Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 6 Social Problems in India

By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 6 Social Problems in India students can recall all the concepts quickly.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 6 Social Problems in India

→ A social problem is a condition affecting a significant number of people in ways considered undesirable, about which it is felt that something can be done through collective social action.

→  Individual problem is a problem experienced by an individual and it is the individual who must make an effort to solve one’s problem.

→ A social problem is different than an individual problem.Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 6 Social Problems in India 1
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 6 Social Problems in India 2
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 6 Social Problems in India 3

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 6 Social Problems in India

→ Unemployment is a growing problem in Indian society. According to NSSO, an unemployed person is one who puts in less than 14 hours of paid work in a week.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 6 Social Problems in India 4

→ The past decade has witnessed an increasing number of farmers’ suicides. Farmers’ suicides are a serious social problem in India.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 6 Social Problems in India 5

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 6 Social Problems in India

→ Domestic violence refers to abuse within the family. Domestic violence cuts across all classes, age categories, sexes and genders.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 6 Social Problems in India 6

→ The term ‘addiction’ is usually used to refer to a situation of psychological and/or physical dependence on alcohol, correct to, internet or mobiles.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Notes Chapter 6 Social Problems in India 7

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me 

By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me students can recall all the concepts quickly.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 5 Healthy Me – Normal Me

Introduction:

  • Life’s success depends on mental and emotional well-being.
  • Hence, EQ is also as important as IQ.
  • Normal behaviour: Well-adjusted individuals
  • Abnormal behaviour: Mal-adjusted individuals

Criteria of well-adjusted individuals:

  • Realistic perception of self and world: Knowing own strengths and weaknesses and accepting the world as it is.
  • Openness to new experiences: Being comfortable towards changes and unknown people.
  • High emotional intelligence: Appropriate understanding and management of emotions.
  • Healthy relationships: Being able to honour differences, help others and make them feel special.
  • High self-esteem: Feeling important, worthy and valuable about oneself.
  • It’s rare for a person to possess all the criteria of a well-adjusted individual.
  • Also, well-adjusted individuals can face discomfort in certain situations.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 5 Healthy Me - Normal Me

Components of emotional intelligence:
Self:

  • Self-awareness: Being aware of one’s emotions, desires, motivations and actions.
  • Self-regulation: Controlling emotions and restraining inappropriate actions.
  • Self-motivation: Pushing oneself towards a goal without any external reward.

Social:

  1. Social skills: Ability to comfortably interact with others.
  2. Empathy: Ability to put yourself in other’s shoes and understand their pain.

Important aspects of healthy relationships:

  1. Being honest
  2. Being fair
  3. Being respectful
  4. Being non-threatening
  5. Being a responsible parent
  6. Having shared responsibilities
  7. Having economic partnership
  8. Having trust and support.

The vicious cycle of low self-esteem:

  1. Low self-esteem → Negative thoughts →High anxiety → Poor Performance → Failure → Self-blame → Low self-esteem.
  2. High self-esteem builds confidence and leads to healthy social interactions and further boosts self-esteem.

Criteria of abnormal Behaviour:

  • Deviance: Behaviour going against the laws or set social and statistical standards.
  • Personal distress: Feeling very low or depressed on continuous basis.
  • Failure to perform functions normally: Day-to-day functioning getting impaired.
  • The behaviour can’t be judged on the basis of only one criterion.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 5 Healthy Me - Normal Me

Perspectives on abnormal behaviour:

  1. Biological: Abnormal behaviour is due to a chemical imbalance or physiological factors.
  2. Socio-cultural: Abnormal behaviour is learned within the social context.
  3. Behavioural: Abnormal behaviour is due to ineffective learning and conditioning.
  4. Evolutionary: Abnormal behaviour is an exaggerated form of adaptive action.
  5. Humanistic: Abnormal behaviour arises from blocked personal growth.
  6. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic: Abnormal behaviour is due to unconscious and unresolved conflicts.
  7. Cognitive: Abnormal behaviour arises due to false assumptions and faulty thinking.

Two models that explain the causes of abnormal behaviour:
Stress-Diathesis model:

  • Disorder = Nature (Biological and genetic factors) + Nurture (Life experiences) of abnormal
  • Those who are genetically predisposed towards a particular disorder are more likely behaviour to show abnormal behaviour when exposed to environmental stress.

Biopsychosocial model:

  • Abnormal behaviour = Biological factors + Psychological factors + Sociocultural factors
  • Those who are genetically predisposed towards a particular disorder develop abnormalities if exposed to a disturbing and hostile environment, If exposed to nurturing and protective environment, there are fewer chances.

Challenges faced by adolescents:

  • Lack of self-confidence: Not feeling positive about oneself.
  • Sexual orientation: Recognising and understanding their sexual preferences.
  • Gender Identity: Recognising and identifying if their gender corresponds with their birth sex.
  • Bullying: Outside of their protective homes, chances of being bullied.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 4 Human Development

By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 4 Human Development students can recall all the concepts quickly.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 4 Human Development

Introduction:

  1. The term ‘Human Development’ means a progressive series of changes that occur as a result of maturation and experience.
  2. Hereditary factors, as well as physical and social environment, determine development.
  3. Development occurs at an appropriate time in physical, cognitive, emotional as well as social aspects.

Characteristics of development:

  • Development follows a specific pattern.
  • Development takes place in specific direction.
  • Development is continuous.
  • Development proceeds from general to specific.
  • There are individual differences in development.
  • The rate of development is different for different body parts.
  • Development leads to integration.
  • Certain behavioural problems are normal for a particular stage.
  • Development is predictable.
  • The child develops as a unified whole.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 4 Human Development

Growth maturation and development:

  • Growth refers to physical changes as the age advances.
  • Maturation refers to a natural unfolding of the genetic potential at the appropriate time,
  • Development is qualitative change and it includes physical as well as mental changes.
  • The concepts of growth, maturation and development are parallel, i.e. an individual grows, matures and develops simultaneously.

Developmental Stages:

  1. Human life proceeds in stages.
  2. Broadly, human development can be classified into prenatal and postnatal stages.
  3. A period between conception till birth is called prenatal period while period after birth till death is called postnatal period.
  4. The stages in prenatal period are germinal stage, embryonic stage and fetal stage while post-natal period consists of neonatal stage, early childhood, late childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, late adulthood and old age.
  5. Each stage is associated with a different set of characteristics and problems.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 3 Self

By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 3 Self students can recall all the concepts quickly.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 3 Self

Introduction:

  • All of us are part of thiš world. We play many roles in our lives.
  • Self-concept is defined as the totality of perceptions each person has of themselves.
  • According to Symonds, self-concept is the way an individual reacts to himself.
  • Our self-concept continues to change throughout our life span.

Dimensions of self-concept:

  • Rentsch and Heffener are conducted research on the dimensions of self-concept.
  • Their research showed that the overall organization of self-concept is common for all.
  • They found eight categories by which participants defined themselves.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 3 Self

Self and life cycle:

  • On average, till the age of six months, the child Is unaware of himself.
  • As the child grows, he realizes that he is different from the rést of the world.
  • Generally, face recognition with a mirror occurs at the average age of one and half years.
  • By the age of two, the child becomes aware of general expectations.
  • By the age of three, children start recognizing themselves and others as boys or girls.
  • When schooling starts, a child begins to compare himself with others.
  • The final unfolding of self-concept during adolescence involves perspective-taking.

Gender Identity and gender role:

  1. Gender role and gender identity are important aspects of self-concept.
  2. Gender identity is the perception of oneself as male or female.
  3. Gender role is psycho-social in nature and is determined through social interactions.
  4. Gender identity is a biological aspect while gender role is an acquired attribute of self-concept.

Aspects of self:

  • Four major aspects of self are self-awareness, self-image, self-efficacy and self-esteem.
  • Self-awareness is the quality or trait that involves conscious awareness of one’s thoughts, feelings, behaviours and traits.
  • Self-image is a personal view or mental picture that we have of ourselves. Body image is also a part of self-image.
  • Self-efficacy is a person’s belief in his ability to accomplish some specific goal or a task.
  • Self-esteem is our overall evaluation of our worth as a person based on all positive and negative self-perceptions.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 3 Self

Self-regulatIon:

  1. Self-regulation is being able to control our own thoughts, feelings, and actions.
  2. When one engages in self-regulation, he avoids impulsive reactions.
  3. Self-regulation also involves focusing on certain parts of life.
  4. Higgins showed that people either have promotion or prevention regulatory focus.
  5. Self-regulation has crucial implications in our life.

Carl Rogers’ theory of self:

  • According to Carl Rogers, every individual has a tendency to actualize himself.
  • People who achieve self-actualization are well-balanced, well-adjusted, and interesting.
  • Two important concepts related to Roger’s theory are the real self and ideal self.
  • The real self is what we actually are while ¡deal self is what we want to be.
  • High congruence between the real self and ideal self leads to a healthy productive life.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology

By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology students can recall all the concepts quickly.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology

Introduction:

  • Psychology is an important science in modern times.
  • The scope of Psychology is getting wider with the emergence of new branches.
  • Today, there are more than 50 branches of Psychology that help to study human behaviour from different angles.

Branches of psychology:

  • Two broad areas of Psychology are Theoretical branches and Applied branches.
  • In theoretical branches, psychologists concentrate on carrying out research and forming theories while applied branches help individuals to use the knowledge gained from research to solve their real-life problems.
  • The extremely vast scope of psychology has led to development of many subfields.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology

Theoretical Branches:

  • Developmental Psychology studies changes in behaviour from conception to death.
  • Child Psychology studies biological, psychological and emotional changes in childhood.
  • Social Psychology studies how a person influences people and gets influenced by them.
  • Cognitive Psychology concentrates on higher mental processes like thinking and reasoning.
  • Experimental Psychology attempts to understand the fundamental causes of behaviour.
  • Abnormal Psychology studies unusual patterns of behaviour, emotions and thinking.

Applied Branches:

  • Educational Psychology studies all factors related to education.
  • Clinical Psychology studies diagnoses and treats emotional and behavioural problems.
  • Counseling Psychology deals with milder behavioural problems.
  • Criminal Psychology deals with motives behind criminal behaviour.
  • Sports Psychology helps sportspersons to maintain their motivation and stamina.
  • Industrial Psychology is concerned with the behaviour of people working in an organisation.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology

Careers in psychology:
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 2 Branches of Psychology 1

Maharashtra Board Class 9 Sanskrit Aamod Solutions Chapter 13 सरमाया: शीलम्

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 9 Sanskrit Solutions Aamod Chapter 13 सरमाया: शीलम् Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 9 Sanskrit Aamod Solutions Chapter 13 सरमाया: शीलम्

Sanskrit Aamod Std 9 Digest Chapter 13 सरमाया: शीलम् Textbook Questions and Answers

भाषाभ्यास:

माध्यमभाषया उत्तरत।

1. सरमायाः कर्तव्यपालने के विघ्नाः अभवन् ?

प्रश्न 1.
सरमायाः कर्तव्यपालने के विघ्नाः अभवन् ?
उत्तरम् :
देवांची कुत्री सरमा तिच्या स्वामिनिष्ठेमुळे वेदवाङ्मयात प्रसिद्ध आहे. पूर्वी पणी नामक असुरांनी देवांच्या गायी पळवल्या, त्या शोधण्यासाठी देवांचा गरुड सुपर्ण पणींच्या देशात गेला. मात्र पणींनी त्याला भेटवस्तू देऊन आपल्याकडे वळवले आणि गोधनाविषयी सुपर्ण याने देवांना काहीच माहिती दिली नाही. गायी शोधण्यासाठी देवांनी त्यांची कुत्री सरमा हिला पाठवले.

पणींच्या देशात जाण्यासाठी सरमेला रसा नदी पार करावी लागणार होती, मात्र ती रसा नदी अतिशय वेगवान होती. ती पार करणे सरमेला शक्य नव्हते; मात्र सोपवलेले काम पूर्ण करायच्या निश्चयाने सरमेने नदीला विनंती केली की तिने तिचा वेग कमी करावा तसेच पाणी उथळ करावे. ज्यामुळे नदी पोहून दुसऱ्या काठावर जाणे शक्य होईल.

मात्र रसा स्वत:ला सर्वश्रेष्ठ समजत असल्याने तिने सरमेची विनंती धुडकावली. रसासारखी वेगवान नदी असूनही सरमेने जराही न डगमगता तिच्यात उडी मारली आणि धैर्याने दुसऱ्या तीरावर पोहोचली. तिथे पोहचल्या नंतर सुद्धा गायी शोधणे सोपे नव्हते. तरीसुद्धा सरमेने चिकाटीने गोधनाचा शोध लावला. इंद्राकडे परतताना पणींनी तिला लालूच दाखवली, तिची निंदा केली. पण सरमेने त्यांना दाद दिली नाही. मार्गात आलेल्या सर्व अडचणींना नेटाने तोंड देऊन सरमेने आपले कर्तव्य बजावले.

In Vedic literature, thestory of सरमा, Indra’s dog is very famous. She is famous for her loyalty towards the Gods. Formerly, the demons named for stole the cattle-wealth of Gods. In order to search the cattle-wealth, the eagle सुपर्ण was sent but the पणिs bribed him. सुपर्ण did not inform Gods about the cattle though he had found it hidden in the cave. Hence, was appointed to search the cattle wealth.

सरमा had to cross the river रसा to reach the country of पणि, रसा was flowing swiftly. It was very difficult for HRAT to cross over; but she did not give up. She requested रसा modestly to slow down her speed so that she would reach the other bank; but the who considered herself superior declined her request.

Yet, without caring for life descended into the current and reached the other bank courageously. She also faced great difficulty in searching the cattle-welath. ufus tried to test her loyalty by trying to bribe her.

Though there were so many difficulties in fulfilling her duty, सरमा overcame those difficulties with determination and accomplished her task.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 Sanskrit Aamod Solutions Chapter 13 सरमाया: शीलम्

2. सरमा कर्तव्यपालने विघ्नान् कथं तरति ?

प्रश्न 2.
सरमा कर्तव्यपालने विघ्नान् कथं तरति ?
उत्तरम् :
देवांची कुत्री सरमा तिच्या स्वामिनिष्ठेमुळे वेदवाङ्मयात प्रसिद्ध आहे. पूर्वी पणी नामक असुरांनी देवांच्या गायी पळवल्या. त्या शोधण्यासाठी देवांचा गरुड सुपर्ण पणींच्या देशात गेला. मात्र पणींनी त्याला भेटवस्तू देऊन आपल्याकडे वळवले आणि गोधनाविषयी सुपर्ण याने देवांना काहीच माहिती दिली नाही. गायी शोधण्यासाठी देवांनी त्यांची कुत्री सरमा हिला पाठवले.

पणींच्या देशात जाण्यासाठी सरमेला रसा नदी पार करावी लागणार होती, मात्र ती रसा नदी अतिशय वेगवान होती. ती पार करणे सरमेला शक्य नव्हते; मात्र सोपवलेले काम पूर्ण करायच्या निश्ययाने सरमेने नदीला विनंती केली की तिने तिचा वेग कमी करावा तसेच पाणी उथळ करावे. ज्यामुळे नदी पोहून दुसऱ्या काठावर जाणे शक्य होईल.

मात्र रसा स्वत:ला सर्वश्रेष्ठ समजत असल्याने तिने सरमेची विनंती धुडकावली. रसासारखी वेगवान नदी असूनही सरमेने जराही न डगमगता तिच्यात उडी मारली आणि धैर्याने दुसऱ्या तीरावर पोहोचली. गोधनाच्या शोधासाठी सुद्धा सरमा पणींच्या देशात खूप भटकली. अनेकांना विचारले मात्र कुणीच काही बोलले नाही. शेवटी जंगलातल्या गुहेत शिरुन पणींनी लपवलेल्या गायींचा शोध लावण्यात ती यशस्वी झाली. इंद्राकडे परतताना पणीनी तिला लालूच दाखवली, तिची निंदा केली. पण सरमेने त्यांना दाद दिली नाही.

मार्गात आलेल्या सर्व अडचणींना नेटाने तोंड देऊन सरमेने आपले कर्तव्य बजावले.

In Vedic literature, the story of सरमा, Indra’s dog is very famous. She is famous for her loyalty towards the Gods. Formerly, the demons named for stole the cattle-wealth of Gods. In order to search the cattle-wealth, the eagle सुपर्ण was sent but the पणिs bribed him. सुपर्ण did not inform Gods about the cattle though he had found it hidden in the cave. Hence, सरमा was appointed to search the cattle-wealth.

सरमा had to cross the river रसा to reach the country of पणि. रसा was flowing swiftly. It was very difficult for 1 to cross over; but she did not give up. She requested the modestly to slow down her speed so that she would reach the other bank, but tai who considered herself superior declined her request.

Yet, it without caring for life descended the current and reached the other bank courageously. सरमा wandered here and there to find out the cattlewelath in the country of us. She asked many people there but no one was ready to help her. At the end, she was successful in searching the cattle wealth. wus tried to stop her in every possible manner but सरमा did not step back even a little.

सरमा overcame obstaclescourageously. She was extremly loyal and determined to accomplish her task by defeating all obstacles.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 Sanskrit Aamod Solutions Chapter 13 सरमाया: शीलम्

3. पणयः सरमाया: निन्दा कदा अकुर्वन् ?

प्रश्न 3.
पणयः सरमाया: निन्दा कदा अकुर्वन् ?
उत्तरम् :
देवांची कुवी सरमा तिच्या स्वामिनिष्ठेमुळे वेदवाङ्मयात प्रसिद्ध आहे. पूर्वी पणी नामक असुरांनी देवांच्या गायी पळवल्या. त्या शोधण्यासाठी देवांचा गरुड सुपर्ण पणींच्या देशात गेला. मात्र पणींनी त्याला भेटवस्तू देऊन आपल्याकडे वळवले आणि गोधनाविषयी सुपर्ण याने देवांना काहीच माहिती दिली नाही. गायी शोधण्यासाठी देवांनी त्यांची कुत्री सरमा हिला पाठवले.

पणींच्या देशात पोहोचल्यावर सरमैने अतिशय कष्टाने गायींना शोधले. गायींना पाहिल्यावर आनंद झालेली सरमा इंद्राला सांगण्यासाठी निघाली. हे पाहिल्यावर पणींनी तिला अनेक प्रकारे फितवण्याचा, आपल्याकडे वळवण्याचा प्रयत्न केला. तिला दूध, तूप, दही खाण्याचा आग्रह केला. इतकेच नाही तर गोधनातील काही भागही देऊ केला, मात्र सरमा बधली नाही. तेव्हा पणींनी तिची निंदा करण्यास सुरुवात केली. जेणेकरून सरमा इंद्राकडे जाण्यापासून परावृत्त होईल.

In Vedic literature, the story of सरमा, Indra’s dog is very famous. She is famous for her loyalty towards the Gods. Formerly, the demons named for stole the cattle-wealth of Gods. In order to search the cattle-wealth, the eagle you was sent but the पणी bribed him. सुपर्ण did not inform Gods about the cattle though he had found it hidden in the cave. Hence, सरमा was appointed to search the cattle-wealth.

