers
(3) Behaviourism (c) Ulric Neisser
(4) Cognitivism (d) William James
(e) Wilhelm Wundt

Answer:

Group A Group B
(1) Structuralism (e) Wilhelm Wundt
(2) Functionalism (d) William James
(3) Behaviourism (a) John Watson
(4) Cognitivism (c) Ulric Neisser

3. State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Psychology is a study of mental processes.
Answer:
True

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

Question 2.
Case study method is quite often used by clinical psychologists.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
An experimenter is a person on whom the experiment is conducted.
Answer:
False

4. Answer the following in one sentence each.

Question 1.
In which year was the first psychology laboratory established?
Answer:
The first psychology laboratory was established in 1879 by Wilhelm Wundt, at the University of Leipzig in Germany.

Question 2.
Who is considered as the ‘Father of American Psychology’?
Answer:
William James, founder of Functionalism school of thought of psychology is considered ‘Father of American Psychology’.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

Question 3.
What is meant by an experimenter?
Answer:
The person who conducts the experiment is called the experimenter.

5. Define / Explain the concepts in 25 – 30 words each.

Question 1.
Replicability
Answer:
Replicability is one of the key features of science. Scientific knowledge can be replicated under the same circumstances as the original experiment. This ensures reliability of results towards establishing a scientific theory.

Question 2.
Correlation coefficient.
Answer:
Correlation coefficient is the measurement of the correlation between two or more variables. Its value extends between -1.00 to +1.00. The concept was first introduced by Sir Francis Galton. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is the most commonly used type of correlation coefficient.

6. Write short notes on the following in 50 – 60 words each.

Question 1.
Observation method
Answer:
Observation method is a research method that is employed in conditions where experiments may not be possible or even necessary. Observation is used by child psychologists and social psychologists. It may be carried out in a natural setting, for e.g., observing candidates waiting their turn for an interview. It may also be carried out in controlled conditions.
The following factors should be kept in mind while carrying out the observation

  1. it should be done systematically.
  2. a comprehensive list of behaviours to be observed must be prepared.
  3. the persons should not be aware of being observed.

The disadvantages of observation are:

  1. it is a time consuming method.
  2. objectivity is difficult to maintain during observation.
  3. it is difficult to establish cause-effect relationships.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

Question 2.
Survey method
Answer:
A survey is a research method used to collect data from a pre-determined group of respondents, i.e., a sample. It is used to obtain information about the preferences, opinions, etc., of the ‘sample’ population. It makes use of tools like questionnaire, checklist, interviews, etc. Survey method is employed by social psychologists, industrial psychologists, etc. The researcher must ensure that-

  1. sample of respondents is representative of the population.
  2. questions should not be ambiguous.

The disadvantages of survey method are:

  1. it is a very subjective method,
  2. it lacks reliability.

Question 3.
Case study method
Answer:
Case study method is a qualitative research method employed by clinical psychologists. It provides intensive, descriptive information about an individual from multiple sources such as family, peers, school, academic and health records, etc. This helps to assess the person’s level of psychological and social functioning. Researchers may employ techniques like observation, interview, psychological tests, etc. Psychologist such as Sigmund Freud and Jean Piaget made extensive use of case study method. However, this method is very time consuming and subjective.

Question 4.
Importance of rationality
Answer:
Rationality implies being agreeable to reason. According to Stanovich, “Rationality involves adaptive reasoning, good judgement and good decision making.”
According to Dr. Albert Ellis, rationality helps a person to successfully attain goals and be happy. He proposed Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT), which is a popular intervention method in counselling psychology.
Rationality is important because:

  1. It allows us to make decisions in new or unfamiliar situations by helping us to gather and process relevant information.
  2. It enables the person to exhibit tolerance and flexibility.
  3. A rational person accepts oneself unconditionally and assumes responsibility for their own behaviour.
  4. Rationality helps to understand and respect the views and interests of others.

7. Define / Explain the concepts in 25 – 30 words each.

Question 1.
Science
Answer:
The word science is derived from the Latin word ‘Scientia’ which means ‘knowledge’. Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world, following a systematic methodology based on evidence. The key features of science are empirical evidence, objectivity, scientific causality, systematic exploration and replication.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

Question 2.
Objectivity
Answer:
Objectivity is one of the key features of science. It refers to the ability to observe and accept facts as they exist setting aside all sources of expectations, values, prejudices, etc. Science objectively studies some particular phenomenon.

8. Answer the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Explain the types of correlation.
Answer:
A correlation refers to a statistical tool used to measure the relationship between two or more variables.
If the change in one variable is accompanied by a change in the other variable, this interdependence is called correlation. It is measured by correlation coefficient which extends between -1.00 to + 1.00.
The types of correlation are:
(i) Positive correlation – Both variables either increase or decrease at the same time, for e.g., extent of rehearsal (revision)↑ and recall score↑.
The value of positive correlation from 0.00 to + 1.00. It is represented as: variable 1 variable 2
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology A Scientific Discipline 1

(ii) Negative correlation – An increase in one variable is associated with a decrease in the other and vice-versa. The value of the correlation is between 0.00 to -1.00, for e.g., bunking of lectures (↑) and score in exams (↓).
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology A Scientific Discipline 2

(iii) Zero correlation – A change in one variable leads to no significant change in the other variable, for e.g., height and intelligence.

Question 2.
Explain some of the challenges in establishing psychology as a science.
Answer:
Many criticisms of psychology as a science have been made on practical, philosophical and ethical grounds. The challenges in establishing psychology as a science are:
(i) It is in preparadigmatic state – According to American philosopher, Thomas Kuhn, psychology is still in a preparadigmatic state as it has not succeeded in producing a cumulative body of knowledge that has a clear conceptual cove.

(ii) Issues related to objectivity and validity – Methods used in psychology such as introspection, surveys and questionnaires are subjective. Due to this, psychology lacks two criteria of science, i.e., objectivity and validity.

