Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Social Problems in India Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Social Problems in India
1A. Complete the following statements by choosing the correct alternative given in the brackets and rewrite it.
The Domestic Violence Act was passed in the year ___________ (1995, 2005, 2011)
One of the causes of farmer suicide is ___________ (multi-cropping, indebtedness, climate change)
1B. Correct the incorrect pair and rewrite it.
(a) Marijuana – Drug addiction
(b) Violent films – Internet addiction
(c) Selfitis syndrome – Substance addiction
(d) Country liquor – Alcohol addiction
(c) Selfitis Syndrome – Mobile addiction
1C. Identify the appropriate term from the given options in the box and rewrite it against the given statement.
Narcotic drugs, Patriarchy, Gender discrimination
A problem faced by transgender persons,
It can lead to physical health problems.
1D. Correct underlined words and complete the statement.
Alcoholics Anonymous helps drug addicts.
Narcotic Anonymous helps drug addicts
Aging is an artificial process.
Aging is a natural process.
2. Write short notes.
Effects of addiction
Addiction means, a situation of psychological and physical dependence on alcohol, drugs, the internet, or mobiles.
The psychological effect on the individual: Addiction leads to a dependency on alcohol, narcotic drugs, medicinal drugs, the internet, social media, and even mobile phone. There could emerge a need for validation for every single image that is uploaded.
Impact on family: Alcohol addiction problems pose a threat to stable family life resulting in domestic violence. Addiction to mobiles can lead to loneliness within the family because of a lack of communication.
Impact on health: The levels of stress, anxiety, and aggression can take their toll on the physical, mental and emotional well-being of addicts as well as others in the family.
Impact on work: it can adversely affect levels of commitment, efficiency, an increase in instances of sexual harassment, exploitation of vulnerable people, inability to focus on any activity, increased absenteeism, etc.
Measures to tackle the problem of aging.
Aging is an inevitable and irreversible biological process.
Role of the Government – The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has the responsibility to formulate policies and implement programmes for the care of the aged.
POLICY – The National Policy on Older Persons (NPOP) envisages support from the state government towards older persons’ care via. the provisions of shelter, support, healthcare facilities, etc.
Role of organizations/NGOs – NGOs HAVE contributed significantly towards helping the problem of the aged in India. For example, in Help Age India, Harmony India Today there are online communities that can lend support.
Role of Education – Schools can help through community service projects, outreach programmes, socially useful productive work and NSS create awareness about the problems of the elderly, aged, and senior which can inculcate values of caring for them.
Role of Family – Parents, and relatives can play a major role in creating a suitable atmosphere within the involving them in activities.
Above are the measures which we can implement to tackle the problem of aging.
3. Write differences.
Social Problem and Individual Problem
|Social Problem||Individual Problem|
|(i) Meaning: A social problem is faced by numerous persons is described as a social problem.||(i) Meaning: A problem that is faced by an individual and his/her family is described as an individual problem.|
|(ii) Effects: Anti-social norms behaviour is considered as a social problem as it affects the wellbeing of the entire society.||(ii) Effects: An individual’s own habit, lethargy, inertia, personality is an individual problem that may affect the well-being of an individual, thus the cause of the problem rests with the individual.|
|(iii) Solution: Removal of social problems requires collective efforts to the wellbeing of the entire society.||(iii) Solution: The efforts of the concerned individual may be sufficient to save his/her problem.|
|(iv) Nature: A social problem is rooted in the individuals who constitute the society. When the problem of poverty is tackled, the problem of poor individuals gets solved.||(iv) Nature: When the scope of a personal problem enlarges and is faced by numerous individuals, it becomes a social problem, e.g. Unemployment|
|(v) For example, Ageing, Unemployment, Farmers’ Suicide, Domestic Violence, Addiction, corruption, overpopulation are social problems.||(v) For example, lack of job opportunities, matching one’s education or skills, conventional mindsets of a community, lack of political will, etc., are individual problems.|
Mobile addiction and Drug addiction
|Mobile addiction||Drug addiction|
|(i) Nature: It refers to an obsession with mobile phones for various reasons, and a desire to constantly upgrade one’s mobile phone.||(i) Nature: It refers to a physical and biological dependence on drugs which leads to unpleasant symptoms when the person stops using the substance.|
|(ii) Causes Easy access to the internet due to which it is flooded with information, misuse of mobile phones for destructive, negative, and vested purposes.||(ii) Causes Peer pressure, curiosity, personal and psychological conditions such as depression/inferiority/superiority complex.|
|(iii) Effect: Almost constantly on call, cybersex addiction, online compulsions, virtual relationships, etc., are the effects of mobile addiction.||(iii) Effect: Dependency on drugs, stress, anxiety, aggression or irritability can take its toll on addicts. Inability to focus on activity etc., are the effects of drug addiction.|
|(iv) Measures: Self-assessment, getting involved in participative activities such as hobby classes, sports and games can help in building positive experiences for individuals which can help to tackle mobile addiction.||(iv) Measures: Creating awareness among the public, counseling, laws, drug addiction clinic, mass media, etc., are the measures to tackle drug addiction.|