सरमा searched for the cattle-wealth rigorously. There was no help available. She succeeded in finding out the cattle-wealth hidden in one of the caves in the forest. Immediately she started to return to inform the gods. quit tried to bribe her. They offered her milk, butter, ghee. They were ready to share some of the cattle-welath with her; but she refused everything and remained loyal to her duty. Then the Panis started to criticise her to stop from going back to Indra.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 Sanskrit Aamod Solutions Chapter 13 सरमाया: शीलम्

4. पणयः सरमां किमर्थं निन्दन्ति ?

प्रश्न 4.
पणयः सरमां किमर्थं निन्दन्ति ?
उत्तरम् :
देवांची कुत्री सरमा तिच्या स्वामिनिष्ठेमुळे वेदवाङ्मयात प्रसिद्ध आहे. पूर्वी पणी नामक असुरांनी देवांच्या गायी पळवल्या. त्या शोधण्यासाठी देवांचा गरुड सुपर्ण पणींच्या देशात गेला. मात्र पणींनी त्याला भेटवस्तू देऊन आपल्याकडे वळवले आणि गोधनाविषयी सुपर्ण याने देवांना काहीच माहिती दिली नाही. गायी शोधण्यासाठी देवांनी त्यांची कुत्री सरमा हिला पाठवले.

देवांच्या गायी पळवून आणल्यानंतर पणींनी त्या गुहेत दडवून ठेवल्या. देवांची कुत्री सरमा हिने अतिशय कष्टाने त्या शोधल्या आणि त्यांची माहिती देण्यासाठी की इंद्राकडे निघाली. सुपर्ण गरुडाप्रमाणे सरमेला आपल्याकडे वळवून घेण्याचा प्रयत्न पणींनी केला मात्र सरमा त्याला बदली नाही. तिने मी लोभाला बळी पडणार नाही. मी इंद्राची स्वामिनिष्ठ सेविका आहे असे ठणकावले.

हे ऐकताच पणी खवळले आणि सरमेचा अपमान केला. सरमा ही मांस खाते असा अपप्रचार केला. यामुळे सरमेचे मनोबल बळेल, असे पणींना वाटले, मात्र अविचल कार्यनिष्ठा असलेली सरमा पणींकडे दुर्लक्ष करून निघाली.

In Vedic literature, the story of सरमा, Indra’s dog is very famous. She is famous for her loyalty towards the Gods. Formerly, the demons named for stole the cattle-wealth of Gods. The was appointed to search the cattle wealth.

सरमा searched for the cattle-wealth rigorously. There was no help available. She succeeded in finding out the cattle-wealth hidden in one of the caves in the forest. Immediately she started to return to inform ths gods. for tried to bribe her.

They offered her milk, butter, ghee. They were ready to share some of the cattle-welath with her; but सरमा with undisturbed mind igonored पणि, After that पणि criticized सरमा that she consumes meat. for thought that he would get discouraged due to insult and would not inform gods.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 Sanskrit Aamod Solutions Chapter 13 सरमाया: शीलम्

Sanskrit Aamod Class 9 Textbook Solutions Chapter 13 सरमाया: शीलम् Additional Important Questions and Answers

धातुसाधितविशेषणानि।

धातुसाधित – विशेषणम् विशेष्यम्
दृष्टः किङ्करः
नियुक्ता, आज्ञप्ता, प्रस्थिता, प्राप्ता, प्रमुदिता, अवरोधिता, निन्दिता सरमा
दृष्टा, पराभूता रसा
रुद्धम् गोधनसर्वस्वम्
समाप्तम् अन्वेषणकार्यम्
अन्विष्टाः धेनवः
अपिहितम् कर्णद्वयम्

Maharashtra Board Class 9 Sanskrit Aamod Solutions Chapter 13 सरमाय शीलम् 1

Maharashtra Board Class 9 Sanskrit Aamod Solutions Chapter 13 सरमाया: शीलम्

सरमाया: शीलम् Summary in Marathi and English

प्रस्तावना :

प्राण्यांच्या चातुर्यकथा, नीतीकथा जगभरातील साहित्यात खूप प्रसिद्ध आहेत. रामायणातसुद्धा सागरी सेतू बांधण्यासाठी श्रीरामाला मदत करणाऱ्या खारीची गोष्ट येते. सरमा नामक कुत्रीची, तिच्या अविचल स्वामिनिष्ठेची कथा प्रसिद्ध आहे. पूर्वी यणी नामक असुरांनी देवांचे गोधन चोरले. ते शोधण्यासाठी सुपर्ण गरुडास देवांनी पणींच्या देशात पाठवले मात्र पणींनी सुपर्णाला लाच देऊन आपल्याकडे वळवले त्यामुळ देवांना गोधनाविषयी माहिती मिळाली नाही.

देवांनी या कामी सरमा नावाच्या कुत्रीला पाठवले. मार्गात येणाऱ्या वेगवान रसा नदीला ओलांडून, पणींच्या देशात निर्भयतेने शोध घेऊन सरमेने गोधन शोधले. पणींच्या लोभाला बळी न पडता सरमेने इंद्राला सर्व वृत्तांत सांगितला. कामात यशस्वी झालेल्या सरमेला इंद्राने वर दिला तर द्रोही गरुडाला शाप. सरमा ही कुत्री असूनही कार्यनिष्ठा, स्वामिनिष्ठा, धैर्य, स्वाभिमान या गुणांच्या जोरावर आदर्श ठरली तिच्या या कर्तृत्वाचे वर्णन पं. प्रभाकर भातखंडे यांनी संस्कृत पोवाड्यातून केले आहे. पोवाडा हा महाराष्ट्रातील लोककलाप्रकार असून त्यात वीररसाचे महत्त्वाचे स्थान आहे. शूरांच्या गाथा सांगण्यासाठी पोवाड्याची रचना केली जाते.

Stories advising morals through animals is very famous idea in literature all over the world. Infact several values are taught through the medium of animals and birds. This is dates back to the vedic period.

In the Ramayana too a story of squirrel helping the monkeys while building the bridge is known. The story of सरमा a dog from the ऋग्वेद is famous for her firm loyalty. It is said that some demons called ufuis once stole the cattle wealth of gods. Indra sent their eagle yup to look for the cattle. But the ufus bribed it and turned it on their side.

So Indra did not get any information about their cattle. Then Indra sent सरमा for the same task. सरमा accomplished her task fighting against all odds. Indra blessed ERCAT with a boon and cursed the eagle सुपर्ण..

सरमा set an example of courage, loyalty and commitment even if she was a bitch (female dog). This पोवाडा composed by पं. प्रभाकर भातखंडे celebrates T’s courageous behaviour. पोवाडाis a type of Marathi folk songs. The essence of bravery (a) is highlighted in these kind of songs. This present day creation is a beautiful example of Vedic story in a form that can reach the modern generation is very attractive manner.

शाहिरः – सभायां ………………… हे जी जी जी जी जी ।।

शाहिरः – सभायां देवराज इन्द्रः
चिन्तयति कः प्रेषितव्यः।
किकरो नैकोऽपि दृष्टः
यो भवेत् सदा स्वामिनिष्ठः।।

गायकवृन्दः – तदा?
शाहिरः – सेवायां तत्परा, देवगणप्रिया,
नियुक्ता गोधनप्राप्त्यर्थम्।
मघवता आज्ञप्ता सरमा,
प्रस्थिता देवशुनी सरमा। हे जी जी जी जी।।

गायकवृन्दः – प्रस्थिता देवशुनी सरमा। हे जी जी जी जी जी।
शाहिरः – तदा मार्गे दृष्टा, तटरुहतरुत्पाटिनी रसा
जलौघसमृद्ध्या पृथुलरभसा याति सरसा।।

रसां दृष्टा सरमया चिन्तितम् –
“अवश्यं गच्छेयं नदी यदि भवेत् अद्य सुसहा।
अतस्तां याचेऽहं विनयवचसा नम्रशिरसा।।
रसे, कुरु कृपाम्।
जलं तवेदम् । महागभीरम्।
कुरुष्व गाधम् । येन तरेयम्।
परं च तीरम् । अहं व्रजेयम् ।
स्वामिनः शोभनकार्यार्थम्,
आर्यगणमङ्गलकार्यार्थम्।

गायकवृन्दः – आर्यगणमङ्गलकार्यार्थम्। हे जी जी जी जी।।
रसा उवाच – “अहं च श्रेष्ठा, त्वं तु क्षुद्रा
न हि त्वदर्थ, जलप्रवाहम्।
करोमि अल्पम्, अपसर अपसर।।
श्रुत्वा तद् वाक्यं सरमया गर्जितम्।
“पश्य मे सामर्थ्य, कार्यनिष्ठासामर्थ्यम्
इति उक्त्वा सा जले अपतत्

शाहिरः – सा गता परं तीरम्।
रसा सा अधोमुखी भूता।
लज्जया म्लानमुखी जाता।
क्षुद्रया कथं पराभूता।
पश्यति क्षुद्रशुनीं सरमाम्।

गायकवृन्दः – पश्यति क्षुद्रशुनीं सरमाम्।
हे जी जी जी जी जी।।

गद्यम्: – एवं सरमा परतीरं प्राप्ता।
इतः पश्यति, ततः पश्यति
वलं पृच्छति, पणीन् पृच्छति।।
वनं गच्छति, गुहां प्रविशति।
गुहायां पणिभिर्यद्रुद्धं प्रभोः गोधनसर्वस्वम्।
समाप्तमन्वेषणकार्य, समाप्तमन्वेषणकार्यम्।।

गायकवृन्दः – प्रमुदिता इन्द्रशुनी सरमा हे जी जी जी जी जी।।
गद्यम्: – सरमया धेनवः अन्विष्टाः।
एतां वार्ताम् इन्द्रं वक्तुं प्रस्थिता सा।
परं वलैः सा अवरोधिता।

गायकवन्दः – हे सरमे, हे सरमे, दुग्धं पिबतु, दधि खादतु।
घृतं पिबतु, अत्र तिष्ठतु
गोधनस्य भागं तुभ्यं दद्यः।।