(iii) Issues related to predictability and replicability – In psychology it is difficult to make exact predictions as people respond differently in different situations. Test result are more varied and hence difficult to replicate.

(iv) Objectifying humans – According to some psychologists, subjecting human behaviour to experimentation amounts to objectifying individuals.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

Question 3.
Explain the key features of science.
Answer:
The word science is derived from the Latin word ‘Scientia’ which means ‘knowledge’. Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world, following a systematic methodology based on evidence.
They key features of science are:

  1. Empirical evidence – It refers to acquiring information through direct observation or experiments. Scientific knowledge is based on verifiable evidence.
  2. Objectivity – This refers to the ability to observe and accept facts as they exist, setting aside all sources of expectations, values, prejudices, etc.
  3. Scientific causality – Science aims to establish a cause-effect relationship between the variables under consideration, i.e., the effect of the Independent Variable on the Dependent Variable.
  4. Systematic exploration – Science adopts a sequential procedure for studying various phenomena. It includes scientific steps like formulating a hypothesis, collection of facts, scientific generalisation etc.
  5. Replication – Scientific knowledge can be replicated under the same circumstances as the original experiment. This ensures reliability of results towards establishing a scientific theory.
  6. Predictability – Science involves describing and explaining phenomena as well as to make predictions accordingly.

Question 4.
Write detailed information of the experimental method in psychology.
Answer:
The systematic observation about a certain problem under controlled laboratory conditions is called an experiment.
For example, Albert Bandura conducted experiment to investigate if social behaviours i.e., aggression can be acquired by observation and imitation. The steps involved in an experiment are:

  1. identifying the problem
  2. formulation a hypothesis
  3. selecting an experimental design
  4. conducting the experiment and data collection
  5. data analysis
  6. drawing conclusions

The key terms of experimental method with examples are:

  1. Problem: To study the effect of music on the level of blood Pressure.
  2. Hypothesis: The music will help in regulating the level of blood pressure.
  3. Independent variable: Music.
  4. Dependent variable: Level of blood pressure.
  5. Intervening variables: Age, gender, all other sounds other than music, etc.
  6. Experimenter : A person who will be conducting this experiment. (May be you or your psychology teacher.)
  7. Participant : A person on whom this experiment will be conducted. (May be your family member/ friend.)

The two variables in an experiment are:

  1. Independent Variable (I.V.) – It is the variable that the experimenter manipulates or changes systematically to study it’s effect on the D.V. (Cause).
  2. Dependent Variable (D.V.) – the variable that may change due to manipulation of the I.V. (effect).

The features of the method are:

  1. it is the most objective and scientific method of studying behaviour
  2. it helps to establish cause-effect relationship between two or more variables
  3. the findings of an experiment are verifiable

The limitations of the method are:

  1. it may not be possible to control all intervening variables
  2. it has a limited scope, i.e., there may be ethical constraints or risk factors
  3. experimenter’s expectations or participant attitude may influence the conclusions

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

Question 5.
Explain the characteristics of a rational individual.
Answer:
One of the significant aims of individuals is attainment of happiness. However, in the pursuit of happiness, one should not be driven by irrational influences or compromise on social norms and ethics. Psychology helps to improving life quality by applying the concept of rationality in daily life. According to Stanovich, “Rationality involves adaptive reasoning, good judgement and good decision making.”
According to Dr. Albert Ellis, rationality helps a person to successfully attain goals and be happy. He proposed Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT), which is a popular intervention method in counselling Psychology.

According to Ellis, rational people possess characteristics such as:

  1. Understanding both self-interest and social interest – Rational people understand what choices help them to grow and take responsibility for their actions. They are also careful not to violate other’s rights.
  2. Self-direction – The person does not demand excessive attention or support from others as he/she assumes the responsibility for his/her own life.
  3. Tolerance – It is the willingness to accept beliefs and behaviour patterns of others that may differ from our own way of thinking.
  4. Flexibility – Rational people tend to be flexible and unbiased in their thoughts and actions.
  5. Self-acceptance and self-responsibility – A rational person accepts him/herself unconditionally as well as responsibility for his/her thoughts, emotions and behaviour.

The concept of rationality can be explained as:

B (Balance) Balance between self-interest and interest of others
E (Estimate) Estimate the time, efforts, gains and losses
R (Respect) Respect oneself and others
A (Affiliate) Affiliate with others
T (Tolerate) Tolerate oneself and others
I (Intergrate) Integrate personal wellbeing with social wellbeing
0 (Optimize) Optimize potential fully
N (Navigate) Navigate path of success
A (Accept) Accept the limitations and overcome them
L (Live) Live life fully

How Rational Am I?

Question 1.
Identify the strongest and the weakest characteristics in you from those explained by Dr. Albert Ellis.
Answer:
Rational people are psychologically healthy and show adaptive reasoning and good decision making.
According to Dr. Albert Ellis, some characteristics of rational persons are:

  1. Understanding self-interest and social interest
  2. Self-direction
  3. Tolerance
  4. Flexibility
  5. Self-acceptance and self-responsibility.

The strongest characteristic in me is self-direction. The weakest characteristic in me is flexibility.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

Question 2.
How will you work on your weakest characteristic? Write two strategies.
Answer:
Two strategies that I can use to improve the flexibility in my life is:

  1. Adopt an unbiased perspective and non-judgmental thinking
  2. Practicing meditation and mindfulness.

(A) Identify the Independent Variable and Dependent Variable.

  1. To study the effect of colour on moods.
  2. To study the effect of positive feedback on self-confidence.
  3. To study the effect of loud noise on concentration levels.
  4. To study the effect of exposure to classical music on reading skills.
  5. To study the effect of a type of diet on weight loss.
  6. To study the effect of a fertilizer on crop growth.
  7. To study the effect of solving previous years exam papers on scores in the exam.
  8. To study the effect of worker’s participation in decision making on job satisfaction.

Answer:

Independent Variable Dependent Variable
1. Colour Moods
2. Positive feedback Self confidence
3. Loud noise Concentration levels
4. Classical music Reading skills
5. Type of diet Weight loss
6. Fertilizer Crop Growth
7. Previous year question papers Scores in the exam
8. Workers participation in decision making Job satisfaction

(B) Identify the type of correlation.

  1. Gender and Intelligence.
  2. Cold weather and sales of air conditioners.
  3. Low income and standard of living.
  4. Consuming foods with antioxidants and immune system.
  5. Speed and time taken to cover a distance.
  6. Heads/tails,on flipping a coin and result when you flip another time.
  7. Colour of the hair and learning a dance form.
  8. Average temperature in a city and ice cream sales in it.
  9. Chain smoking and lifespan.
  10. Intelligence and language development.
  11. Increasing age after 60 years and physical agility.
  12. Level of water in a fish tank and area of fish habitat.
  13. Large number of trees felled and probability of soil erosion.
  14.  More hours spent at work and available leisure time.

Answer:

Positive Correlation 3, 4, 8, 10, 12, 13.
Negative Correlation 2, 5, 9, 11, 14.
Zero Correlation 1, 6, 7.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITIES (Textbook Page. No. 1)

Activity 1

Read the following statements. Think and discuss whether the given statements are facts or myths and misconceptions about psychology:
(i) Psychology is just common sense and not a real science.
(ii) Psychology is simply a pseudoscience.
(iii) Psychologists are simply mind readers or the face readers.
(iv) Psychology is related only to the study of crazy people who are in need of therapy.
(v) Psychologists, psychiatrists and counsellors have the same professional qualifications and their jobs are almost of the same nature.
(vi) Anyone with a degree in psychology can provide counselling to a need person. Answer:
Answer:
All the statements are misconceptions.
Statement 1, 2 are misconceptions because Psychology is a social science that fulfils the criteria of a science, e.g., it employs the scientific method.

Statement 3 is a misconception. Psychologists are trained professionals in some field of psychology, e.g., counselling psychology. They employ tools like observation, case study, experiments, etc.

Statement 4 is a misconception. There are numerous branches of psychology such as Social Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Abnormal Psychology, Environmental Psychology, etc.

Statement 5 is a misconception. Psychiatrists are trained medical doctors and focus on medication management. Psychologists employ psychotherapy such as CBT, REBT, etc.

Statement 6 is a misconception. A counsellor is a person who has academic qualifications as well as professional training in counselling techniques.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

Activity 2 (Textbook Page. No. 3)

Read the following statements and discuss about the same in the classroom:
(i) Psychology is a science because it fulfils many conditions of science.
(ii) Psychology is not an exact science like physics or chemistry.
(iii) Psychology is a social science that studies human (and animal) behaviour and mental processes.
(iv) Psychology uses some objective research methods, it examines cause-and-effect relationships to produce laws governing human behaviour and its findings can be verified.
(v) Psychology can be distinguished from pseudoscience and folk wisdom as psychology has evidence against its theories.
(vi) The subject matter of psychology is complex as human behaviour is dynamic and the mental processes are abstract. Therefore, the theories of psychology are not as universal, exact and precise as those in physics and chemistry.
Answer:

  1. Psychology fulfils conditions of science such as acquiring empirical evidence, objectivity, predictability, scientific causality, etc.
  2. Psychology is a social science which deals with human beings. It is not a physical science.
  3. Psychology is defined as the scientific study of human behaviour and mental processes.
  4. Psychology uses objective methods like controlled laboratory experiments and aims to establish scientific causality and verifiable theories.
  5. Psychology is not based on folk wisdom, pseudo knowledge or myths. It is based on systematic exploration and acquisition of empirical evidence.
  6. Psychology is a social science so its theories cannot be universal or exact as in the physical science. Human behaviour is constantly evolving and unpredictable.

Activity 3 (Textbook Page. No. 4)

Visit the website given below and collect information about various schools of thought of psychology: https://www. verywellmind.com/psychology-schools-of-thought-2795247
Answer:

  1. Structuralism – Focused on breaking down mental processes into the basic elements using techniques like introspection.
  2. Functionalism – Focused on the mind’s functions and adaptations.
  3. Gestalt school – Focused on looking at the ‘whole’ rather than individual elements.
  4. Behavioural school – Focused on study of observable behaviour.
  5. Psychoanalytic school – Emphasized the influence of the ‘unconscious’ on behaviour.
  6. Humanistic school – It developed as a response to psychoanalysis and behaviourism. It focused on individual free will, personal growth and concept of self-actualization (achieving one’s full potential).
  7. Cognitive school (Cognitivism) – Focused on the study of mental processes like learning, perception, memory etc.

In recent times, Behavioural school, Cognitive school and Humanistic school remain influential. Most psychologists adopt an eclectic approach drawing upon different perspectives.

Activity 5 (Textbook Page. No. 5)

Find out the Independent Variable and Dependent Variable from the experiment ideas given below:
(i) To study the effect of practice on memory.
(ii) To study the effect of mental set on problem solving.
(iii) To study the effect of noise pollution on the speed of writing.
(iv) To study the effect of colour on perception.
(v) To study the effect of feedback on decision making.
Answer:

Independent Variable Dependent Variable
(1) Practice Efficient memory
(2) Mental set Problem solving
(3) Noise pollution Speed of writing
(4) Colour Perception
(5) Feedback Efficient decision making

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

Activity 6 (Textbook Page. No. 8)

Discuss about the following topics that can be studied using correlation study method:
(i) Bunking lectures and score in exams
(ii) Weight and intelligence
(iii) Amount of salary and level of job satisfaction
(iv) Rehearsal and forgetting
(v) Height and aptitude in music
(vi) Urbanization and pollution
(vii) Speed of vehicles and road accidents
Answer:
(a) Positive correlation

  1. Urbanization and pollution
  2. Speed of vehicles and road accidents

(b) Negative correlation

  1. Bunking lectures and scores in exams
  2. Rehearsal and forgetting

(c) Zero correlation

  1. Weight and intelligence
  2. Height and aptitude in music

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Solutions Passages Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Passage 1
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

This is a real-life story of Rukmini Devi who lives in a small hut in Gaigotha Village in Wada Taluka of Palghar District in Maharashtra State. She belongs to the Warli tribe. Her husband is a marginal farmer who cultivates on two acres of land. They have two children, one daughter aged 10 years and an I son aged 6 years. Both the children walk to school and back daily (located about 3 miles away).