4. Explain the following concepts with examples.
- Domestic violence refers to abuse within the family, violence implies psychological, emotional, verbal, and physical torture. It is a repeated/habitual pattern of behaviour. Domestic violence cuts across all classes, ages, categories, stress, and genders.
- Causes of domestic violence are patriarchal system, dysfunctional, relationships, vulnerability, etc.
- It is necessary to create awareness of the fact that domestic violence is not acceptable in a civilised 21st-century society.
Examples: Snide remarks, bickering, labelling, verbal spats, and physical assault.
- Skill development refers to the identification of skill gaps and developing the existing skills to enable a person to achieve his/her goals so that there will be no more problems of unemployment due to lack of adequate skills.
- The current generation lacks the required skills and there is a humongous gap between the skills existing in a person and the skills demanded by the industry.
- Hence there is a desperate need to cultivate skills especially those which are employment worthy or those which can promote self-employment, and develop the entrepreneurial potential of the learners.
For Example Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA), the salient feature of which is to enable institutions of higher education for capacity building in different fields of employment, communication skills, analytical and research skill,s, etc.
5A. Complete the concept map.
5B. State whether the following statements are True or False with reasons.
Technology is always useful for social progress.
This statement is False.
Though technology produces skilled workers, good quality material and well-paid job opportunities, materialistic comfort, easy travel, communication of media, easy access to information, and present opportunities for social progress. It has an adverse impact too.
The Internet has given us access to data which is good for many reasons but the internet also is a means to an entire virtual world which can be problematic it may lead to internet addiction when there is a compelling need on the part of an individual to have to continuously access specific internet sites for gaming, adult sites, pornography, social media, entertainment, and stimulation.
Similarly, if one goes beyond a mobile phone like a gadget, to what the phone does for us, it opens a Pandora’s Box of possibilities like connectivity, social media networking, gaming, access to the web world, filming, editing, creative enterprises, and numerous apps serving a variety of needs which creates mobile addiction. It develops an urge to be on a call constantly and a habit of checking one’s messages during sleep also leads to anxiety caused by loss of one’s phone and contacts. Thus, technology can take a toll on mental and physical well-being too.
There is a strong causal relationship between addiction and socialisation.
This statement is True.
Peer groups, family, neighbourhood, society, mass media are important agencies of socialisation. Generally, individuals do not opt consciously to become an ‘addict’. It is what they become over a period of time. Under the influence of several factors.
Peer pressure and social status – Friends in a group may knowingly or unknowingly pressurize others to adopt certain habits in order to ‘fit in’ which is common among students but it can also cut across other age categories e.g., the habit of smoking or ‘doing weed’ among friends.
Consuming narcotic drugs or imported brands of alcohol may be considered a fad in certain groups; non-conformity could lead to isolation or labelling. Thus, friends play important role in socialising addictive behaviour.
6. Give your personal response.
Why do you think women are usually the victims in most reported cases of domestic violence?
- Yes, most women are the victims in most reported cases of domestic violence.
- Due to the patriarchal system in which says unwritten acceptance of male authority.
- Religious outlook and traditional mind are set especially in institutions like marriage, family, religion which gives supremacy of men over women in almost every sphere of life.
- Economic dependency of women on men.
- And women are most vulnerable in the weaker sections of society.
- So, I think women are usually the victims in most reported cases of domestic violence.
Discuss how keeping aged parents in a ‘Home for the Aged’ can have positive and negative consequences.
Any statement/matter has two sides i.e., positive and negative. Same way keeping aged parents in a ‘Home for the aged’ can have positive and negative sides.
(i) First, we see the positive side:
- In the 21st century, couples both go to work in that case to get the proper care they prefer ‘Home for the aged’
- In these old age homes, elderly people meet many people of their age, this allows them to make new friends with whom they can talk and do various group activities.
- Old age home provides food on time and health care facility also.
(ii) Negative side:
- The materialist world and individualistic approach force people to depend on Home for Aged for taking care of their aging parents, depriving them of their responsibilities towards them.
- It’s the youngster’s duty to care for our old people and handle their needs.
- Most of the old age homes are lack basic amenities, so instead of caring for elderly persons, they may get face vulnerability in old age homes.
7. Answer the following question in detail. (About 150-200 words)
Discuss why farmers’ suicide is a social problem today. Suggest suitable socio-economic measures to support the farmers.
India is described as an agrarian society, 70% Indian population is involved in agrarian work. Farmers are the pillar of the Indian agrarian workforce. The past decade has witnessed an increasing number of farmer suicides. Farmer suicide is a serious social problem. Farmer’s suicide is a social problem because it has an adverse impact on their families, spouse, children, economy, and society at large.
Following are the social-economic measures to support farmers:
Support to farmers in distress: Farmers need a support system to help them with various crises that arise due to irregular monsoons, crop failure, failure, indebtedness, etc.
Insurance: Life insurance for distressed farmers and this family and crop insurance against crop failure, failure of monsoons, destruction of agricultural produce by locusts or viruses, etc., should be provided to farmers.
Provisions for direct sales from farmers to buyers: Removal of middlemen, agents, brokers who grab a large share of the profits and leaving a meager sum for marginal/small farmers who actually put their sweat to grow the crop.
Water harvesting: Water is a basic and essential requirement for farming so for good yield. Effective measures for water harvesting and water management are necessary.
Role of banks: Banks and cooperative credit societies need to set up their systems in farmer-friendly ways. The disbursement of loans to farmers and also need to encourage a saving habit among farmers.
Multi cropping: Farmers need a strong support system from the government to provide training to farmers for growing two or more crops on the same piece of land in the same growing season.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 Social Problems in India Intext Questions and Answers
Check your progress (Textbook Page No. 85)
State any three problems faced by the aging population.
Problems faced by the aging population
- Economic dependence
- Lack of emotional empathy
- Isolation / loneliness
- Difficulty in accepting the aging problem
Suggest three measures for the problems faced by senior citizens.
- Government should formulate policies and implement programs for senior citizens.
- Family should create a suitable atmosphere in the home, involving them in activities within the home.
- Creating awareness via. Social media in the society will widely spread the country and hopefully, old age homes will close down and the young generation will take care of their parents.
Check your progress (Textbook Page No. 88)
In your opinion what do you think our educational system needs to do to solve the problem of unemployment among youth and young adults?
- There should be a change in the educational system, it should become need-based and learner-centered.
- Education should cultivate skills apart from knowledge, which is employment-worthy, or those which can promote self-employment.
- Vocational training.
- Industry-Education symbiosis.
Give two reasons why unemployment is unhealthy for a democratic society.
- Unemployment leads to anti-social activities.
- It leads to youth towards addiction.
- Impact on mental health like frustration, disappointment, etc.
Is there a connection between population growth and unemployment? Discuss in brief.
Yes, growing population growth is connected to other unemployment. The rising population is accompanied by rising in the labour force of the society which leads to a substantial chunk of the population to unemployment. Due to this, there is an imbalance between employment opportunities and popularity growth.
Check your progress (Textbook Page No. 91)
Discuss how multi-cropping will help farmers.
- Multi cropping is the practice of sequentially growing two or more crops in the same piece of land during one growing season instead of just one crop.
- It allows farmers to achieve a better result by making practical use of resources such as soil, water, fertilizers, etc.
- Utilization of nutrients is maximum as crops having different nutritional requirements and grows simultaneously in the same piece of land.
Why do you think there is a problem with irrigation? Give two reasons.
- Delays in completion of irrigation projects.
- Inter-state water disputes.
- Regional disparities in irrigation development.
- Waterlogging and salinity.
- The increasing cost of irrigation.
Discuss the role of counselling in tackling the problem of farmer’s suicide.
- Counselling plays a significant role in alleviating stress and helping depressed farmers to improve their self-esteem.
- The cause of farmer suicide is mental stress, caused by debt, crop failure, social evil dowry, etc.
- Counselling helps to relieve mental stress and develop self-esteem among farmers.
Check your progress (Textbook Page No. 93)
With reference to the ‘Bell Bajao Andolan’.
Show the usefulness of such a campaign.
Bell Bajao campaign was launched in India on 20th August 2008, founder of this campaign is Malaika Dutta.
It is an anti-social domestic violence campaign that gives local residents to take and stand against physical abuse through simple acts means to interrupt domestic violence.
- It is a great initiative that makes people stand against violence and fight for their rights.