सरमा – सेविका नाहं लोभस्य,सेविका नाहं मोहस्य।
गायकवृन्दः – सेविका स्वामिनः इन्द्रस्य।
हे जी जी जी जी जी।।
सेविका स्वामिनः इन्द्रस्य।
हे जी जी जी जी जी।।

गद्यम्: – अन्ते पणिभि: सरमा निन्दिता।
“एषा सरमा जारु खादति।
“एषा सरमा जारु खादति।
सरमया किश्चत् तन्त्र श्रुतम्।
अपिहितं दीर्घ कर्णद्वयम्।
“वृत्तान्तं वक्तुं गमनमारभे।
प्रस्थिता सत्यप्रिया सरमा।

गायकवृन्दः – प्रस्थिता देवशुनी सरमा।
हे जी जी जी जी जी।।

अनुवादः

शाहीर – सभेमध्ये देवराज इंद्र (बसला आहे) कोणाला पाठवावे याचा विचार करत आहे. त्याला एकही सेवक दिसला
नाही – जो सदैव स्वामिनिष्ठ असेल.
गायकगण – तेव्हा मग पुढे?
शाहीर – सेवेमध्ये तत्पर असलेली, देवांची लाडकी, गोधन मिळवण्यासाठी नियुक्त झालेली, इंद्राने आशा दिलेली, सरमा देवांची कुत्री सरमा निघाली.
गायकगण – देवांची कुत्री सरमा निघाली.
शाहीर – तेव्हा तिने वाटेत काठावर वाढलेल्या झाडांना उन्मळून (पाडून) टाकणारी रसा (नदी) पाहिली. पाण्याच्या समृद्ध प्रवाहने (ती) रसा वेगाने वाहत होती. रसेला पाहून सरमेने विचार केला, “आज नदी सुसहा (तरुन जाण्यायोग्य झाली) झाली तर मी अवश्य जाईन. म्हणून मी तिला नम्र बोलण्याने, डोके टेकवून विनंती करते. रसे, कृपा कर, तुझे पाणी खूप खोल आहे. ते उथळ कर. जेणेकरुन मी पोहून जाईन. दुसऱ्या तीरावर मी जाईन. स्वामींच्या (इंद्राच्या) कार्यासाठी आर्यांच्या (देवांच्या) मंगल कामासाठी (मी जात आहे.)
गायकगण – आर्यांच्या (देवांच्या) मंगल कामासाठी (मी जात आहे.)
रसा म्हणाली – मी श्रेष्ठ, तू क्षुद्र जलप्रवाह तुझ्यासाठी नाही करणार उथळ! (कमी) मागे हो, मागे हो. ते वाक्य ऐकून सरमा गर्जली. माझे सामर्थ्य बघ, कार्य निष्ठेची शक्ती बघ असे म्हणून ती पाण्यात उतरली.
शाहीर – ती दुसऱ्या तीरावर गेली. त्या रसेने तोंड झुकवले. लाजेने तिचे तोंड उतरले. मी क्षुद्र कुत्रीकडून कशी पराभूत झाले? (असे म्हणत ती) क्षुद्र सरमेला पाहू लागली.
गायकगण – क्षुद्र सरमेला पाहू लागली.
गद्य – अशा रीतीने सरमा दुसऱ्या तीरावर गेली. इथे पाहिले, तिथे पाहिले. वलांना विचारले, पणींना विचारले, वनात गेली, गुहेत शिरली, गुहेमध्ये देवांचे गोधन पणींनी दडवून ठेवले होते. शोधकार्य संपले, शोधकार्य संपले.
गायकगण – इंद्राची कुत्री सरमा आनंदली.
गद्य – सरमेने गायी शोधल्या ही बातमी इंद्राला सांगण्यासाठी ती निघाली मात्र वलांनी तिला अडवले.
गायकगण – अगं सरमे, दूध पी, दही खा. तूप पी, इथेच थांब गोधनाचा भाग तुलाही देतो आम्ही.
सरमा – मी लोभाची सेविका नाही. मी मोहाची सेविका नाही. (मी लोभामोहाने बधणार नाही.)
गायकगण – इंद्राची सेविका.
इंद्राची सेविका.
गद्य – शेवटी पणींनी सरमेची निंदा केली ही सरमा मांस (क्षुद्रान) खाते. सरमेने ते काहीएक ऐकून घेतले नाही. तिने आपले दोन मोठे कान बंद केले. वृत्तांत सांगण्यासाठी मी जात आहे. सत्यप्रिय सरमा निघाली.
गायकगण – देवांची कुत्री सरमा निघाली.

Shahir : In the assembly, Indra the king of Gods thought who should be sent. He didn’t see any servant who would be ever loyal.
Chorus : Then?
Shahir : Sarama, who was prompt in service, liked by the gods was appointed to bring the cows. Sarama the dog of the Gods who was ordered by Indra set off.
Chorus : The dog of the Gods Sarama set off.
Shahir : Then on the way she saw Rasa (river) who uprooted trees that grow on the banks, flowing with force with a strong current. Seeing Rasa Sarama thought, I shall surely go today if the river becomes tolerable (less forceful). So, I shall ask her modestly with modest words) and head bent in modestly. ‘Oh, Rasa, please do a favour. Your water is very deep. Please make it shallow. By which I shall cross to the other bank. I shall go for the good task of the master, for the auspicious task of the noble ones.
Chorus : For the auspicious task of the noble ones.
Rasa said : “I am superior and you are inferior. I shall not reduce the water current, move away, move away.” Listening to those words, Sarama roared, “See my capacity, the power of my dedication.” saying this she fell (jumped) into the water.
Shahir : She went to the other bank. Rasa was ashamed. She became sad due to shame. How was she defeated by some one inferior. Looks at that lowly dog Sarama.
Chorus : (She) looks at that lowly dog sarama.
Prose : Thus Sarama reached the other bank. She looks here, she looks there. She asks the Vala, she asks the demons. She goes to the forest, she enters the cave. In the cave is all the Lord’s cattle wealth trapped by the demons. The search was over, the search was over.
Chorus: Sarama the God’sdog was delighted.
Prose : Sarama had found the cattle. She set off to inform this news to Indra. But she was stopped by the Valas.
Chorus: O Sarama, O Sarama. Drink milk, eat curds, drink ghee, wait here. We shall give you a part of the cattle wealth.
Sarama : I am not servant of greed. I am not servant of illusion
Chorus : Servant of Lord Indra.
Servant of Lord Indra.
Prose : Finally Sarama was criticised by the demons. “This Sarama eats flesh” But. Sarama paid no heed to all that. She closed the two long ears and started to depart to narrate the account. The truth lover Sarama set off.
Chorus : Sarama the god’s dog set off.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 Sanskrit Aamod Solutions Chapter 13 सरमाया: शीलम्

शब्दार्थाः

  1. उपहार: – gift – बक्षीस, नजराणा
  2. प्रेषितव्यः – should be sent – पाठवण्याजोगा
  3. किड्करः – servant – नोकर, सेवक
  4. गोधनम् – cattle wealth – गोधन
  5. मघवान् – Lord Indra – इंद्रदेव
  6. ‘तटरुहतरुः – tree that grows on the banks – झाड
  7. जलौघः – water-current – पाण्याचा प्रवाह
  8. पृथुलरभसा – with tremendous speed – अत्यंत वेगाने
  9. विनयवचसा – with modest speech – विनयपूर्ण वाणीने
  10. गभीरम् – deep – खोल
  11. म्लानमुखी – sad – खिन्न
  12. परतीरम् – to other bank – पलीकडच्या काठावर
  13. वलम् – community of demons Pani – पणि नावाचे असूर
  14. अन्विष्टाः – found – सापडल्या
  15. घृतम् – ghee – तूप
  16. जारुः – flesh/bad food – मांस, निकृष्ट खाणे

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1 

By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1 students can recall all the concepts quickly.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1

→ After independence, India has made advancements in various fields, especially after 1990. India emerges as a strong country at international forum. In this chapter, we are going to study the advancement made by India in different fields.

Globalisation:

→ India adopted the policy of liberalisation in 1990, since then many changes took place in trade and commerce.

→ Many countries with a view to protect their home market imposed various duties on imported goods so to discuss this problem a meeting was called in Cuba which was attended by 56 nations.

→ The first multinational trade agreement was signed by 23 nations at Geneva known as GATT.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1

World Trade Organisation (WTO):

  1. Nearly 123 nations came together and found an organisation on 1st January 1995 with an objective of opening the world for free trade known as WTO.
  2. The Director-General of WTO, Arthur Dunkel prepared a draft known as ‘Dunkel Draft’ which emphasises on trade, free from governmental custom duty and other restrictions. This policy is known as liberalisation.
  3. WTO published a report on 2006 which mentioned India’s increasing economic growth.

Transformation in various field:
Transformation of a nation can be discerned through certain indicators. Transformation has taken place in various fields.

Rural Development Plans:

→ Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Yojana: This plan was started on 2nd October 1993 for creating opportunities for job and private enterprise.

→ Rojgar Hami Yojana: Started on 2nd October 1993 to assure daily wages to the unemployed agricultural labourers.

→  In 2001, this plan was merged in Gramin Rojgar Yojana.

→  To provide support to farmers in difficult times ‘Kisan Credit Card’ plan was started.

→  Suvarnajayanti Gramin Swayam Rojgar Yojana: This plan was launched in 1999 by merging various plans together.

→ Jawahar Gram-Samruddhi Yojana: This plan was implemented in 1999 to provide employment to the unemployed men and women.

→  Later it was merged into ‘Sampoorna Gramin Rojgar Yojana’.