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

When cultivation season is over, (or if the rice crop is damaged due to heavy rains or pests) they face many hardships. A section of the crop is kept for their personal use, for the year. Tur Dal (lentil) is also grown in one small area, again for personal use. Ina small backyard, they grow vegetables like chilies, cucumber, and bitter gourd (karela).

During the off-season, both husband and wife go to the brick kilns (about 7 miles away) to do piece-rate work (That is, they get paid for each brick that they make.) While the men earn Rs. 300 per day, the women earn Rs. 150-200. Rukmini Devi stated that they prefer to walk the 7 miles both ways because the bus fare is Rs. 35/- per head one way. They cannot afford it.

Question 1.
Identify any three problems that the family of Rukmini Devi has to face.
Answer:
The main problem of the family of Rukmini Devi is poverty. The productivity of their economic activities is very less as they cannot use modern production techniques like fertilizers, pesticides, etc., their agriculture depends upon monsoons and there is a lack of adequate irrigation facilities. Due to the seasonal nature of agriculture, they have to face hardships and exploitation by non-tribal people. They are also being exploited by their employers who take maximum work from them and pay them minimum wages.

Question 2.
Point out and discuss briefly, gender discrimination in this setting.
Answer:
We find Rukmini Devi facing wage discrimination i.e., discrimination on the basis of sex in the payment of wages, where Rukmini Devi and her husband perform work of similar skill, effort, and responsibility for the same employer under similar working conditions but they don’t earn the same amount of money. This implies discriminative employers save on the cost by employing the tribal females. Rukmini Devi is working in, informal labour market where there is an absence of policies to safeguard gender rights.

Question 3.
Discuss the nature of the economy of the Warli tribes.
Answer:
The economy practiced by Warli Tribe is subsistence economy and simple. They use out model techniques therefore their production is insufficient. They cannot fulfill their basic needs. They try to fulfill their needs by collective efforts. Thus, the simple and collective economic life is an important characteristic of the tribal economy. The main occupation of the Warli tribe is agriculture which is in a state of backwardness. They live below the poverty line.

Passage 2
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Education, since the coming of the British to India, has been secular in content. By this we mean, the content of education did not include the study of sacred texts. Schools were open for all – to learn and climb the ladder of vertical mobility. The study of the English language, as well as the opportunity to study in the English medium, was available.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

It is true that several Indians from certain social and economic strata were the first to access an English education. Many of them later constituted the intelligentsia of our society. We refer to many of them as social reformers, such as Raja Rammohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Pandita Ramabai, Maharshi Dhondo Keshav Karve. They worked for religious, social, and educational reform in Indian society.

Such visionaries of society continue even in the post-Independence era, to the present time.

Educational opportunities have grown by leaps and bounds in the last 73 years since Independence. One questions if the educated have merely acquired education or if the education has helped citizens become gainfully employed and more importantly, enlightened enough to transform society at the micro-level.

It is necessary for the government to consider the interests of all sections of society.

Each citizen can play a dynamic role in the development of all people in our society.

Question 1.
Explain the impact of the introduction of a new education system by the British on Indian society.
Answer:
According to the new liberal education policy introduced by the British, education was not restricted to special sections of society. The spread of secular-based education widened the minds of the people living in India. Well-educated Indians were influenced by western values. They recognized that various customs and traditions were unjust and unfair. Therefore, they started various religious and social movements to reform Indian society.

Question 2.
Explain the role of education in the transformation of society at the micro-level.
Answer:
The role of education is effective to bring change at the individual level i.e., micro-level. The role of education as an agent or instrument of social change and social development is widely recognized today. Education can initiate social changes by bringing about a change in the outlook and attitude of man. It can bring about a change in the pattern of social relationships and thereby it may cause social changes Education has brought about phenomenal changes in every aspect of men’s life. Education is a process that brings about changes in the behaviour of society. It is a process that enables every individual to effectively participate in the activities of society and to make a positive contribution to the progress of society.

Question 3.
Discuss education as an instrument of social change.
Answer:
Education changes the outlook and traditional approach towards social and economic problems. It sharpens the skills, and knowledge of the children. Technical education helps in the process of industrialization which helps to bring a vast change in society. Education not only preserves the cultural traditions of the society but helps to transmit them from one generation to the next. Education fulfills needs of the society and propagates ideas to promote social change in all fields of life.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Passage 3
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Indian society is a melting pot of cultures. The history of Indian society gives enough evidence of the process of accommodation. From early times migrants integrated into Indian society and influenced its culture. Our historical past is testimony to this fact of cultural diffusion.

Today, we describe our society as a composite whole that includes tribal, rural, and urban communities. The way of life in these segments have their unique characteristics. However, is it also an observation that no one segment or community can be seen in its “pure” state. On the one hand, there is interdependence between communities and on the other, this would imply a certain extent of loss of cultural elements such as language, beliefs, customary practices, etc. Have we not seen how, for example, Warli or Madhubani Art has made it to T-shirts and wall hangings in many urban households? Also, how technology has reached the remotest corners of our country?

A question that may cross your mind may be, ‘Is there anything such as ‘pure culture? What constitutes “Indian culture”? ‘Can cultural extremism be valuable in the present world? These questions are valid
as they set us thinking. Perhaps there is no single “answer”?

