Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 4 Colonialism and the Marathas Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 4 Colonialism and the Marathas
1A. Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.
Marathas defeated the Portuguese during the siege of __________
The political relations between Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and the British began due to the __________ episode.
(a) Kudal campaign
(b) Afzal Khan
(c) Fazal Khan
(b) Afzal Khan
The younger brother of Bajirao Peshwa I defeated the __________ at Vasai.
The ‘Third Battle of Panipat’ was fought between Marathas and the __________
(c) Ahmed Khan Bangash
(d) Najib Khan
1B. Find the incorrect pair from group ‘B’ and write the corrected one.
|Group ‘A’||Group ‘B’|
|(a) Cosme da Guarda||Portuguese historian|
|(b) Gonsalo Martez||Portuguese emissary|
|(c) Francois Martin||Chief of the Dutch factory|
|(d) Henry Revington||British Officer|
(c) Francois Martin – Governor General of Pondicherry
2A. Write the names of historical places/persons/events.
The first Europeans to arrive in India-
The place where the Portuguese stored their ammunition-
They honoured Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj with tributes for ensuring the safety of their factories and issuing trade permits-
The British agent at Jaitapur-
2B. Choose the correct reason from those given below and complete the sentence.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj levied octroi on the salt trade to __________
(a) oppose the Portuguese
(b) stop the British trade of salt
(c) raise funds for Swarajya
(d) oppose the colonialists
(b) stop the British trade of salt
3. State your opinion.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj built a naval force.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj had foreseen the ulterior motives of the foreigners and their ways of infiltration. He built strategies to arrest their advances in India. He took immediate measures by creating a strong naval force. He levied octroi on British trade salt as a measure to protect the local salt trade. Thus, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj adopted a strong policy against the European colonizers.
Maratha’s policies were anti-colonial.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj had foreseen the ulterior motives of the Europeans and their ways of infiltration. So, he built strategies to arrest their advances in India. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj adopted a very strong policy against the European colonisers by levying octroi on the British salt trade etc. The Marathas were the only Indian rulers to adopt a policy of resistance against the European colonisers.
4. Answer the following questions in detail.
Write about Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s policies regarding the European traders as seen in his Adnyapatra.
The strategy of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj against the Europeans is clearly seen in Adnyapatra.
The following were his policies:
- They should be kept at bay maintaining only business relations.
- Not allotting them any space near the entrance of a creek or a sea fort.
- Their establishments should not be a nuisance.
- They should not be allowed to flaunt their military strength.
- Not allow them to construct any permanent buildings.
- They must accept these conditions otherwise they are of no use.
- He also said that a fine should be collected if any foreign traders were found in the enemy land during expeditions.
- After they pay the fine, they should be sent back to their factory or the place from where they had arrived.
- They should not be treated in the same manner as the enemy is treated.
Explain Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s resolute policy of safeguarding Maratha sovereignty.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj took several steps to safeguard the Maratha empire.
- Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj created a strong naval force and constructed forts for e.g., Hillforts, Sea forts, and Land forts.
- Henry Oxenden, a British agent who was present at the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj sought permission to open a factory at Rajapur.
- He also levied 2.5% octroi on British goods.
- An agreement was signed between the British and the Marathas on 12th June 1674.
- According to this agreement, the Marathas issued permission to open factories at Rajapur, Dabhol, Chaul, and Kalyan. He also prohibited the usage of British coinage.
- He also refuted some of the conditions put by the British such as the British goods found afloat from the wrecked ships should be returned to them and the Marathas should enter a treaty with the Siddis of Janjira.
- This clearly reveals his resolute policy of safeguarding Maratha’s sovereignty.
Why did the strongest Maratha rule come to an end?
There were several reasons for the downfall of the Maratha empire:
(i) Internal weakness of the Maratha Empire: The empire of the Marathas was not well knit. It was a confederacy of the Maratha chiefs who were in conflict with one another. The nominal unity of the Marathas remained only up to the period of the rule of Madhav Rao I.
(ii) Lack of Political Foresight: The Marathas lacked wisdom and farsightedness. They failed to achieve the political unity of India and therefore failed to utilise the resources of the country either for the benefit of the people or for meeting the challenge of a foreign foe.
(iii) Incapable Leadership: All capable Maratha chiefs died by the end of the eighteenth century. After that the leadership of the Marathas was taken over by Bajirao II, Daulatrao Scindia, Yashwant Rao Holkar, and Nana Phadnavis. The Marathas thus lacked leadership.
(iv) Military weakness of the Marathas: The Marathas were militarily weak compared to the English as they had left their traditional method of guerrilla warfare and adopted European methods which they failed to perfect.
(v) Diplomacy of the English: The English were more diplomatic than the Marathas. The quarrels among the Marathas provided a good opportunity for the English to take advantage. Besides, the English had their eyes on the politics of the entire India.
5. Observe the map on textbook page 29 and answer the questions based on it.
Where were the Dutch colonies on the west coast of India?
On the west coast of India, there were warehouses at Vengurla in Konkan and at Photo Novo (Parangi Pettai) and Tegna Pattam (Devanapattinam) in Karnataka.
Where did the French establish their colonies on the east coast of India?
The French had their colony in Pondicherry (Puducherry) on the east coast.
Whose warehouses were at Agra and Allahabad?
This warehouse is not mentioned on the map. This area was ruled by the Mughals.
Project (Textbook Page No. 33)
Collect information about the colonies established by the European colonialists in various countries with the help of internet.
The European colonialists had their colonies in the following countries.
- Belgium – Belgian Congo, Lado Enclave, Rwanda, and Burundi
- Britain – Sudan, Basutoland, Balleland, British East Africa (Kenya), British Somaliland, British Togoland
- Gold Coast, South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, Botswana, Nigeria, Ghana, etc.
- France – Gambia, Comoros, French Algeria, French Congo, French Guinea, Ivory Coast, French Madagascar, etc.
- Dutch – Dutch East Indies, Curacao, The Dutch Slave Coast, the Dutch Gold Coast, Surinam.
- Germany – German East Africa, German Southwest Africa, German West Africa.
- Portugal – Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique.
- Britain – Colony Aden, British Borneo, Burma, Ceylon, Cyprus, India, Iraq, Malay, North Borneo, Palestine, etc.
- France – Cochin, China, Annam, Laos, and Cambodia.
- Dutch – Dutch East Indies, Malacca, Taiwan, Tonkin/Annam, Maluku Islands.
- Portugal – Goa, Malacca and Southeast Asia, China and Japan, Spice Islands, South Asia, Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea.
(C) North America:
- Britain – Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York,
- Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
- France – New France (including Canada and Louisiana), French West Indies and
- French Guiana.
- Dutch – New Netherland was the first Dutch colony in North America.
(D) South America:
- Spain – Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic.