Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 10 Cold War Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 10 Cold War
1. Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.
The headquarters of SEATO were located at ___________
(b) the Philippines
(d) the United Kingdom
A fund named ‘Africa Fund’ was raised at ___________ for providing necessary aid to neighbouring nations of South Africa.
2A. Write the names of historical places/persons/events.
On 30th June 1977, this organisation ceased to exist –
The idea of Commonwealth games was introduced by –
Reverend Astley Cooper
2B. Choose the correct reason from those given below and complete the sentence.
No country was included in the ANZUS treaty except Australia, New Zealand, and the United States of America ___________
(a) they did not want to let the United Kingdom and France have an upper hand
(b) it was a military pact
(c) it was a secret pact
(d) it was a pact only among countries with friendly relations
(a) they did not want to lot the United Kingdom and France to have an upper hand
3. Complete the concept map.
4. Write short notes.
- Definition: The tussle between Capitalist nations and Communist nations for power and ideological influence, which began after the Second World War is referred to as the ‘Cold War.
- Walter Lippmann, an American political columnist was the first to use the term ‘Cold War’.
- ‘Cold War’ is characterized by the following factors –
- No Direct War.
- The intense race for armament.
- Aggressive Political Policies.
- Mutual lack of Faith among Nations.
- Political and Economic Pressurisation.
- Ideological Conflict.
- The aftermath of the Second World War created conditions leading to the Cold War.
- England and France lost their primary positions in world politics.
- During the world war, Russia gained prominence in Eastern Europe while America, England, and France gained prominence in Western Europe.
- The Eastern European nations under the influence of Soviet Russia adopted communist ideology while the Western European nations under the influence of America adopted capitalist ideology and democratic system. This situation caused the emergence of the ‘Cold War.
Non- Alignment Movement.
- After the Second World War, India decided not to join either Russia or America. India adopted the policy of development by its own efforts and shape its own strategies leading towards peace. This policy is known as the ‘NAM-Non Alignment Policy’.
- Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. Sukarno (Indonesia), Nkrumah (Ghana), Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt), and Marshal Tito (Yugoslavia) were the architects of the concept ‘NAM’.
- The nations, which adopt an independent foreign policy based on the concept of peaceful co-existence, support other nations in their independence struggle, and do not involve themselves in the military agreements or bilateral treaties with the superpowers is known as ‘Non-Aligned Nations’.
- Non-Alignment is a concept concerned more with progress and peace than war and poverty, so it is positive.
5. Explain the following statements with reasons.
CENTO became non-operational.
- CENTO stands for Central Treaty Organisation.
- CENTO earlier known as the ‘Baghdad Pact’ or Middle East Treaty Organisation (METO) is a treaty among four nations namely, Turkey, Pakistan, Iran, and England.
- This treaty was signed on 24th February 1955. Iraq joined later.
- America started providing the member nations of CENTO economic and military aid.
- America feared that if Soviet Russia attacked any of the member nations, then all member nations should fight it collectively.
- But in reality, none of the member nations had the military capacity to fight.
- Except for the United Kingdom, the rest of the three were in need of military and technological aid but America was too involved to pay attention to their need.
- Hence, the other members of CENTO were not satisfied. They wanted to withdraw from the treaty and act independently.
- Iran and Pakistan withdrew from the treaty and hence CENTO became non-operational.
SAARC has achieved success in some fields.
- SAARC has achieved success in some fields for e.g. a centre for the dissemination of agro-related information was started in Bangladesh and it has also been used as a platform for research related to seeds, animal husbandry, and fisheries.
- A SAARC center for meteorological research was established in Dhaka.
- In Kathmandu, an orthopedic center was established.
- Efforts are being made to promote tourism in SAARC countries.
- SAARC is also working to eliminate poverty in South Asia with the help of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (ESCAP).
- An inter-Governmental group was established to formulate an agreement (SAFTA- South Asia Free Trade Area) for promoting free trade and economic cooperation among SAARC nations.
- The SAARC Documentation Centre was established in Delhi for the dissemination of information.
- SAARC Human Resources Development Centre was established in Islamabad (Pakistan).
- Agreements were signed to counter the smuggling of narcotic drugs. Committees were appointed for development in the fields of postal services and transportation.
6. State your opinion.
The Cold War began between America and Soviet Russia.
- The tussle between the Capitalist nations and Communist nations for power and ideological influence which began after the second world war is referred to as the ‘Cold War.
- During the world war, Russia gained prominence in Eastern Europe while America, France, and England gained prominence in Western Europe.
- The Eastern European nations under the influence of Soviet Russia adopted Communist ideology.
- The Western European nations under the influence of America adopted a Capitalist ideology and democratic system.
- This situation caused the emergence of the ‘Cold War’ between Soviet Russia and America.
India has always opposed colonialism.
- India is acknowledged as a great democracy in the world.
- After independence, India adopted the policy of active non-alignment in international politics.
- India would always strive to establish global peace.
- India would not tolerate foreign intervention in her internal matters. India shall respect the regional unity and sovereignty of other countries.
- India emphasizes the principle of ‘live and let live’ supported by peaceful co-existence.
- For e.g. in the post-independence period in 1949, a conference was held in Delhi in which support was declared to the issue of Indonesia’s independence. It was demanded that the Dutch should leave Indonesia before 1950 and grant its independence.
- The position India took in the case of Africa, is also very important. India took a strong initiative in demanding independence of African countries especially the protectorates of European nations.
- India insisted that the foreign rulers (colonialist European countries) should leave the colonies.
- India cared about Africa because of its long-standing relations with African countries.
- Mahatma Gandhi showed Africa the path to satyagraha for independence.
- Thus, India had been at the forefront of the struggle against colonialism.
Class 12 History Chapter 10 Cold War Intext Questions and Answers
Try to do this (Textbook Page No. 77)
Collect information about the ‘United Nations’ with the help of the internet. Create groups of students in the class and let them compile the information of various specialized agencies of the United Nations.
The United Nations was established after World War II with the aim of preventing any war in the future and establishing peace in the world. UN is the largest and most powerful intergovernmental organisation in the world. It was established on 24th October 1945. Currently, 193 countries in the world are members of the UN. The headquarter of the UN is located in New York, USA. Since its establishment UN has been working for maintaining world peace and avoiding conflict among nations, it also works for remoting sustainable development, protection and preservation of the environment, and protecting human rights.
The important agencies of the UN are as follows:
(i) International Labour Organisation (ILO):
Established in – 1919 to improve the conditions and living standards of workers.
Headquarters – Geneva.
(ii) International Monetary Fund (IMF):
Established in – 1945 to promote international monetary cooperation.
(iii) Food and Agricultural Organisation:
Established in – 1945
(iv) United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO):
Established in – 1945.
(v) World Health Organisation:
Established in – 1948
(vi) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA):
Established in – 1957
(vii) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP):
Established in – 1965
(viii) World Trade Organisation (WTO):
Established in – 1995
(ix) UN Women:
Established in – 2010
(x) United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC):
Established in – 1997
(xi) United Nation Environmental Programme (UNEP):
Established in – 1972
(xii) International Development Association (IDA):
Established in – 1960
(xiii) United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF):
Established in – 1946
(xiv) International Telecommunication Union (ITU):
Established in – 1865
Try to do this (Textbook Page No. 83)
Review the proceedings of NAM conferences held during the period from 1992 to the Venezuela conference of 2016.
NAM was established in 1961 in Belgrade, SR Serbia, Yugoslavia through an initiative of the Indian Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is an organization of Redeveloping nations that are not formally aligned, with any major power flex. Here is the list of NAM summits:
- 10th NAM Summit: 1-6 September 1992 – Jakarta, Indonesia.
- 11th NAM Summit: 18-20 October 1995 – Cartagena, Colombia.
- 12th NAM Summit: 2-3 September 1998, Durban, South Africa.
- 13th NAM Summit: 20-25 Feb 2003, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
- 14th NAM Summit: 15-16 September 2006, Havana, Cuba.
- 15th NAM Summit: 11-16 July 2009, Sharm-El-Sheikh, Egypt.
- 16th NAM Summit: 26-31 August 2012, Tehran, Iran.
- 17th NAM Summit: 13-18 September 2016, Porlamar, Venezuela.
Try to do this (Textbook Page No. 85)
Collect information about SAARC conferences till 2014, with the help of the internet.
SAARC also known as The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is the regional intergovernmental organisation in South Asia. Total 8 countries are members of SAARC.
- the Maldives
- Sri Lanka
- The First Summit was held in Dhaka, Bangladesh on 7-8 December 1985, signed the SAARC charter on 8 December 1985 thereby establishing the regional association and study groups on the problems of terrorism, drug trafficking, etc.
- Second Summit India: Date – 17-18 November 1986 in Bangalore.
Appointment of Ambassador Abdul Ahsan of Bangladesh as the first Secretary-General of South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation.
- 3rd Summit: 2-4 November 1987 in Kathmandu, Nepal.
- 4th Summit: 29-31 December 1988 in Islamabad, Pakistan.
- 5th Summit: 21-23 November 1990 in Male, Maldives.
- 6th Summit: 21 December 1991 in Colombo, Sri Lanka
- 7th Summit: 10-11 April 1992, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
- 8th Summit: 2-4 May 1995, New Delhi, India
- 9th Summit: 12-14 May 1997, Male, Maldives.
- 10th Summit: 29-31 July 1998, Colombo, Sri Lanka
- 11th Summit: 4-6 January 2002, Kathmandu, Nepal.
- 12th Summit: 4-6 January 2004, Islamabad, Pakistan.
- 13th Summit: 12-13 November 2005, Dhaka, Bangladesh
- 14th Summit: 3-4 April 2007, New Delhi, India
- 15th Summit: 1-3 August 2008, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
- 16th Summit: 28-29 April 2010, Thimphu, Bhutan
- 17th Summit: 10-11 November 2011, Addu City, Maldives.
- 18th Summit: 26-27 November 2014, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Project (Textbook Page No. 87)
Collect information about the ‘Commonwealth Games’ with the help of the internet.
The Commonwealth Games is an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, and, with the exception of 1942 and 1946, has taken place every four years since then. The Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. Athletes with a disability are also included as full members of their national teams, making the Commonwealth Games the first fully inclusive international multi-sport event. It is also the world’s first multi-sport event that inducts an equal number of women’s and men’s medal events and was implemented recently in the 2018 Commonwealth Games. With such unique features, the World Economic Forum called the event inspiring and significant.
Their creation was inspired by the Inter-Empire Championships, as a part of the Festival of Empire, which was held in London, England in 1911. Melville Marks Robinson founded the games as the British Empire Games which were first hosted in Hamilton, Canada in 1930. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the evolution of the movement of the game has resulted in several changes to the Commonwealth Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Commonwealth Winter Games for snow and ice sports for the commonwealth athletes, the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games for commonwealth athletes with a disability, and the Commonwealth Youth Games for commonwealth athletes aged 14 to 18. The first edition of the winter games and paraplegic games were held in 1958 and 1962 respectively, with their last edition held in 1966 and 1974 respectively and the first youth games were held in 2000. The 1942 and 1946 Commonwealth Games were canceled because of the Second World War.