→ Sampoorna Gramin Rojgar Yojana: Started by merging together Rojgar Aashwasan Yojana and Jawahar Gram-Samruddhi Yojana for creating employment opportunities in rural areas.

→  This plan was merged in Rashtriya Gramin Rojgar Hami Yojana.

→ Rashtriya Gramin Rojgar Hami Yojana: Under this scheme each family in rural areas was given 100 day’s work.

→  Agriculture and Livestock: Agriculture and agro related sector were given importance.

→ Soil Health Card Scheme aims at increasing soil fertility.

→  Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchan Yojana given importance to irrigation.

→ Krishi Vikas Yojana and Pradhan Mantri Vima Yojana implemented for economic welfare of farmers.

→  In 2007, national policy for farmers was adopted.

→ Pradhan Mantri Peek Vima Yojana was introduced if crop failure was there.

→ Agricultural exhibitions are organised through Indian Council for Agricultural Research.

→ Goat keeping or sheli plan is encouraged.

→ ‘National Livestock Mission’ was established in 2014.

→ Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana: Started in 2000 with a purpose of building roads and linking the villages.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1

Urban Development Plans:

→ Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (Jnnurm): Started in 2005 with aim of massive modernisation of cities through road building, public transport, wastewater disposal and other management schemes.

→ Golden Quadrilateral (Suvarna Chatushkon Yojana): Started in 1998 with an aim of creating national highway network to join the four megacities – Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkatta.

→ Metro Railway: Flagged off in 2002 in Delhi.

Means of Communication:

Postal department:

→ Indian Postal Department was established in 1766 by British.

→ The postal department has introduced various schemes such as Postal Saving Account, Term Deposit, Public Provident Fund, Kisan Vikas Patra, Sukanya Samruddhi Yojana.

→ Post Offices were brought under core banking solutions, ATMs were installed and also provided services to non-resident Indians.

→ Speed post: changed the very nature of Indian postal service.

Economic issues:

→ Ministry of Disinvestment: It was established by Government of India to take care of its disinvestment policy. Focuses on reducing disinvestment in sectors like mining, petroleum, refineries etc.

→ The policy of privatisation, Liberalisation and Globalisation are popularly known as KHAUJA boosted the confidence of Indian companies.

→ It was renamed as Department of Investment in 2016.

→ BRICS: Established in 2006 with an aim of enhancing the trade among the participant countries like Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa.

Science and Technology.

  • A super-computer named Param-8000 was created.
  • In 1998, an advanced version of Param-8000 was created and named as Param-10000.
  • In 2003, Parampadma Super Computer was dedicated to nation.
  • In 2004, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) was the biggest firm in Asia providing software services.
  • In 2000, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. was established to provide services like cellular phones, internet and broadband.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1

Space research:

  1. In 2007, India launched Italian satellite and entered in a new field of space research.
  2. In 2008, India launched Chandrayaan-1, the first lunar probe.
  3. After that India launched Chandrayaan-2 and Mangalyaan.

Defence Affairs.

→ In 1999, Kargil war was fought between India and Pakistan when Pakistan intruded Kashmir. It is also referred to as ‘Operation Vijay’.

→ In 2009, India launched Strategic Strike Nuclear Submarine of Arihant class.

→ The Government of India emphasised on indigenous production by using indigenous technology (Make in India).

Youth related policies.

  • In 1972, a number of centres of‘Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan’ were established.
  • National Youth Empowerment Programme put a thrust on topics like literacy, education health and hygiene, family welfare etc.
  • 12th January the birth anniversary of Swami Vivekanand is observed as ‘National Youth Day.
  • Youth Hostels Association of India has established youth hostels in various parts of country.

Right to Information Act 2005.

  1. This kind of act was first applied in Sweden in 1776.
  2. In 1982, L.K. Kulwant first initiated the process by applying to know the Jaipur Municipal Corporation’s work for cleaning the city.
  3. Aruna Rao started the movement ‘Majdoor Kisan Shakti Sanghatan’ in 1990.
  4. The act was implemented in Maharashtra after a long struggle of Anna Hazare.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Notes Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1

Reorganisation of States:
New states were formed in India

→  Chhattisgarh: Fazal Ali Commission rejected the demand. Later by the initiative of, Government of India the state of Chhattisgarh was created on 1st November 2000.

→  Uttarakhand: The demand of separate state of the people of Garhwal and Kumaon was supported by Indian National Congress. Uttarakhand Parvatiya Rajya Parishad was established for this purpose. Finally, in 2000 the state of Uttaranchal was created, which renamed as Uttarakhand.

→ Jharkhand: In 1947, All India Jharkhand Party was established for a demand of separate Jharkhand. The Bihar legislative assembly passed the bill in 2000 and the state of Jharkhand came into existence on 15th November 2000.

→  Telangana: Telangana Rashtriya Samiti started the movement for the creation of a separate Telangana. In 2014 this proposal was approved in the Parliament and the state of Telangana came into existence on 2nd June 2014.

→  Jammu-Kashmir and Ladakh: Article 370 gave a special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

→  Recently in August 2019, Government of India revoked Article 370 and from 31st October the state of Jammu and Kashmir was reconstructed as two separate Union territories of Jammu-Kashmir and Ladakh.

Glossary:

→ Liberalisation – The removal or loosening of restriction on something, typically an economic or political system

→ Globalisation – Is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies and government worldwide

→ Modernisation – The process of adapting something to modern needs or habits

→ Reorganisation – The action or process of changing the way in which something is organised.

→ Pisciculture — The controlled breeding and rearing of fish

→ Census – An official count or survey, especially of a population

→ Bureaucrats – Is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration of any organization of any size, although the term usually connotes someone within an institution of government

→ Oceanography – The branch of science which deals with the physical and biological properties and phenomena of the sea

→ Terrorism – The unlawful use of violence and intimidation especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims

→ Entrepreneur – A person who sets up a business, taking on financial risks in the hope of profit.

→ Co-operative – Involving mutual assistance in working towards a common goal Transformation A marked change in form, nature, or appearance.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 5 Environmental Studies Solutions Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

5th Std EVS 2 Digest Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the blank.

Question a.
That period, of which the tools that we find are mainly made from stone, is called the ………………….. .
(Copper Age, Iron Age, Stone Age)
Answer:
That period, of which the tools that we find are mainly made from stone, is called the Stone Age.

Question b.
………………. near Nashik is a well-known Old Stone Age site in Maharashtra.
(Gangapur, Sinnar, Chandwad)
Answer:
Gangapur near Nashik is a well-known Old Stone Age site in Maharashtra.

2. Find out the odd pair from the following.

Question 1.
Find out the odd pair from the following.
a. Rajasthan – Bagor
b. Madhya Pradesh – Bhimbetka
c. Gujarat – Langhnaj
d. Maharashtra – Bijapur
Answer:
d. Maharashtra – Bijapur

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

3. Answer the following question in brief.

Question a.
How did man use the percussion technique?
Answer:
1. The man in Old Stone Age used the percussion technique to make stone tools.
2. Percussion technique involves beating or striking one large pebble against another to obtain stone flakes.

Question b.
What revolution was brought about by Homo sapiens in the tool-making technique?
Answer:

  1. The Homo sapiens devised a technique of obtaining long and narrow blades of stone.
  2. He made knife, scraper, borer and chisel from these long blades.
  3. He used ivory and rare stones of the quartz variety for making tools and other articles.

4. Compare the tools from all the three periods of the Stone Age.

Question 1.
Compare the tools from all the three periods of the Stone Age.
Answer:

Old Stone Age Middle Stone Age New Stone Age
1. Tools were crude as these made by the percussion technique 1. The quality of tools improved. Homo sapiens brought about a revolution in technique of making tools. 1. The tools were polished and had smooth and shiny finish as new type of tool-making technique was developed.
2. Chopper, hand-axe and clearer were made. 2. Different tools were used for different kinds of work. 2. Tools were mainly made for agricultural work as hunting had become a secondary activitiy.
3. Large stones and their flakes were rather heavy and odd in size. 3. Tools were light weight, durable proportionate and symmetrical. 3. Tools were light weight, durable, proportionate, symmetrical and efficient.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

5. Which of the following modern machines has stone grinders?

Question 1.
Which of the following modern machines has stone grinders?
a. Mixer
b. Flour mill
c. Juicer
Answer:
b. Flour mill

6. Show the following places on the map of India.

Question 1.
Show the following places on the map of India.
a. A site of the Old Stone Age in Maharashtra.
b. A river basin with New Stone Age sites.
c. A site of the Middle Stone Age in Madhya Pradesh.
Answer:
a. A site of Old Stone Age in Maharashtra : Gangapur
b. A river basin with New Stone Age site : Basin of river Ganga.
c. A site of Middle Stone Age in Madhya Pradesh: Bhimbetka

Activity :

Question 1.
Visit various industries in your locality and collect information about the tools used there. Make a chart by classifying those tools.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age Stone Tools 1

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Environmental Studies Part 2 Standard 5th Solutions Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools Additional Important Questions and Answers

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.