Question 1.
What constitutes “Indian culture”, discuss with respect to cultural diffusion in Indian society.
Answer:
Over the years, India has changed a lot in terms of living standards and lifestyles, but even then the values and traditions are still intact and remain unchanged. Another aspect of India’s culture can be seen when someone is facing deep trouble. Irrespective of the class, tribe, or religion, everyone will step forward to provide help and support. Culture in India is a dimension that has been composed by its long history and its unique way of accepting customs and traditions, right since the Indus valley civilization took birth. India is a melting pot of various religions and cultures and it is the very nature of the unity in diversity, which has largely shaped the growth of Indian culture as a whole. The property of togetherness among people of various cultures and traditions has made India, a unique country.

Question 2.
Discuss tribal art and its role in cultural identity.
Answer:
Tribal art has progressed considerably due to the constant developmental efforts of the Indian government and other organizations. Tribal art generally reflects the creative energy found in the tribal areas. Tribal art ranges through a wide range of art forms, such as wall paintings, tribal dances, tribal music, and so on. Folk art in India apparently has great potential in the international market because of its traditional aesthetic sensibility. Some of the most famous folk paintings of India are the Madhubani paintings of Bihar, Warli folk paintings of Maharashtra

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Question 3.
How interdependence between communities has resulted to a certain extent loss of cultural elements?
Answer:
Though the interdependence of communities connects all the cultures of the country it has also weakened cultural bonds of tribal and rural communities and also lead to the loss of cultural identity. It also makes one forget their own values, customs, and traditions. Although it has played an immense role in the unification of our country, a great amount of cultural identity and traditional values have also been lost.

Passage 4
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

The causes of disharmony and strife are several-fold. Resistance to social change is one among many. Problems of contemporary Indian society include domestic violence, sexual abuse, child rights, problems of senior citizens, migrants, ethnocentrism, religious fundamentalism, linguistic fanaticism, environmental degradation, substance abuse and addiction to devices, mob lynching, and so on.

Given the varied types of social problems and their changing nature, there emerges a need to examine them in a scientific manner. The applicability of Sociology in its widest sense includes the exploration of various themes that cut across fields such as Masculinity Studies, Minority Studies, Film and Media Studies, Sociology of Sports, Environmental Sociology, Forensic Sociology, Gerontology, Sociology of Music, Medical Sociology, Marketing Sociology and so on.

Various government departments and voluntary organizations include sociologists on their panels to help steer policies and programmes. As Sociology is a people-centered discipline, it tends to create awareness and dialogue regarding human relationships. This is a valuable asset in governance and conflict resolution.

Question 1.
How does sociology perceive social problems in a scientific manner?
Answer:
Sociology views social problems as problems which arise out of the functioning of systems and structures in a society, or which are the result of group influences. They are also concerned with social relationships which emerge and are sustained because of the social problems. Thus, in analyzing alcoholism, a sociologist will be concerned with its effects on social relations and roles, that is, the relations with family members, with colleagues in the office, and with neighbours and friends as well as its effect on work efficiency, status, and so on. The study of social problems in sociology aspires toward a body of valid and logically related principles to get solutions for the social problems.

Question 2.
Discuss how resistance to social change leads to disharmony in society.
Answer:
Certain resistance to change is there everywhere. In no society, all the changes are welcomed by the people without questioning and resistance. To some extent, the removal of evil practices such as child marriage, human sacrifice, animal sacrifice, untouchability, taboos on inter-caste marriages, etc., could be achieved after a long struggle in India. Due to ignorance people often oppose new changes. Habit is another obstacle to social change. Individuals are very much influenced by habits and customs. People dislike or fear the unfamiliar. They are not ready to give up a practice to which they have been habituated and adopt a new one. Hence, the new practice is looked down upon or rejected which leads to social harmony.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Passage 5
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Given below is a make-believe scenario.
Yogini and Yogita are twins of the Patkar family who live in a small room measuring 225 sq. ft. in a
small town. Yogini is brilliant in studies and Kabbadi. Yogita is an outstanding cricketer who represents the Western India region; she also was a topper in the State-level Marathi language Competition.

Their parents come from a small village in Marathwada; they were farmers. For the sake of their daughters, they shifted to a small town to facilitate their children’s further education and sports training.

Their relatives and others in their village have heard of the Patkar girl’s success and are also encouraged to send their children to big cities with the hope that they too will become successful and famous one day.

Today, if one visits the village you will notice that in many homes, there are only the elderly folk. The youth seem to have migrated to better their prospects. Can you imagine the effect of such migration on the local village community?

Question 1.
What are the challenges faced by rural people while sending their children for higher education?
Answer:
Rural people migrate to cities for a better standard of living and better future prospects. They face lot of hardships, face all sorts of exploitations for survival and to shape the lives of their children. They work hard to meet the needs of their children and try to give them better education so that they have a decent life. Patkar’s family come from a small village in Marathwada, live in a small. For the sake of their daughters, they shifted to a small town to facilitate their children’s further education and sports training.

Question 2.
What makes rural people migrate to cities?
Answer:
Rural people are plagued with various problems of agriculture, the ownership of land, lack of cottage industries, lack of educational facilities like schools and colleges, lack of health care centers, unemployment, traditionalism, and conservatism all these factors force rural people to migrate to cities. Cites attract rural people with better job opportunities, education, and a better lifestyle. Cities are centers of opportunities for the rural people so they migrate in hope of having a better standard of livings.

Question 3.
What are the effects of migration on rural communities?
Answer:
When rural people migrate to urban areas for better prospects leaving behind everything. The negative impact of migration on rural communities are there is labour shortage in farms, only senior citizens, women and children are left behind, increase in child labour, children’s are forced, to work in fields, increased workload for women’s decreased population, disorganization of family, customs and in this way rural culture slowly fades away.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Passage 6
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Social movements arise generally from needs felt by one or more members of any given society. Through social interactions, these needs and concerns are communicated to many more persons. A network of people who share these concerns becomes the driving force for change in that particular society. Movements are usually guided by some underlying philosophies and goals. Indeed, several movements are associated with a founder or a core group. It can take several years, or even decades for a social movement to become very wide and expansive, across vast geographical territories.