- Such a campaign can create awareness even if 15% of people support this initiative it could reduce the number of domestic violence in India. India contains a number of cases against domestic violence.
- More than 200,000 phone calls are placed to the domestic violence hotline every year. Such initiative can decrease the number of domestic violence from 50% to 1%. If we spread this awareness to a large number.
What do you think is required for such a campaign to take off?
- To gear up Bell Bajao campaign there should be initiative taken from men or a boy.
- The role of mass media plays a vital role for to create awareness about the Bell Bajao campaign.
- Without any hesitation, victims should take help then and then only domestic violence can be under control and the campaign motto will be successful.
Do you think such a campaign will succeed in metropolitan cities? Justify your response.
Yes, in a metropolitan city’s chances are more than 40% will get success, in the campaign. As compared to rural India, in metropolitan cities literate and understanding, the heterogeneous public is more which is, that they are highly exposed to the materialistic world. Since they have easy access to social media via. internet, T.V, mobile phones. So as per my opinion awareness created through mass media about this campaign will conveniently reach metropolitan cities and it will result in remarkable success in this campaign.
Check your progress (Textbook Page No. 98)
If you know a friend who has an addiction problem. What role can you play to help the person?
If my friend is addicted, I will try to help him to get rid of it.
- Involved him in a group activity.
- Will explain to him the negative effects and harmful to the body so that he will get alert, which means I will do counselling for my friend.
- Will ask him to develop some new hobbies like playing, dancing, etc.
- I will talk with his parents and will take their help to lead my friend towards a normal life.
- If any medical help is required then only I will avail health care facility to my friend.
Suggest two co-curricular activities that can be conducted in your school to solve the problem of mobile addiction.
- Introduction to dramatics
- Elaborating library facility
- Nature surfing
- Encouragement to performing Art- Dance, Music
Identify three negative consequences of internet addiction.
Consequences of internet addiction:
- Lack of communication
- Lack of confidence
Activity 1 (Textbook Page No. 83)
Hold a class discussion to share the problems faced by the aging population. Speak to your family members and share inputs.. If you can, speak to the elderly/aging people in your neighbourhood, informally and share these insights too.
(i) Problems faced by the ageing population.
- Older people are experiencing remarkable changes in their physical and social-economic circumstances. In nuclear families, they are gradually marginalised in the decision-making process. Hence, the family that traditionally took care of the elderly or sick people, widows, and orphans have started to rely on society as a whole.
- Getting older or ageing process can seem daunting cause greying hair, wrinkles, forgetting the things apart from this ageing can bring about unique health issues.
(ii) Some of the problems faced by ageing people are listed down.
- Chronic health condition
- Physical injury
- Oral health
- Less immunity
- Mental health
- Cognitive health
- Sensory impairment
- Loss of bladder control and constipation
- Organ failure
Activity 2 (Textbook Page No. 85)
Form groups of 10 students. Each group collects data from 10 persons in your neighbourhood. Prepare a tool for data collection and use a personal interview technique or questionnaire to find out about their families: the size of family, educational level of each member, whether they are employed or not. Write a group report of about 10-15 pages. Present your findings in class.
Sample of a survey/questionnaire
Topic-Research on unemployment
No of members in family……
- Are you working?
- Are you unemployed by choice?
- Is there a minimum level of wage below which you will not work?
- Are you trying to establish your own business?
- Are all the educated adults in your house employed?
- Is the market scenario difficult to get a well-paid job?
Activity 3 (Textbook Page No. 88)
Interview 5 working adults in the age group 22-30, in your local area. Find out about their educational background, work-life, and aspirations in life. Do you see any pattern in the responses that you receive? Discuss these in class.
|Person 1||Person 2||Person 3||Person 4||Person 5|
|Work-life||Tailor stitching trousers, shirts, blazers as per customers demand. Design clothes on a computer also.||Garment merchant purchasing raw material, finishing the garment.||No job [Playing cricket]||Chemist Own medical shop at Parel ‘Kumar Bros. Medical’||Financial manager in India Bulls, Parel. Analysis of target, monitoring cash flow, back-office service, etc.|
|Aspirations in life/ambitions in life||Fond of music wanted a career in music.||Wanted to become a famous merchant.||Want to become a famous cricketer and wanted to play for the nation.||To focus on my medical shop.||No ambition, now at a good post and happy in that position.|
Activity 4 (Textbook Page No. 93)
Find out information about the ‘Bell Bajao AndoiaiT. Then, enact a small skit in your class.
According to the national family health survey (NFHS), 37% of Indian women’s have been abused and harassed by their husbands almost 50% of the Indian population both men and women believe that it is okay and even justifiable that man beat up their wives which is okay but which is actually not.