  1. Apes like the chimpanzee also used ………………. to break seeds and nuts.
  2. Apes like the chimpanzee used ……………. to stir the ants out from ant hills to catch them.
  3. Early humans too, used bones, stones, twigs and sticks as
  4. Humans learnt that they could ………… rods, bones sticks and stones into tools to carry out their tasks more efficiently.
  5. They also learnt they could give their tools any …………. they desired.
  6. Humans made tools thousands of years ago, but only the …………. tools can be found today.
  7. The Stone Age is divided into ……… periods.
  8. Palaeolithic Age meAnswer:……….. Stone Age.
  9. Mesolithic Age meAnswer:…………… Stone Age.
  10. Neolithic Age meAnswer:……….. Stone Age
  11. Homo habilis and Homo erectus belonged to the ……………… Stone Age.
  12. Old Stone Age man used ………….. techniques to make tools.
  13. The first tools made in the Old Stone Age were ……………..
  14. ………. were tools with only one side having a sharp edge.
  15. Choppers were used for ………………… nuts or bones
  16. Tools like the hand-axe and cleaver were made by ………
  17. Homo erectus could……………… visualize his tools even before he actually shaped them.
  18. The Neanderthal Man made further ……….. in tool – making techniques.
  19. Homo sapiens brought about a ….. in the technique of making tools.
  20. He devised a technique of obtaining long and narrow ……….. of stone.
  21. Groups of Homo sapiens began to build ………… and live in them.
  22. They also started celebrating …………… festivals.
  23. Homo sapiens started using ornaments to ……….. themselves.
  24. ……………. were made from shells, bones and the teeth of animal.
  25. Fossils of a human skull and the …………….. bone of an Old Stone Age woman were found on the bank of the Narmada.
  26. A fossilized skull of a ……………… from the Stone Age was found at a village near Puducherry.
  27. Gangapur is on the banks of the ……………… river.
  28. Middle Stone Age man domesticated the …………….
  29. ……………………. started to harvest food grains that grew in the wild and to domesticate animals.
  30. In the New Stone Age, the stone tools were ………….. to give a smooth and shiny finish.
  31. In the New Stone Age, ……………….. was no more a major means of obtaining food.
  32. A……………….. is large/broad bladed axe.
  33. Tools like the hand-axe and cleaver were made by ……………..
  34. Groups of …….. had begun to build huts and live in them.

Answer:

  1. tones
  2. sticks
  3. tools
  4. sharpen
  5. shape
  6. stone
  7. three
  8. old
  9. middle
  10. new
  11. old
  12. percussion
  13. crude
  14. choppers
  15. breaking
  16. Homo erectus
  17. mentally
  18. progress
  19. revolution
  20. blades
  21. huts
  22. social
  23. adorn
  24. beads
  25. collar
  26. child
  27. Godavari
  28. dog
  29. Homo sapiens
  30. polished
  31. hunting
  32. clearer
  33. Homo erectus
  34. Homo sapiens

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Match the columns :

Question 1.

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Fossil of a human skull a. Along the Ganga river in South India
2. Fossil of a child’s skull b. Afghanistan and Sri Lanka
3. New Stone Age site in India c. Hoshangabad in Madhya Pradesh
4. Remains of Old Stone Age d. Patane in Jalgaon district in Maharashtra
5. Site of Middle Stone Age e. A village near Puducherry
6. Knife and sickle f. Homo erectus
7. Antlers used as hammer g. Homo sapiens
8. Choppers and scrappers h. Mesolithic Age
9. Domesticated animals i. Old Stone Age man

Answer:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Fossil of a human skull c. Hoshangabad in Madhya Pradesh
2. Fossil of a child’s skull e. A village near Puducherry
3. New Stone Age site in India a. Along the Ganga river in South India
4. Remains of Old Stone Age b. Afghanistan and Sri Lanka
5. Site of Middle Stone Age d. Patane in Jalgaon district in Maharashtra
6. Knife and sickle g. Homo sapiens
7. Antlers used as hammer f. Homo erectus
8. Choppers and scrappers i. Old Stone Age man
9. Domesticated animals h. Mesolithic Age

Answer the following questions in one sentence each:

Question 1.
What did apes like the chimpanzees use to break seeds and nuts?
Answer:
Apes like the chimpanzees used stone to break seeds and nuts.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Question 2.
For what purpose did the apes like the chimpanzees use sticks?
Answer:
Apes like the chimpanzees used sticks to stir ants out from ant-hills to catch them.

Question 3.
What were the tools of the early man made of?
Answer:
The tools of the early man were made of bones, stones, dried twigs and sticks.

Question 4.
Why is the period of time called the ‘Stone Age’? ‘or’ What is meant by ‘Stone Age’?
Answer:
The period of time mainly stone tools found is called the Stone Age.

Question 5.
On what basis is the Stone Age divided?
Answer:
The Stone Age is divided on the basis of the shape and types of tools found.

Question 6.
Into how many periods is the Stone Age divided?
Answer:
The Stone Age is divided into three periods – Old Stone Age, Middle Stone Age and New Stone Age

Question 7.
What is the Old Stone Age also called?
Answer:
The Old Stone Age is also called the Palaeolithic Age.

Question 8.
What does Palaeolithic Age mean?
Answer:
Palaeo means ‘old’ and lithos means ‘stone’. Hence, Palaeolithic Age means the Old Stone Age’.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Question 9.
What is the Middle Stone Age called?
Answer:
The Middle Stone Age is called the Mesolithic Age.

Question 10.
What does Mesolithic mean?
Answer:
Mesolithic means ‘middle’. Hence, the Middle Stone Age.

Question 11.
What is the New Stone Age called?
Answer:
The New Stone Age is called the Neolithic Age.

Question 12.
What does Neolithic mean?
Answer:
Neo means ‘New’. Hence, Neolithic means the “New Stone Age

Question 13.
Which species of human evolution belong to Old Stone Age?
Answer:
The species Homo habilis and Homo erectus belong to Old Stone Age.

Question 14.
Who used the percussion technique of making tools?
Answer:
Homo habilis and Homo erectus used the percussion technique of making tools.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Question 15.
How were the frist tools of the Old Stone Age?
Answer:
The tools of the Old Stone Age were very crude

Question 16.
What were choppers?
Answer:
Choppers were crude tools, where only one side of which had a sharp edge.

Question 17.
For what purpose were the choppers used?
Answer:
Choppers were used to break nuts or bones.

Question 18.
Which tools made by Homo erectus were more proportionate and symmetrical than the tools made by Homo habilis?
Answer:
The hand-axe and cleaver were more proportionate and symmetrical” than the tools made by Homo habilis.

Question 19.
What could Homo erectus do before he actually shaped the tools?
Answer:
Homo erectus could mentally visualize his tools before he actually shaped them.

Question 20.
How did Homo erectus use antlers?
Answer:
He used things like antlers as hammers to obtain stone flakes.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Question 21.
How did Homo erectus make scrapers?
Answer:
He sharpened the edges of the flakes by scraping off smaller pieces to make scrapers with very sharp edges.

Question 22.
What benefits did Homo erectus acquire with his improved tools?
Answer:
With his improved tools, Homo erectus could have a greater variety of food as he could hunt a variety of big and small animals.

Question 23.
Who brought about a revolution in the technique of making tools?
Answer:
Homo sapiens brought about a revolution a in the technique of making tools.

Question 24.
What did the Homo sapiens build to live in?
Answer:
Homo sapiens built huts to live in.

Question 25.
What did the Homo sapiens start celebrating?
Answer:
Homo sapiens started celebrating social festivals.

Question 26.
What did the Homo sapiens create to enhance their festivals?
Answer:
The Homo sapiens created artistic objects and cave paintings to enhance their festivals.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Question 27.
How did they adorn themselves?
Answer:
They adorned themselves with ornaments and beads made from shells, bones and teeth of animals.

Question 28.
What fossils were found in Madhya Pradesh?
Answer:
Fossils of a human skull and the collar bone of an Old Stone Age woman was found on the bank of Narmada in Madhya Pradesh.

Question 29.
Which fossil was found at a village in Puducherry?
Answer:
A fossilized skull of a child from the Stone Age was found at a village in Puducherry.

Question 30.
Which are the well-known Old Stone Age sites in Maharashtra?
Answer:
Gangapur near Nasik and Chirki-Nevasa near Nevasa are among the few well-known Old Stone Age sites in Maharashtra.

Question 31.
Which animal did man of the Middle Stone Age domesticate?
Answer:
Man of the Middle Stone Age domesticated the dog.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Question 32.
Why did the life of humans begin to change?
Answer:
The life of humans began to change due to changes in the climate and environment.

Question 33.
What did the Homo sapiens begin to harvest?
Answer:
The Homo sapiens began to harvest food grains that grew in the wild.

Question 34.
How did the humans in the Middle Stone Age make their tools?
Answer:
He used to make implements like the knife and sickle by firmly fixing a row of blades as small as fingernails into a groove in a bone or a piece of wood.

Question 35.
What quality of tools were found in the Neolithic Age?
Answer:
In the Neolithic Age, the stone tools were polished to give a smooth, shiny finish.

Question 36.
What became the routine way of life for the humans in the New Stone Age?
Answer:
In the New Stone Age, agriculture and domestication of animals or animal husbandry had become a routine way of life.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Question 37.
Where are the sites of the New Stone Age culture in India?
Answer:
The sites of the New Stone Age culture in India are along the Ganga river and in South India.

Question 38.
What did Homo habilis use the flakes of stone for?
Answer:
Homo habilis used the flakes of stone for scraping meat from hide, for chopping meat and other foodstuffs, for sharpening wooden sticks, etc.

Give reasons for the following :

Question 1.
Only stone tools can be found today among those made by humans thousands of years ago.
Answer:
i. Rarely do we find tools made from bones.
ii. Since twigs and sticks decompose easily, we find only stone tools made by humans thousands of years ago.

Question 2.
The beginning of human culture goes back to the Old Stone Age.
Answer:

  1. The Homo sapiens made significant progress in knowing the environment, making tools for obtaining food.
  2. This enabled man to lead a stable life and live in one place.
  3. They started celebrating festivals and adorning themselves.
  4. Thus, we conclude that the beginning of human culture goes back to Old Stone Age.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Question 3.
Homo sapiens or the Middle Stone Age man now needed several different types of tools
that were light in weight and durable
Answer:
i. Besides hunting, the Homo sapiens began to undertake a variety of tasks like fishing, harvesting”, cutting of trees etc.
ii. Therefore, they now needed several different types of tools that were light in weight and durable.