Social movements such as the Social Reform Movement, Trade Union Movement, Tribal Movement, Dalit Movement, Women’s Movement, Chipko Movement, LGBT Movement, Civil Rights Movement, Rationalist Movement and so many more have emerged and grown.

As a social movement gains momentum, greater awareness is created in society. In fact, the study of several movements has found its way into the academic curriculum as well as research. For example, courses on Labour Studies, Gender Studies, minority’ Studies, and Environmental Studies. Social movements can stimulate critical thinking about social issues in the wider society of which we are apart. Some of these concerns lead to the passing of legislation. Every era or generation has its share of concerns from which may emerge new social movements.

Question 1.
What do you understand by social movement and discuss how it functions?
Answer:
Social Movement is a collection of a large group of people, who come with the desired objective to create a change or resist change. Through social interactions, individuals communicate and show their concern on various issues where they feel it necessary to change. Social movements arise generally from needs felt by one or more members of any given society. A network of people who share these concerns becomes the driving force for change in that particular society. Movements are usually guided by some underlying philosophies and goals. Indeed, several movements are associated with a founder. It can take several years, or even decades for a social movement to become very wide and expansive, across vast geographical territories.

Question 2.
How does the social movement arise in Society?
Answer:
Social movements arise in the society when certain issues bring unrest and discontent like unwanted social order and outdated norms like early child marriage, women emancipation, human rights, LGBT rights, etc., in the society. At this junction groups of people organize themselves, raise their voices and feelings and opinions set to influence the opinion and emotions of others, and prepare for reform. The need of society to bring changes in the existing system leads to a social movement.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Question 3.
Discuss any three social movements in the given passage.
Answer:
The three types of social movements are Social Reform Movements, Trade Union Movement, and Chipko Movement.
The social Reform Movement started in the 19th century. The movement promoted to change the traditional and conservative Indian society. Issues of main concern were religion, untouchability, early child marriage, sati, widowhood, exploitation of poor, etc. With the help of various social reformers and British legislative systems, changes took place.

Trade Union Movement was organized to fight against the exploitation of workers like they worked for long hours and were paid less, poor working conditions, lack of promotions, management disputes, strikes, etc.

Chipko movement took place in Uttarakhand, where Sunderlal Bahuguna and villagers came together and hugged the trees protected them from being chopped by the contractors. This was a protest to save forests and preserve the environment. The government set up a committee to look into the matter eventually ruled in favour of the villagers.

Question 4.
In what ways do you think the social movement is beneficial for society?
Answer:
Through social movements, various issues have been raised, which has brought changes. It has changed the mindset, attitudes and, behaviour patterns for instance women’s education, acceptance of transgender, etc. As a social movement gains momentum, greater awareness is created in society. The study of several movements has found its way into the academic curriculum as well as research.

For example, courses on Labour Studies, Gender Studies, minority’ Studies, and Environmental Studies. Social movements can stimulate critical thinking about social issues in the wider society of which we are apart. Some of these concerns lead to the passing of legislation like the untouchability removal act 1955, the sati act of 1829, the marriage act of 1954, the factory act of 1948, the child labour act 1986, and many more to go.

Passage 7
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Can human societies be flawless? What is considered acceptable, desirable, valuable varies from time to time, place to place, and in different contexts.

There is sometimes a tendency to encourage excessive ethnocentric attitudes about one’s culture or group to which one belongs. Ethnocentrism in its extreme form is an obstacle to social harmony. For the sake of social solidarity, respect of other cultures, self-criticism, critical appraisal, reflection, and introspection is necessary. This may help to develop a pluralist way of appreciating the diversities within which we live. The life stories of people are a useful means to understand underlying feelings, beliefs, threats, and so on.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Civil society can play a part in this process to eliminate or minimize factors that hinder progress, or those which divide us.

Question 1.
Explain the term Ethnocentrism. How it is an obstacle to social harmony?
Answer:
Ethnocentrism makes one feel that one’s own culture and way of life are superior to all others. Ethnocentrism can lead to a biased understanding of other cultures. The ethnocentric group feels their culture is superior, this creates a negative outlook which can lead to arrogance and hatred for others. Ethnocentrism in its extreme form is an obstacle to social harmony as there is sometimes a tendency to encourage excessive ethnocentric attitudes about one’s culture or group to which one belongs leading to antagonism and hatred among various religions and cultures.

Question 2.
What can one do to bring social solidarity to society?
Answer:
The term social solidarity means various social groups bind together as one in society.

We need to throw away prejudices, self-interest, self-criticism, learn to respect other’s cultures, reducing inequality and injustice in society. Solidarity can be cultivated through education. Promote new policies or initiatives to eradicate poverty, volunteering and practicing in charity events, donating money, food, clothes, etc. This brings empathy towards others encourages people to bring equality, justice, and peace.

For the sake of social solidarity, respect for other cultures, self-criticism, critical appraisal, reflection, and introspection is necessary. This may help to develop a pluralist way of appreciating the diversities within which we live. The life stories of people are a useful means to understand underlying feelings, beliefs, and threats, and so on.

Question 3.
What are the divisive forces that hinder the progress of Indian society?
Answer:
India is a secular, multilingual, and multicultural country. These diversities become at times challenges that hinder the progress of society. Various divisive forces like regional disputes, language problems, discrimination on the basis of caste, communal conflicts, terrorism, unequal distribution of wealth, poverty, etc. This divisive force obstructs progress and disturbs the peace and harmony in society.

Passage 8
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

All of you have been studying Sociology for over a year. Sociology is the scientific study of human social behaviour. However, it is not the only discipline that studies human behaviour. The study of human behaviour is of interest to historians, psychologists, sociologists, economists, political scientists, etc. Surely, this question may have crossed your mind, or your family or friends might have asked you – ‘What is the use of studying Sociology? What work will you do with a degree in Sociology? Perhaps you too have wondered about the same.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

As a start, you could surely consider a career in teaching. However, you must be prepared to read extensively, be creative and develop a learner-centric personality. Indeed, you would have to be passionate about teaching and interacting with learners. For some, a career in research is another possibility, though that route is a long journey to attain the status of ‘sociologist’. Many sociology students and others too, choose to offer Sociology as their subject of special study for Civil Service Examinations like UPSC (Central Services) and MPSC (in Maharashtra). To clear these highly ‘ competitive examinations, it is necessary to read widely and be well aware of the totality of Indian society – its past, present; goals, and plans for the future.