“Bell Bajao Andolan” this campaign was launched in India on 20th August 2008. Bell Bajao Andolan is an anti-domestic violence campaign that gives local residents to take and stand against physical abuse through simple acts means to interrupt domestic violence. This campaign promotes individual action against domestic violence. The founder of this initiative was Malaika Dutt.
In India Bell Bajao Andolan was an initiative that men have to take against domestic violence act is the campaign sought to reduce the occurrence of domestic violence and discrimination against women.
Activity 5 (Textbook Page No. 96)
The impact of Internet addiction and mobile addiction on human life.
Smartphone/mobile addiction, sometimes colloquially known as “nomophobia” which means fear of being without a mobile phone, is often fueled by an Internet overuse problem or Internet addiction disorder.
Impact of internet and mobile addiction on human life:
- Virtual relationships
- Cybersex addiction
- Lack of confidence
- Information overload
- Online compulsions
- Lack of communication
Activity 6 (Textbook Page No. 97)
Prepare a 7-10 minute street play on The problem of internet addiction. End with a message of hope. Perform the street play on your campus and then in your neighbourhood. (After taking necessary permissions).
Students can perform a street play to create awareness about problems of internet addiction keeping in mind the following points to pass on as a message.
Everyone these days are hooked to their mobile phones. While we may overlook this as a common behaviours in the current times, the truth is that it has deep behavioural and social impacts. It impacts our health, relationships as well as work. People suffering from mobile addiction suffer from nomophobia which is the fear of being without or unable to use your mobile phone for some reason or the other.
Activity 7 (Textbook Page No. 98)
Make a list of 10 students’ activities that can be carried out in their leisure time. Find out from 10 of your peers about the activities they would take up, at least once every week. Tabulate your findings and share them with your class.
|Student No. 1||Watching Netflix, Amazon Prime, playing PUBG|
|Student No. 2||Drawing, Doing exercise, Playing PUBG|
|Student No. 3||Studying, interested in political news, video chat with friends|
|Student No. 4||Doing exercise, watching TV, cooking different dishes|
|Student No. 5||Using DIY ideas for home, video chat with friends, watching Netflix|
|Student No. 6||Helping parents for household work, playing video games|
|Student No. 7||Working in mall|
|Student No. 8||Attending online classes of Std. 12th, doing craft activities|
|Student No. 9||Handling fruit shop, watching TV|
|Student No. 10||Helping parents in farming work, doing domestication of animals in the village|
Activity 8 (Textbook Page No. 100)
View 10-15 Television advertisements and analyse the extent to which advertisements promote or reinforce: gender stereotypes. Also, try to find out advertisements that do not present gender stereotypes.
Have a class discussion after viewing select advertisements.
In the world, the biggest platform to influence people is none other than television. Television has been used in society for awareness campaigns such as for Polio, Literacy, Covid-19, etc., but as we know every coin has two sides. Similarly, this platform is misused by many companies for their vested interests.
In the advertisement of a fairness cream, it implies that only fair women are beautiful and only they can climb the ladder of success, and if they are dark or brown then you won’t be successful and aren’t considered beautiful.
Simply for the sale of their product, these companies resort to blatant racism and age-old gender stereotypes, indirectly stressing that women should be fair.
Some examples of advertisements that do not present gender stereotypes are Sasa detergent powder, Rambandhu papad masala, Bajaj LED bulbs, etc.
Activity 9 (Textbook Page No. 100)
Important legislation is taking shape in the Maharashtra Legislation Assembly regarding the situation of women’s sugarcane cutters of the Beed district. Many of them have undergone ‘hysterectomy’ or removal of the uterus. Collect information and discuss it in class.
Beed district: In the sugarcane cutter community, menstrual periods are considered a problem and they think surgery is the only option to get rid of it. Women in Vanjarwadi village said, 50% of women who have had hysterectomies say that it is the norm in villages to remove the uterus after having two or three children.
The (Mukadam) contractor is keen to have women without wombs in his group of cane cutters. As per the contractors, menstrual periods make the cutting process slow, so there is no question of taking leave for a day or two, and work is halted. A contractor cannot afford to lose even a rupee.
Due to the removal of the uterus, there is a serious impact on the health of women, such as hormonal imbalance, mental health issues, gain weight, etc.
Action- of government: Maharashtra government has decided to make health check-ups compulsory for them before and after the sugar cane cutting season.
The government has asked doctors to submit a monthly report on the hysterectomy operations conducted by them.