Question 4.
Hunting was no more the major means of obtaining food.
Answer:
i. By the time of the New Stone Age, agriculture and animal husbandry became a routine way of life.
ii. Therefore, hunting was no more a major means of obtaining food.

Answer the following questions in brief :

Question 1.
List out the factors that determine the choice of tools.
Answer:
The four factors that determine the choice of tools is as follows:

  1. Availability of resources
  2. Minimal use of time and energy
  3. Maximum efficiency
  4. Skill of handling tools which is acquired through practice.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Question 2.
How did man learn to modify his tools?
Answer:

  1. Man began to observe the environment & nature around him, continuously and minutely
  2. With his inborn creativity, he learnt that he could sharpen rods, bones, sticks and stones into tools to carry out their task more efficiently.
  3. He also learnt that he could shape these objects and use it to his advantage.

Question 3.
How can we conclude that the early man used tools made of twigs, bones and stones?
Answer:

  1. The early man made tools using twigs, bones sticks and other materials available in nature.
  2. Since twigs and sticks decompose easily, we do not find any tools made from them.
  3. Only stone tools can be found today. Hence, we can conclude that the early man made tools not only out of stone but other materials also.

Question 4.
How is the Stone Age divided?
Answer:
The Stone Age is divided into 3 periods on the basis of the shape and the types of tools found.

  1. Old Stone Age or Palaeolithic Age.
  2. Middle Stone Age or Mesolithic Age
  3. New Stone Age or Neolithic Age.

Question 5.
What lead the Homo sapiens to lead a more stable life?
Answer:

  1. Homo sapiens made significant” progress in gaining knowledge of his environment and in the techniques of making tools and obtaining food.
  2. This enabled him to stay in one place so he build huts to live in
  3. They celebrated social festivals, made artistic objects and cave paintings.
  4. They started using ornaments to adorn themselves. All this meant that Homo sapiens lead a very stable life.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Question 6.
How did the life of humans change during the Mesolithic Age?
Answer:

  1. Due to the changes in the climate and the environment, the way of life in the Mesolithic Age began to change.
  2. Besides hunting, man started to harvest food grains that grew in the wild and also domesticated animals.
  3. Their diet also included various plant foods.
  4. They settled in one place, made different types of tools that were light in weight and durable, for hunting, fishing, harvesting and cutting of trees.

Question 7.
Compare the tools of all the three periods of the Stone Age.
Answer:
A comparative study of tools of all three periods of Stone Age is as follows:

Old Stone Age

  1. The tools made during the Palaeolithic Age were very crude.
  2. Tools were made from any material that was commonly available from nature eg. bones, sticks, twigs and stones.
  3. They used the percussion technique to make tools like choppers, hand – axe, cleavers and scrapers.

Middle Stone Age :

  1. The tool making devise had been revolutionized during this period.
  2. Man devised a technique of obtaining long and narrow blades of stone.
  3. He made various implements which were sharper, symmetrical and light-weighted than the earlier age.
  4. He made tools like knife, scraper, borer, chisel etc.
  5. He also recognized the quality of stones and began to use ivory and rare stones of quartz for making tools.
  6. He used ‘microliths’ to make arrows. He also made implements like knife and sickle.

New Stone Age :

  1. The tools made during this age were sharper and more polished.
  2. Man now made use of a tool-making technique where stone tools were polished to give a smooth and shiny finished look.
  3. Since hunting became a secondary occupation, man in this age concentrated on making implements for agricultural use.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Question 8.
Homo erectus could have a greater variety of food.
Answer:

  1. Homo erectus had improved tools.
  2. He could now hunt a variety of big and small animals.
  3. He could thus have a greater variety of food.

Question 9.
Middle Stone Age man began to settle in one place for a part of the year.
Answer:

  1. Due to changes in the climate and the environment in the Middle Stone Age, the way of life of humans had begun to change.
  2. The Middle Stone Age man had started to harvest food grains and domesticate animals.
  3. Thus, he began to settle in one place for a part of the year.

Question 10.
What is meant by a ‘Chopper’?
Answer:

  1. The first tools in the Old Stone Age were made with the percussion technique and were
    crude.
  2. Only one side of these tools had a sharp edge.
  3. These tools were called ‘Choppers’ and were used to break nuts or bones.

Question 10.
Where were the remains of Old Stone Age found in India?
Answer:

  1. Remains of the Old Stone Age were found in India at various places from Kashmir to Tamil Nadu.
  2. Fossils of a human skull and the collar bone of an Old Stone Age woman were found near Hoshangabad in Madhya Pradesh.
  3. The fossilized skull of a child was found at a village near Puducherry.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 Stone Age: Stone Tools

Glossary :

  1. domesticated : tame and keep as pet
  2. durable : not perishable
  3. Implements : piece le of equipments
  4. Antlers : branched horns on the head of an adult dear
  5. crude : in a natural or raw
  6. proportionate : corresponding in size or amount to something else
  7. symmetrical : exactly similar parts
  8. harvesting : gather crops
  9. acquired : buy or obtain
  10. minutely : with great attention to detail
  11. ivory : hard, creamy white elephant tusks
  12. quartz : a hard mineral, crystal
  13. significant : sufficiently great or important
  14. microliths : a small shaped flint
  15. grinder : machine used for grinding o something
  16. revolution: a forcible overthrow of a government
  17. enhance: intensify or o increase

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Notes Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Notes  Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders Cognitive Processes students can recall all the concepts quickly.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Notes Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Mental Health Continuum Model:
The major criteria of abnormality are deviance, personal distress and impaired functioning. Illness and absence of illness are not distinct categories but are on opposite poles of the continuum sequence as explained below.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Notes Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders 1

Stage 1 – The person is physically and psychologically healthy. He/She is motivated and emotionally stable.

Stage 2 – The person may get affected by life stressors, feel anxious, lack energy, etc., for e.g., most students are tense before the exams. It is possible to push oneself back towards positive health by adopting a healthy lifestyle.

Stage 3 – The person shows signs of psychological damage and may experience negative feelings like sadness, lack of motivation, fear and may even indulge in addictive behaviour. However, even this stage is not irreversible.

Stage 4 – The person exhibits extreme distress, impairment in mental, emotional and social functioning. He/She needs professional treatment.

Criteria For Psychological Disorders:
According to DSM-5, there are five criteria for psychological disorders.

  • Clinically significant syndrome – In psychological disorders, there should be a cluster of symptoms together i.e., a syndrome.
  • Distress and Impairment – There should be distress, i.e., psychological pain due to negative feelings and stress, as well as impairment, i.e., inability to perform appropriate roles in personal and social situations.
  • Dysfunction – If the symptoms lead to developmental or psychological dysfunctions, it signifies mental disorders.
  • Responses to stressors that are normally accepted responses e.g., sadness experienced at the loss of a loved one or culturally sanctioned responses are not considered as signs of mental disorders.
  • Behaviour which is only deviant but does not produce any disability or distress or dysfunction does not become a sign of mental disorder.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Notes Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Mental Wellness:
According to the WHO, mental wellness refers to “a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope up with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.”

The important aspects of mental wellness are –

  • Emotional aspect – There is a sense of well-being and contentment
  • Psychological aspect – There is high self-esteem and tendency of self-actualization.
  • Life philosophy – There are clear goals and objectives in life.

The Illness Wellness Continuum Model by John Travis:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Notes Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders 2
Quadrant 1 – The person is in an ideal state of functioning.
Quadrant 2 – The person has no mental illness but experiences subjective feeling of unhappiness.
The person suffers from mental illness yet he/she experiences a high sense of subjective well-being.
This is the lowest level of functioning. The person has mental illness and also experiences distress.

Mental Disorders – Classification:
There are two major systems to classify psychological disorders.

  1. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) – DSM-5 was published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 2013. It contains 22 broad categories of mental disorders with subcategories.
  2. International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) – ICD-11
    was created by the WHO in 2019, according to which there are 19 broad categories of mental disorders.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Notes Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Major Psychological Disorders:
Anxiety Disorders:
The word ‘anxiety’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Anxietas’ which means ‘uneasy or troubled mind’. Anxiety refers to a condition in which the person feels worried and uneasy for a long time for no obvious reasons.
The main anxiety disorders are:

Generalized Anxiety Disorder:
The person frequently experiences anxiety more intensely so that it starts interfering with the ability to perform daily tasks. Symptoms include irritability, headaches, insomnia, dizziness, breathlessness, etc.

Phobic disorders:
The word ‘phobia’ is derived from the Greek word ‘Phobos which was used to refer to the God of Fear. A phobia is an intense, persistent but irrational and disproportionate fear of a specific object or situation. DSM classifies phobias as simple phobias, e.g., Acrophobia, Claustrophobia etc., and social phobias, e.g., fear of speaking or eating in public.

Depressive Disorders:
Depression is an emotional state typically marked by sadness and guilt, feelings of anxiety and hopelessness. Other symptoms include loss of appetite, interest and sleep, fatigue, sexual dysfunction and suicidal thoughts.

Bipolar Disorders:
Bipolar disorder is also known as Manic Depressive disorder. The person experiences alternate phases of two states viz. mania, i.e., extreme excitement and elation and depression, i.e., extreme irritability, hopelessness and sadness. Main causative factor are genetic factors and imbalance in neurotransmitters such as dopamine, epinephrine, etc.

Trauma And Stress-Related Disorders:
Stress is inevitable in life. Daily hassles, relationship issues, frustration, chronic illness, etc., lead to stress. If stress is in moderate intensity, it acts as a motivation. However, intense and prolonged stress impairs normal functioning of the individual and may lead to stress disorders.

The two types of stress disorders are –
Acute Stress Disorder (ASD):
If a person (aged 6 years and above) has experienced extremely stressful situations like death of a loved one, serious disease or injury, sexual abuse, natural disasters, etc., then he/she may experience ASD.

