By going through these Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 8 Memory students can recall all the concepts quickly.
Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Notes Chapter 8 Memory
- Memory is an ability by which information ¡s encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed.
- The hippocampus plays an important role in the storage of memory.
- Memory functions to preserve our sense of identity, interpersonal relationships, solving problems, and making decisions.
- Three basic processes of memory are Encoding! acquisition, Storage, and Retrieval.
- Three stages of memory are Sensory information store, Short Term Memory (STM), and Long Term Memory (LTM).
- Baddeley called STM a working bench of memory. He has given the working memory model.
Measurement of memory:
- The major ways of measuring memory are: Recall, Recognition and Relearning.
- Recall method: It involves remembering a fact, event or object that is not currently
physically present and requires a direct uncovering of information from memory. Recall can be free or serial.
- Recognition method: Here, a person has to point out or recognise previously learnt material which is presented to him in a different context. It is relatively easier than the recall method.
- Relearning method: It measures retention by measuring how much faster one learns a previously learnt material after time interval. It is also known as saving method as there is saving of time when one relearns the same material.
Some phenomena related to memory:
- Flashbulb memory: Flashbulb memories are vivid memories of what we were doing at the time of an emotion-provoking event. These memories are preserved in autobiographical in considerable detail, almost like a photograph.
- Tip of the tongue phenomenon: Sometimes when we search through library of memory experiences to retrieve information from LTM, we cannot recall it even when we have that information on the tip of the tongue.
Forgetting and its causes:
- Forgetting is the failure to retrieve the material from long-term memory.
- The pioneer of experiments on forgetting was Hermann Ebbinghaus.
- The various causes of forgetting are trace decay, trace distortion interference, and motivated forgetting.
Memory improvement techniques:
- Keyword method: Here, any two different pieces of information can be linked together.
- Encoding specificity: It states that memory ¡s improved when information is available while learning is also available at the time to recall.
- Method of loci: It involves creating an imaginary route to remember better.
- Mnemonic devices: Mnemonics include acronyms or the first letter technique.
- Practice and rehearsal: It results in better retention and recall.
- Minimizing interference: We should not learn similar subjects together.
- POWER method: Here, P stands for Preparation, O stands for Organisation, W stands for Work, E stands for Evaluation, and R stands for Rethinking.