Then, of course, there are many allied occupations where a degree in Sociology can provide insights that are useful to take on other people-oriented professions such as Policy and Programme Development, Social Work with specialization in Family and Child Welfare, Community Development, Medical and Psychiatric Social Work, School Social Work, etc.

The fact remains: it is not merely an obtaining degree in sociology that matters today, but the skill sets, sensitivity, and personality that you develop; your ability to modify and adapt to new needs and challenging situations of even daily living. Also, your ability to have a humanistic perspective whether dealing with research or creating empowerment programmes, or programmes for social change.

Question 1.
What is the scope of sociology?
Answer:
Sociology is the scientific study of human social behaviour. The scope of sociology is wide they are: It studies social relationships, social institution patterns of human behaviour in society. Sociology deals with social changes, development, and analysis of various social problems like poverty, crime, suicide. Gender inequality population etc., and suggest various measures to solve them. One can surely consider a career in teaching; however, one must be passionate about teaching and interacting with learners.

A career in research is another possibility, one may choose to offer Sociology as their subject of special study for Civil Service Examinations like UPSC (Central Services) and MPSC (in Maharashtra). There are many allied occupations where a degree in Sociology can provide insights that are useful to take on other people-oriented professions such as Policy and Programme Development, Social Work with specialization in Family and Child Welfare, Community Development, Medical and Psychiatric Social Work, School Social work, etc.

Question 2.
Discuss the uses of Sociology in present society?
Answer:
In today’s changing world the importance of sociology is growing day by day.
It makes a scientific study of society detects and solves various social problems.
Helps in planning and development. The knowledge of sociology, its application is increasing in the field of industry, social work, law, competitive examinations like UPSC and MPSC, management studies public relations, journalism, etc.
Present time sociology has become useful in framing policies and programme for development like family and child welfare schemes, community development, etc.

Question 3.
Discuss how studying Sociology is beyond obtaining a degree.
Answer:
Today, it is not merely obtaining a degree in sociology that matters, but the skill sets, sensitivity, and personality that you develop; your ability to modify and adapt to new needs and challenging situations of even daily living. Also, your ability to have a humanistic perspective whether dealing with research or creating empowerment programmes or programmes for social change plays an important role.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Passage 9
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Read the make-believe speech made by a representative of the Governing Body to its Executive Committee meeting, in a well-known international firm located in Pune.

“Good morning. The Board of Directors has asked me to communicate with you all a policy decision that has been taken by the higher management. Two policies have been taken by our company. One, there shall be a confidential, two-way appraisal of all employees from the coming financial year. Every employee will be assessed by one’s immediate senior, one’s team members, and by oneself through self-appraisal. Juniors will also assess the seniors to whom they report. There are specific criteria on which assessment will take place. A second policy decision is for the company to make every effort to Go Green’s keeping with the international commitment towards a cleaner and greener environment. You may please share this decision with members of your respective departments today, through our e-portal systems. Feedback from all employees is welcome but they must be made within a week from today to the Human Resource Department, via the e-portal. ”

Question 1.
Explain the 1st policy decision that has been taken by the higher management.
Answer:
Two policies have been taken by the higher management. One, there shall be a confidential, two-way appraisal of all employees from the coming financial year. Every employee will be assessed by one’s immediate senior, one’s team members, and by oneself through self-appraisal. Juniors will also assess the seniors to whom they report. There are specific criteria on which assessment will take place.

Question 2.
Discuss the action to be taken by the employee with respect to ‘Go Green’.
Answer:
A second policy decision is for the company to make every effort to ‘Go Green’ in keeping with the international commitment towards a cleaner and greener environment which they can share with members of their respective departments, through the company’s e-portal systems.

Question 3.
Explain the advantages of appraisal.
Answer:
It is said that performance appraisal is an investment for the company. Performance appraisal helps the supervisors to chalk out the promotion programmes for efficient employees.

Passage 10
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Indian films have a history of their emergence, growth, and development. There were the days of silent films where viewers interpreted visuals on screen and constructed their own understanding of what the films may have tried to communicate. Then came the days of audio-visual films, black and white films, and later, colour films.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

People who can afford to watch films at theatres and those who can do so on their television screens at home are entertained by the stories that films tell us. There are all kinds of ideas, ideologies, tragedies, themes, and values that films communicate. Today one can watch films on the internet on one’s mobile phone. Sometimes the explicit and implicit messages are received by viewers, but they can also be lost on them.

Besides actors’ abilities to ‘play varied roles or characters, there are a whole lot of persons involved with the production process as well as its marketing. This may include the film director, screenplay writers, designers, sound engineers, make-up artists and stylists, casting experts, musicians and so on.

Fields like Visual Sociology, Sociology of Mass Communication, and Marketing Sociology have a role to play in the study of these varied dimensions. Films as a source of knowledge play multiple roles even today. The storylines and types of films are ever-increasing. Films are not limited to nor bound by standard themes, love stories, or gender stereotyping. Films can cause much upheaval on the one hand and generate much interest on the other. Regional films and international films have been added to the list of viewing possibilities and multiple interests.

Question 1.
Write an account of the popularity of Indian cinema.
Answer:
Indian cinema was always enjoyed, whether it was the days of silent films where viewers interpreted visuals on screen and constructed their own understanding of what the films may have tried to communicate. Then came the days of audio-visual films, black and white films, and later, colour films. People entertained themselves by the stories that films conveyed either by watching films at theatres or on their television screens at home. The Hindi language film industry of Mumbai also known as Bollywood, it is the largest and most popular branch of Indian cinema. Hindi cinema initially explored issues of caste and culture in films such as Achhut Kanya (1936) and Sujata (1959). The audience’s reaction towards Hindi cinema is distinctive with involvement in the films by the audience’s clapping, singing, reciting familiar dialogue with the actors.