The symptoms of ASD include –

  • emotional numbness and instability
  • nightmares and sleep distturbances
  • insomnia, lack of concentration, irritability and guilt feelings
  • depression

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD):
If symptoms of ASD continue for more than one month with the same intensity, the person is diagnosed with PTSD.

A person who has suffered trauma generally goes through three stages viz.-

  • Shock stage – the individual is in shock, i.e., extremely disturbed.
  • Suggestible stage – he/she may seek guidance from others and may either accept these suggestions unquestioningly or may get extra sensitive.
  • Recovery stage – the person shows signs of recovery.
    However, some persons still show signs of mental illness i.e., PTSD.

The symptoms of PTSD include –

  • nightmares, flashbacks, severe anxiety
  • hypervigilance and avoidance of situations that bring back the trauma
  • irritability, social isolation
  • survivor’s guilt.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Notes Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Substance-Related And Addictive Disorders:
Addictive disorders refer to the physical and psychological inability to stop consuming some substance or indulging in some activity although it is harmful. This includes dependence on drugs, nicotine, alcohol, etc., or activities like gambling, eating, gaming, etc. Drug addiction refers to an inability to control the use of alcohol, nicotine, narcotics, marijuana, medications, etc.

Symptoms of addiction are –

  • Excessive consumption of drugs or alcohol and inability to reduce the dosage.
  • In case the person tries to stop the drug use, then withdrawal symptoms occur which include sweating, tremors, muscle pain, goosebumps, etc.
  • Physical and psychological dependence may lead to drug abuse or overdose of the addictive substance and even cause the death of the person.
  • The person’s physical, emotional, social and financial well-being breakdown. Alcoholics
    Anonymous (AA), Narcotics Anonymous (NA) are organizations that help addicts to overcome dependence.

Schizophrenia:
The term ‘Schizophrenia’ is derived from Greek words Schizein (to split) and phren (mind). It was coined in 1911 by a Swiss psychologist, Paul Eugene Bleuler. Thus, the literal meaning of the word ‘schizophrenia’ is split mind. It is a psychotic disorder.

According to DSM-5 the two types of symptoms for schizophrenia are:

  • Positive symptoms,
  • Negative symptoms.

Positive symptoms are an excess addition to normal thoughts or behaviour of the period. Such symptoms are –

  • hallucinations – mainly auditory and visual hallucination
  • delusions – mainly of grandeur, reference and persecution
  • disorganized thought and speech
  • bizarre body movements and disorganized behaviour
  • incongruent affect.

Negative symptoms are deficits of normal emotional responses or of thought processes. They lead to low level of functioning and may not improve much even with treatment.

This includes –

  • emotional blunting – diminished emotional expression
  • anhedonia – inability to experience deep positive emotions
  • alogia – diminished speed
  • asociality – lack of desire to form relationships
  • avolition – lack of motivation
  • apathy.

Sometimes, a schizophrenic exhibits positive as well as negative symptoms.

Treating Psychological Disorders:
Signs that help to identify individuals who require expert (professional) help in mental health are called ‘red flags’. Symptoms, if present, in any person should satisfy three requirements

  1. it should be present for a considerably long period of time
  2. symptom has become more severe than before
  3. it has created problems in the person’s life.

The signals indicating a need for professional help are:

  • inability to concentrate or to sleep well.
  • severe confusion and memory loss.
  • intense and uncontrollable negative feelings.
  • self-neglect or even self-harm.
  • loss of interest in friends/ family/ activities.
  • odd statements or strange use of words.

Treatment strategies range form pharmacotherapy (administering drugs) to psychotherapy such as Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy, Interpersonal Therapy, Group/Family Therapy, etc. Mental heath professionals are qualified to decide the plan of treatment.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Notes Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Glossary:

Anxiety – A state in which the feelings of an individual experience of uneasiness and worry and tends to anticipate that there will be danger or failure in the future.

→ Delusion – A false belief that is strongly held by an individual even in the presence of contradictory evidence

→ Depression – A state of experiencing sadness, pessimism, loss of interest in activities that previously were enjoyable along with physical, cognitive and behavioural changes.

→ Distress – A negative emotional state indicating worry.

→ DSM-5 – The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 was published by the American Psychiatric Association in 2013: it is a widely used manual on the definition and classification of mental disorders.

→ Dysfunction – Any impairment or disturbance leading to abnormality in behaviours or functioning.

→ Hallucination – It is a false visual/auditory perception that occurs in the absence of appropriate stimuli.

→ ICD- 11 – The International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems issued by the World Health Organisation (WHO) consisting of a manual on the definition and classification of mental disorders.

→ Mental Health – It is a state of mind that is characterised by emotional well being, good adjustment and ability to cope with the demands and stresses of daily living.

→ Stigma – A negative social attitude which is associated with individuals diagnosed with a mental disorder and often leads to social disapproval, discrimination and exclusion of that individual in society.

→ Alcoholics Anonymous – It is an international, nonprofessional, self-supporting, mutual aid fellowship started by Bill Wilson and Bob Smith in 1935 in the USA. Its stated purpose is to enable its members to stop drinking and stay sober. It has a 12 step programme to help stop alcohol abuse and recover from alcoholism.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance students can recall all the concepts quickly.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Introduction

→ Meaning of Governance: In development administration, not only the government but also citizens and NGO’s play a vital role. The term ‘governance’ is used to describe this cooperative effort of the government and non-governmental bodies in public administration.

Governance is broader than government as :

→ It includes formal institutions of government e.g., legislature, bureaucracy as well as informal institutions e.g. NGO’s.

→ It aims to improve the performance of public institutions with focus on values like accountability, transparency, citizen feedback, etc.

In the 1990s several changes took place in the world:

→ Globalisation of the world economy – This included technological revolution, growth of social networking and transparency in the administrative system. There were changes in international economic relations due to which investment and trade and commerce became important.

→ International Institutions – International funding agencies like IMF, World Bank, UNDP have become influential in bringing about administrative reforms in Third World Nations.

→ Non-State actors – NGO’s, private sector organizations, civil society have started to play a greater role in public administration.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Meaning Of Good Governance:

The Good Governance approach aims at the following.

  • to reform the traditional, huge-sized public administration which was riddled with red tape and corruption.
  • to replace the archaic systems with responsible, participative and equitable systems.
  • to look at interlinkages between government and civil society.
  • to make the administration citizen-centred and not merely rule-bound.

Value Of Good Governance
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Contemporary India Good Governance 1

→ Participation – The effective functioning of any democratic system requires that people get an opportunity to participate in the process of decision making and its implementation.

→  Rule of law -The constitution and law of the land is a core value of good governance. It ensures a just and fair polity where rights of citizens are safeguarded.

→ Effectiveness and efficiency – All processes and institutions must produce results that meet the needs of society but also making sustainable use of natural resources and protecting the environment.

→ Consensus oriented – Good governance requires dialogue between various sections of society to reach consensus on what is best for the entire community and how to achieve it. It requires a long-term perspective on how to best achieve the goals of sustainable human development.

→ Responsiveness – The government must be prompt and sensitive while designing policies to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe.

→ Equity and inclusiveness – No stakeholder, especially the vulnerable should feel excluded from the mainstream of society. All persons should have opportunities to improve their well-being.

→  Transparency – This value of good governance enables people to keep the government under scrutiny for e.g. Right to Information Act (2005) provides citizens access to information about public policies and actions

→ Accountability: This cannot be enforced without the rule of law and transparency. Any organization is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions and actions, i.e., to stakeholders. Governmental institutions, private sector and civil society institutions must be accountable

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Initiatives For Good Governance In India:
After independence, India adopted a socialist model of development which aimed at achieving a Welfare State. The Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances looks after administrative reforms in India.

Its objectives are –

  • to promote administrative reforms in government policies and processes.
  • to promote citizen-centric governance.
  • to conduct innovations in e-governance.

The Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) was set up in 2005 to prepare a blueprint for revamping the public administration system in India.

It looked at the following issues

  • To make public administration accountable, transparent, efficient, responsive and result-oriented.
  • Citizen centric, participative administration.

Reform measures/initiatives for administration include:

  • Simplifying administrative procedures, using technology to improve internal efficiency and reducing regulatory control.
  • Enacting laws giving certain rights to citizens and setting up institutional mechanisms to
    redress grievances.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Specific Programmes To Bring About Good Governance In India:

Lokpal and Lokayukta: The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act (2013) provides for the establishment of Lokpal (at the Union level) and Lokayuktas (in the States) to inquire into allegations of corruption against public officials. This is a commitment to a responsive, clean governance. The Maharashtra Lokayukta Institution came into being in 1972.

Citizen’s Charters: The exercise to formulate Citizen’s Charters began in 1996. Each organisation must spell out the services it has to perform and the standards/norms for these services. If these standards are not met then, that agency can be held accountable.

E-Governance: In the last few decades, governance has become more complex and varied. Citizens expectations from the government have also increased. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is used in governance. This is called ‘e-governance’.

It helps in

  • instant transmission and processing information and efficient storing and retrieval of data.
  • increasing the reach of government both geographically and demographically.
  • speeding up decision making and increasing transparency and accountability of government processes.

E-governance in India has evolved from computerisation of departments to initiatives which are citizen-centric and service-oriented.

Six Pillars For Achieving The Vision Of E-Governance
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Contemporary India Good Governance 2

Right to Information: It is a basic necessity of good governance which enables citizens to seek important public information from the government i.e., about public policies and actions. Transparency in government institutions makes them function more objectively and enables citizens to participate effectively in the governance process.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Citizen participation: Citizen participation refers to the following aspects.

→ The development process is a “bottom-up” approach in which citizens are not recipients but participants in this process.

→ Citizens have a right in making decisions pertaining to themselves.

→ There are modalities by which citizens can take control of resources or influence decision making.

→ It contributes to a responsive, participative democracy.