Question 2.
What do you understand by explicit and implicit messages of films?
Answer:
The film’s main message is loud and clear through the majority of films is known as an explicit message. It also has underlying morals for its audience known as implicit messages which are not so obvious. For example, morals such as, it’s not what’s on the outside, it’s on the inside that counts.

Question 3.
Discuss types of movie genres.
Answer:
Movies consist of many genres and categories like drama, comedy, action, thriller, horror, romance, experimental, documentaries, etc. The producers, directors try to create new genres experimenting with their creativity. The storylines and types of films are ever-increasing. There is no limitation to the subject matter of the films.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Question 4.
Discuss the impact of Indian cinema on society.
Answer:
Indian cinema is no longer restricted to India and is now being well appreciated by international audiences. The contribution of the overseas market to Bollywood box office collections is quite remarkable. Indian cinema has become a part and parcel of our daily life whether it is a regional or a Bollywood movie. It has a major role to play in our society. Though entertainment is the keyword of Indian cinema it has far more responsibility as it impacts the mind of the audiences.

Passage 11
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

How does one tackle social problems? How do societies deal with the social problems that they have to confront? Why do social problems arise? These are some questions that learners of Sociology need to address.

Societies have culture; both of these are created by people, cumulatively, through the network of relationships over thousands of years. Every society has its normative system – customs, folkways, fashions, mores, taboos, fads, laws. Social norms are guidelines for human behaviour. They tell us what is expected of us and at the same time, what to expect from others.

Are these expectations permanent and unchanging? When can they change? Who changes them? Why must they change? Again, these are questions that one might ask. Social problems can arise when the expectations are not communicated effectively, or when individuals or groups choose to disagree with the expectation. This can lead to situations of conflict – not just ideological but also a conflict that leads to hurting others’ sentiments, abuse, violence, injustice, upheavals, normlessness, and even war.

Question 1.
What do you understand by normative aspects of culture, are these expectations permanent? When do they change?
Answer:
The normative aspects of culture consist of customs, folkways, fashions, mores, taboos, fads, laws. Social norms are guidelines for human behaviour. They tell us what is expected of us and at the same time, what to expect from others. These expectations are not permanent as appropriate and inappropriate behaviour often changes dramatically from one generation to the next. Norms can and do change over time. Karl Marx believed that norms are used to promote the creation of roles in society which allows people of different levels of social class structure to be able to function properly, hence any change in social structure may lead to change in the normative aspect of culture.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Question 2.
How does the social problems arise in society?
Answer:
Although not considered to be formal laws within society, norms still work to promote a great deal of control. Norms are more specific and they are rules of conduct that guide people’s behaviour. Therefore, when an individual or a group of people behave and act in a certain way that is in contradiction to society’s values or norms, it can create a social problem. Social problems can arise when the expectations are not communicated effectively, or when individuals or groups choose to disagree with the expectation. This can lead to situations of conflict – not just ideological but also a conflict that leads to hurting others’ sentiments, abuse, violence, injustice, upheavals, normlessness, and even war.

Passage 12
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a Government of India programme that makes education for children between the ages 6-14 free and compulsory. This programme was pioneered by the former Indian Prime Minister Shri Atal Behari Vajpayee in 1993-94. It became totally operational from 2000-2001. This programme made education a Fundamental Right.

Along with this, the Government of India also launched the National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) on 15th August 1995. From here emerged the concept of free ‘Midday Meal’for for children going to schools which were managed by local bodies like Gram Panchayats and Municipal Corporations. The Midday Meal is mandatory. It is taken for granted that the children should be given good, nutritious food on a daily basis. A lot of organisation goes into the cooking and delivering of these meals to the schools on time.

Universal Education goes hand in hand with Nutrition. Children of the village and municipal schools look forward to this meal. For several of them, it is perhaps the main meal of the day.

Question 1.
Discuss the various child welfare programmes launched by the government of India.
Answer:
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a Government of India programme that makes education for children between the ages 6-14 free and compulsory. This programme was pioneered by the former Indian Prime Minister Shri. Atal Behari Vajpayee in 1993-94. It became totally operational from 2000-2001. This programme made education a Fundamental Right.

The Government of India also launched the National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) on 15th August 1995.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Free ‘Midday Meal’ for children going to schools which were managed by local bodies like Gram Panchayats and Municipal Corporations was also launched later. The Midday Meal is mandatory. It is based on the fact that the children should be given good, nutritious food on a daily basis.

Question 2.
What is the objective of the Midday Meal Scheme? Where does the responsibility of implementation of midday meal scheme lie?
Answer:
The Midday Meal Scheme is a school meal programme of the government of India designed to improve the nutritional status of school children nation wise. The objective of the Midday Meal Scheme is to provide a cooked meal to the children as should be given good, nutritious on a daily basis. The meal is mandatory.

A lot of organisation goes into the cooking and delivering of these meals to the schools on time. Universal Education goes hand in hand with nutrition. Children of the village and municipal schools look forward to this meal. For several of them, it is perhaps the main meal of the day.

The responsibility of implementation of the Midday Meal Scheme lies with local bodies like Gram Panchayats and Municipal Corporations.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Question 3.
How effective are the children’s welfare programmes in India?
Answer:
Keeping in view the problems and challenges faced by children various programmes and policies are implemented for the welfare of children in India. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a Government of India programme that makes education for children between the ages 6-14 free and compulsory. As a result, the enrolment percentage of school children has gone up. Similarly, Mid-day Meal is mandatory. A lot of organisations goes into the cooking and delivering of these meals to the schools on time. Universal Education goes hand in hand with Nutrition. Children of the village and municipal schools look forward to this meal. For several of them, it is perhaps the main meal of the day.